Journal of World History

Journal of World History
Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 1999

CONTENTS

Articles

    Di Cosmo, Nicola, 1957-
  • State Formation and Periodization in Inner Asian History
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    Subject Headings:
    • Asia, Central -- History -- Periodization.
    • State, The -- History.
    Abstract:
      The history of empires created by inner Asian peoples bears direct relevance to the conceptualization of world history down to the early modern period, as their impact on surrounding civilizations resulted in long-lasting demographic, economic, and political changes. This essay explores the basic mechanisms of state formation in inner Asia and presents an argument for the periodization of inner Asian history based on the incremental ability of inner Asian empires to extract from outside sources the wealth necessary for the maintenance of political and military state apparatus. On this basis, the essay proposes a four-phase periodization, including ages of tribute empires (209 B.C.- A.D. 551), trade-tribute empires (551907), dual-administration empires (9071259), and direct-taxation empires (12601796).
    Curtin, Philip D.
  • Location in History: Argentina and South Africa in the Nineteenth Century
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    Subject Headings:
    • Argentina -- History -- 19th century.
    • South Africa -- History -- 19th century.
    • Historiography.
    Abstract:
      This essay points to residential location as an important source of group interest, alongside the more familiar factors of race, class, and gender. This group interest is especially strong among people living in or dependent upon a particular city. This phenomenon is illustrated here through a variant of central-place theory applied to the history of South Africa and the Argentine pampa from the mid-eighteenth to the late nineteenth century, with particular attention to the play of rivalries between cities and conflict between cities and their hinterlands.
    Blue, Gregory.
  • Gobineau on China: Race Theory, the "Yellow Peril," and the Critique of Modernity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gobineau, Arthur, comte de, 1816-1882 -- Views on China.
    • China -- Foreign public opinion.
    • Racism -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Histories of racist thought tend to give only incidental treatment to the depiction of China in modern race theory. Meanwhile, scholarship on Western views of China frequently alludes to anti-Chinese racism but rarely analyzes high-brow race theory. This article aims to contribute to the understanding of both racist thought and Western views of China by examining the notions about China elaborated by Arthur de Gobineau, one of the leading race theorists of the nineteenth century. Gobineau's depiction of China is subjected to a close reading within the framework of his vision of world history, followed by consideration of the reception of his racial ideas and their possible political influence. The discussion highlights the compatibility of racist thought with antiprogressivism and antimodernism.

Forum: Military Affairs In The Early Modern World

    Thompson, William R.
  • The Military Superiority Thesis and the Ascendancy of Western Eurasia in the World System
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    Subject Headings:
    • Europe -- Territorial expansion -- Historiography.
    • Military art and science -- History.
    • Imperialism -- History.
    Abstract:
      The military superiority thesis contends that the key to the ascendancy of western Europe as the world's predominant region was its edge in military technology. Thanks to intensive regional warfare and a series of military revolutions, military superiority enabled Europeans to subordinate the rest of the world between 1500 and 1900. At best, this interpretation gives too much explanatory weight to military technology. Other factors that were equally if not more important were the variable vulnerabilities of Afro-Eurasian and American targets of expansion, the need for and availability of allies, and the evolution of a global political economy in ways that favored increasing European predominance. As explored in five cases, ranging from Mexico and Peru to southeast Asia in the fifteenth through eighteenth centuries, none of these factors worked entirely independently of the others. Rather, they interacted to promote the ascendancy of some Europeans for a period of time. Military superiority, and especially naval superiority, may have been most important for facilitating first the arrival and then the survival of Portuguese, Dutch, and English forces along the maritime fringe of Afro-Eurasia.
    Grant, Jonathan.
  • Rethinking the Ottoman "Decline": Military Technology Diffusion in the Ottoman Empire, Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Military art and science -- Turkey -- History.
    • Weapons industry -- Turkey -- History.
    • Turkey -- History -- Ottoman Empire, 1288-1918.
    Abstract:
      In the context of military technological developments in eastern Europe, the notion of an Ottoman decline needs to be called into question. In this essay Keith Krause's model for the spread of military technology as a diffusion wave that settles into a three-tiered hierarchy of military producers is used to measure the Ottomans' capabilities in manufacturing their own weaponry and naval systems. When placed on this scale, the Ottomans started out as a third-tier producer in the fifteenth century and remained so throughout the period. Thus, the Ottomans did not decline on the military industrial scale.

