Buddhism and politics -- Korea -- History -- To 935.
Paekche (Kingdom) -- Civilization -- Buddhist influences.
Paekche (Kingdom) -- Civilization -- Chinese influences.
Using written and material evidence to criticize the Samguk sagi's relatively static depiction
of Paekche's past, this study examines the importance of Buddhism in the early
sixth-century political and cultural transformation of the kingdom, a subject that passes
virtually unnoticed in Kim Pusik's early history of Korea. Prior to the end of the fifth
century, court life in Paekche was similar in notable respects to that of contemporary
Koguryo, which, in turn, was partly influenced by earlier Chinese forms. At this early
time, Buddhism was acknowledged by Paekche's kings but neither held a prominent place
in the court nor played a significant role in policies of state. This changed after the loss
of the Han River valley to Koguryo in 475. Paekche's early sixth-century kings Muryong
and Song evidently recognized that if the dynasty was to survive, a fundamental restructuring
of the government and its policies had to occur. The court intensified diplomatic
and cultural ties to China. Accordingly, not only did they intensify diplomatic and
cultural ties to China, but further the example of the ardently Buddhist Liang emperor
Wu Di evidently inspired these monarchs to enhance their patronage of Buddhism and
to use the religion as a force to help centralize and strengthen royal authority.
Buddhism and politics -- Korea -- History -- Koryo period, 935-1392.
Taejo, King of Korea, 877-943.
Buddhism and state -- Korea -- History -- Koryo period, 935-1392.
This article traces the legacy of Buddhist kingship in the early Koryo period. T'aejo
(r. 918-943), the founder of the Koryo dynasty (918-1392), was keen to follow in the
footsteps of Silla kings and use Buddhist symbols of power. He also set great store on
attracting eminent monks, granting them special favors and titles, and overseeing the
construction of stelae inscriptions to commemorate them. These inscriptions also feature
the king prominently and illuminate his relation to Buddhism. Although the king is
not explicitly identified as a Buddhist ruler, the Buddhist dharma features as an integral
element of kingship. In this universe, the worldly authority, personified by the king, always
coexists with and depends on a spiritual counterpart, personified by the royal or
state preceptor. One effect of this was that the authority of a ruler was never complete
without a preceptor to validate and correct the royal power. Thus a great deal of ritual
power was invested in these preceptors.
Taoism and East Asian Literary Theories: Chuang Tzuís Theory of Selflessness and the Poetics of Self-effacement [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Zhuangzi -- Views on self.
Self (Philosophy) in literature.
Taoism in literature.
East Asian literature -- History and criticism.
This article examines several East Asian literary theories that emphasize self-effacement,
self-abandonment, and self-surrender and explores Chuang Tzu's ideas of self-forgetting
or selflessness as part of the philosophical background of the theories. Examples are drawn
from the works of Ssu-K'ung T'u, Yi Kyu-bo, Yi I, Yi Sang-jong, Zeami, Matsuo Basho,
and Wang Fu-chih.
Silva, David J.
Western Attitudes toward the Korean Language: An Overview of Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Mission Literature [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Europeans -- Attitudes.
Korean language -- Social aspects -- History.
Missions -- Educational work -- Korea -- History.
Descriptions of Korea's linguistic situation written by Westerners during the nineteenth
and early twentieth centuries not only reveal native and foreign attitudes toward the Korean
language but also provide insight into language-focused evangelization tactics embraced
by Christian missionaries. Upon their arrival in Korea during the 1800s, Westerners
encountered a long-standing system of diglossia: socio-historical relations between
China and Korea gave rise to the use of various Korean "lects" in which the degree of
Chinese elements differed. Moreover, the nation's indigenous writing system, han'gul,
was widely regarded by Koreans as culturally subordinate to Chinese script, an attitude
that garnered much attention from Western observers. These sorts of language attitudes
were further reinforced by Westerners' deterministic interpretations of Korea's linguistic
situation; believing the Korean language to be linguistically defective, many Westerners
concluded that the Korean people suffered from corresponding deficiencies of intellect,
education, and morality. In a campaign to "educate" the Korean populace,
Christian missionaries worked to raise the status of the native language and orthography
as part of what would prove to be a highly effective evangelization strategy.
Lewis, James Bryant, tr.
Robinson, Kenneth R., tr.
Korean History Studies in Japan: The 2001 Shigaku Zasshi Review of Historiography [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Korea -- Historiography.
Contemporary Directions: Korean Folk Music Engaging the Twentieth Century and Beyond (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Hesselink, Nathan, ed. Contemporary directions: Korean folk music engaging the twentieth century and beyond.
Folk music -- Korea -- 20th century -- History and criticism.