Journal of Women's History

Journal of Women's History
Volume 15, Number 2, Summer 2003


Women's History in the New Millennium:
Rethinking Public and Private—Continuing the Conversation

    Aikin, Judith Popovich, 1946-
  • Gendered Theologies of Childbirth in Early Modern Germany and the Devotional Handbook for Pregnant Women by Aemilie Juliane, Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1683)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Aemilie Juliane, Countess of, 1637-1706.
    • Pregnant women -- Prayer books and devotions -- German -- Early works to 1800.
    • Childbirth -- Religious aspects -- Christianity.
    • Pregnancy -- Religious aspects -- Christianity.
      While most devotional texts created by (male) theologians and pas tors for pregnant women to recite daily and during labor in early modern Lutheran Germany probably augmented women's fears about childbirth and perhaps even enhanced their physical suffering in the name of spiritual "improvement," the texts one woman supplied had a very different tone and likely a different effect. Aemilie Juliane von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1637-1706) replaced the female persona men manufactured with a woman's own voice, and in so doing, she replaced a latently misogynistic, patriarchal theology in the context of childbirth with a practical theology of maternal empathy. Close reading of Aemilie Juliane's texts in her devotional handbook for pregnant women and comparison with those authored by men illuminate the gendered nature of the orthodox theological approach to pregnancy and childbirth and make a quietly dissenting (female) voice better known to historians.
    Eichner, Carolyn Jeanne, 1961-
  • "Vive la Commune!": Feminism, Socialism, and Revolutionary Revival in the Aftermath of the 1871 Paris Commune
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    Subject Headings:
    • Minck, Paule, 1839-1901.
    • Léo, André, 1824-1900.
    • Women in politics -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    • Feminism -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    • Socialism -- France -- History -- 19th century.
      In a week of street battles in 1871, the French army slaughtered approximately 25,000 participants of the revolutionary civil war known as the Paris Commune. Two prominent feminist and socialist activists, Paule Mink and André Léo, managed to escape to safety, each subsequently working to reassert her individual ideological position. Prior to the Commune, both women wrote and spoke publicly, challenging gender and class hierarchies and the power of the Church. In the revolutionary aftermath, Léo continued to champion democratic socialism, whereas Mink began advocating radical, authoritarian revolutionism, abandoning her moderate socialist roots. Léo published literary and theoretical works and participated in internal socialist politics, maintaining such a low public profile that, although she lived and wrote until 1900, the Paris police ceased monitoring her by 1880. In contrast, Mink traveled ceaselessly, speaking publicly, advocating violent revolution. Considering Mink a greater threat, police spies monitored her until her 1901 death. Through different strategies in the aftermath of the Commune, each woman exemplified a strand of the multiple and complex feminist socialisms in the late nineteenth century.
    Bunk, Brian D.
  • Revolutionary Warrior and Gendered Icon: Aida Lafuente and the Spanish Revolution of 1934
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lafuente, Aida. Influence.
    • Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939 -- Women.
    • Women -- Spain -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
      The article traces the evolution of imagery depicting the activities of Aida Lafuente, a young woman who took up arms to fight on behalf of the insurrection during the Spanish revolution of October 1934. Following the revolt, pro-revolutionary writers, poets, and politicians sought to commemorate her activities. This article argues that commentators resorted to conventional images of women in war in order to counteract the unsettling notion of a woman warrior. In doing so, revolutionary memories transformed Lafuente from an authentic woman warrior into a symbol of purity and motherhood. Despite her radical actions in both a political and gendered sense, memories of Lafuente served ultimately to reinforce traditional notions of proper gender behavior.
    Procida, Mary A.
  • Feeding the Imperial Appetite: Imperial Knowledge and Anglo-Indian Discourse
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cookery -- Social aspects -- India -- History -- 19th century.
    • Domestics -- India -- History -- 19th century.
    • Great Britain -- Colonies -- Asia -- Social life and customs.
    • Great Britain -- Colonies -- Asia -- Race relations -- History -- 19th century.
      Beginning in the late nineteenth century, a spate of cookbooks and household management guides appeared that were intended to assist British women in running their households in India. In this article, the author argues that these texts constructed a new approach to imperial domesticity. Rather than mimicking the labor-intensive approach to household management common in the metropole, British women in India adopted a "hands-off" approach to housekeeping that allowed them to devote their attentions to other pursuits, including the work of empire.
    Zeiger, Susan, 1959-
  • The Schoolhouse vs. the Armory: U.S. Teachers and the Campaign Against Militarism in the Schools, 1914-1918
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    Subject Headings:
    • Military education -- United States -- History -- 1913-1921.
    • Education and state.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Protest movements -- United States.
    • Women teachers -- United States -- Political activity -- History -- 1913-1921.
      In the World War I era, U. S. public schools became a battleground in the struggle over militarism in American society. Preparedness advocates and many physical education teachers pressed for military training in the public schools. Peace educators and teacher activists, predominantly female organizers for the American School Peace League (ASPL), strongly opposed it. This article highlights the centrality of gender politics in the struggle and the role of local classroom teachers. Teachers in the campaign against military training were part of a new, more radical trend in the U. S. peace movement in the 1910s. They were often at odds with the ASPL's conservative national leader, Fannie Fern Andrews. Teacher-activists developed a significant critique of militarism and its impact on children, and built diverse and effective community coalitions. They based their political authority not on maternalism but on professional identity. This study suggests that a full account of women's political culture in the early twentieth century demands closer attention to the activities of female teachers.

