Women in politics -- Brazil -- São Paulo (State) -- History -- 20th century.
Brazil -- Politics and government -- 1930-1945.
This article considers the complicated relationship between women's mobilization and their recognition as political actors. In 1932 the state of São Paulo, long Brazil's dominant political center, took up arms against the federal government, headed by Getúlio Vargas, in protest against São Paulo's diminished status under the new dictatorship. A key feature of this short-lived civil war was the prominent role of women in the regionalist movement. Contemporary accounts emphasized the active participation of women—testimony that implies an expanded female presence in the public sphere. I argue, however, that identification of the movement's female supporters with an archetypical figure, A Mulher Paulista (The Paulista Woman) limited the subversive implications of women's mobilization. Far from celebrating women's new role in politics, women and men involved in the movement construed women's participation as exceptional and motivated by moral outrage, not politics. Furthermore, the figure of A Mulher Paulista had a specific class and racial valence; the paulista leadership represented her participation as emblematic of the modernity and civic superiority of regional culture, compared to the poorer, less Europeanized regions of Brazil that supported the dictatorship.
Propaganda, Anti-communist -- Slovenia -- History -- 20th century.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Slovenia -- Propaganda.
Women -- Slovenia -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
"Long Live Our Honest Girls" seeks to highlight the image of women in anti-Communist propaganda during the civil war that raged in Slovenia from 1942 to 1945. While their Communist opponents attempted to attract women to their movement by promising them social, economic, and political emancipation, the anti-Communist camp proffered a much more conservative and traditional image of women. In contrast to the Communists, they portrayed the "good" Slovene woman as a dutiful wife and responsible mother. Anti-Communists also portrayed her as the kernel of Slovene national consciousness because of her fidelity to Catholicism, Slovene customs, and the Slovene language. These conflicting images of women must also be seen in the wider context of the cultural clash between Communism and anti-Communism, as well as symptoms of the "total wars" of the twentieth century.
Di, Dan, 1916-1995 -- Criticism and interpretation.
Politics and literature -- China -- Manchuria -- History -- 20th century.
In the Japanese colonial state of Manchukuo (1932–45) a critical Chinese-language literature emerged to shine a light on the failure of colonial authorities to actualize the socio-political ideology through which they sought to legitimize their rule. This article analyzes Dan Di's literary legacy to problematize received interpretations of Japanese rule in Manchukuo. Dan was partly educated in Manchukuo and in Japan, and used the educational and career opportunities offered her to establish a career as a cultural critic. Under Japanese colonial auspices, she aspired to realize her potential as a Chinese new woman writer, determined to act as a spokesperson for the underprivileged. Ironically, the critical nature of her writings fueled the anti-Manchukuo narratives that led to her own downfall, as any success in such an oppressive context was deemed suspect. Dan Di's career underscores the vital endurance of Chinese May Fourth-inspired ideals of the new woman in a Japanese colonial context.
In a reversal of her reputation in the United States, Harriet Beecher Stowe was considered the ideal feminist in nineteenth-century Argentina, while her views on race were downplayed. Both pro-feminist and anti-feminist Argentines emphasized the image of Stowe as the virtuous civic mother, whose writing was not designed to enhance her own fame but rather to defend the good mother's duty to raise enlightened citizens. This selective image of Stowe became part of the debates about the role of women in the new nation of Argentina. This article documents how Stowe was discussed in newspaper essays on the role of women, provides a historical context for the discussions, and contrasts the role of motherhood in the feminisms of the United States and Argentina.
History Practice: Conditions of Work for Women Historians in the Twenty-First Century