Book Reviews

    Clark, Robert P., 1940-
  • Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Diamond, Jared M. Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies.
    • Social evolution.
    Blaut, James M. (James Morris)
  • The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lewis, Martin W. Myth of continents: a critique of metageography.
    • Wigen, Kären, 1958-
    • Geographical perception.
    Mears, John A.
  • The Course of Human History: Economic Growth, Social Process, and Civilization (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Goudsblom, Johan. Course of human history: economic growth, social process, and civilization.
    • Jones, E. L. (Eric Lionel)
    • Mennell, Stephen.
    • Culture.
    Van Tilburg, Hans.
  • Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Deng, Gang, 1953- Chinese maritime activities and socioeconomic development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D.
    • Merchant marine -- China -- History.
    Kwok, D. W. Y. (Danny Wynn Ye), 1932-
  • Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal Civilization (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jensen, Lionel M. Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese traditions and universal civilization.
    • Confucianism.
    Pacey, Arnold.
  • The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crosby, Alfred W. Measure of reality: quantification and Western society, 1250-1600.
    • Europe -- History -- 476-1492.
    Martin, Dorothea A. L., 1946-
  • Commodity and Exchange in the Mongol Empire: A Cultural History of Islamic Textiles, and: An Economic History of the Silk Industry, 1830-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Allsen, Thomas T. Commodity and exchange in the Mongol Empire: a cultural history of Islamic textiles.
    • Federico, Giovanni, 1954- Economic history of the silk industry, 1830-1930.
    • Mongols -- History.
    • Silk industry -- History -- 19th century.
    Duiker, William J., 1932-
  • Studies in the Economic History of the Pacific Rim (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Miller, Sally M., 1937-, ed. Studies in the economic history of the Pacific Rim.
    • Latham, A. J. H., ed.
    • Flynn, Dennis Owen, 1945-, ed.
    • Pacific Area -- Economic conditions.
    Smedley, Audrey.
  • The Invention of the White Race. Vol. 2, The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Allen, Theodore (Theodore W.) Invention of the white race.
    • Racism -- United States -- History.
    Headrick, Daniel R.
  • Imperialism and Colonialism: Essays on the History of European Expansion, and: Colonial Encounters in the Age of High Imperialism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wesseling, H. L. Imperialism and colonialism: essays on the history of European expansion.
    • Cook, S. B., 1952- Colonial encounters in the age of high imperialism.
    • Europe -- Territorial expansion.
    • Imperialism.
    Earns, Lane Robert.
  • Borders of Chinese Civilization: Geography and History at Empire's End (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Howland, Douglas, 1955- Borders of Chinese civilization: geography and history at Empire's end.
    • Japan -- Civilization -- Chinese influences.
    Reber, Vera Blinn, 1941-
  • Champions of Charity: War and the Rise of the Red Cross (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hutchinson, John F. Champions of charity: war and the rise of the Red Cross.
    • Red Cross and Red Crescent -- History.
    Atleo, Marlene R.
  • The Potlatch Papers: A Colonial Case History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bracken, Christopher. Potlatch papers: a colonial case history.
    • Potlatch -- Canada -- History -- Sources.
    Hezel, Francis X.
  • The Covenant Makers: Islander Missionaries in the Pacific (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thornley, Andrew, ed. Covenant makers: islander missionaries in the pacific.
    • Munro, Doug, ed.
    • Missionaries -- Oceania -- Biography.
    Martin, Eric.
  • A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century World History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Palmowski, Jan. Dictionary of twentieth-century world history.
    • History, Modern -- 20th century -- Dictionaries.
    Dirlik, Arif.
  • Salt of the Earth: The Political Origins of Peasant Protest and Communist Revolution in China (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thaxton, Ralph, 1944- Salt of the earth: the political origins of peasant protest and communist revolution in China.
    • Communism -- China -- History -- 20th century.
    Davidann, Jon Thares, 1961-
  • Emperor Hirohito and Showa Japan: A Political Biography (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Large, Stephen S. Emperor Hirohito and Showa Japan: a political biography.
    • Japan -- Politics and government -- 1926-1989.
    Nolte, Hans-Heinrich.
  • Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kershaw, Ian, ed. Stalinism and Nazism: dictatorships in comparison.
    • Lewin, Moshe, 1921-, ed.
    • Totalitarianism -- Congresses.
    Moon, Katharine H. S. (Katharine Hyung-Sun), 1964-
  • The Comfort Women: Colonialism, War, and Sex (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Choi, Chungmoo, ed. Comfort women: colonialism, war, and sex.
    • Comfort women -- Asia -- History.



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