Getting to the Source

    Penney, Sherry H.
    Livingston, James D., 1930-
  • Hints for Wives--and Husbands
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wright, Martha Coffin, 1806-1875. Hints for wives.
    • Husband and wife -- United States -- Humor.
    • Family life -- United States -- Humor.
    • Sex role -- United States -- Humor.
    • Women's rights -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
      This article reveals, for the first time, the "humorous article" read by Lucretia Mott at the historic 1848 Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention. Written by Mott's sister Martha Coffin Wright, it presents a view of the gender roles in marriage very different from that expressed in most literature of its time.


    McNamara, Jo Ann, 1931-
  • A Failure to Communicate
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    Subject Headings:
    • Massey, Lesly F., 1946- Women in the church: moving toward equality.
    • Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. Forgetful of their sex: female sanctity and society, ca. 500-1100.
    • Schutte, Anne Jacobson. Aspiring saints: pretense of holiness, Inquisition, and gender in the Republic of Venice, 1618-1750.
    • Simons, Walter. Cities of ladies: beguine communities in the medieval low countries, 1200-1565.
    • Women in Christianity -- History.
    • Women in Christianity -- History -- Early church, ca. 30-600.
    Vostral, Sharra L.
  • Reproduction, Regulation, and Body Politics
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    Subject Headings:
    • Golden, Janet Lynne, 1951- Social history of wet nursing in America: from breast to bottle.
    • Marks, Lara, 1963- Sexual chemistry: a history of the contraceptive pill.
    • Nossiff, Rosemary. Before Roe: abortion policy in the states.
    • Van de Walle, Etienne, 1932-, ed. Regulating menstruation: beliefs, practices, interpretations.
    • Renne, Elisha P., ed.
    • Wet-nurses -- United States -- History.
    • Oral contraceptives -- History.
    Batinic, Jelena.
  • Voices of the Other from the 'Other Europe': Recovering East-Central European Women's Literary Heritage
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hawkesworth, Celia, 1942-, ed. History of Central European women's writing.
    • Lacková, Elena. False dawn: my life as a Gypsy woman in Slovakia.
    • Hübschmannová, Milena, ed.
    • Bulkin, Cartleton, tr..
    • Lacková, Elena.
    • East European literature -- Women authors -- History and criticism.
    Blee, Kathleen M.
  • Troubling Women's History: Women in Right-Wing and Colonial Politics
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    Subject Headings:
    • Benowitz, June Melby. Days of discontent: American women and right-wing politics, 1933-1945.
    • Nielsen, Kim E. Un-American womanhood: antiradicalism, antifeminism, and the first Red Scare.
    • Wildenthal, Lora, 1965- German women for empire, 1884-1945.
    • Women in politics -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Anti-feminism -- United States -- History -- 20th century.

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