Journal of Women's History

Journal of Women's History 14.1, Spring 2002



    Hoy, Suellen M.
  • No Color Line at Loretto Academy: Catholic Sisters and African Americans on Chicago's East Side
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    Subject Headings:
    • Loretto Academy (Chicago, Ill.) -- History -- 20th century.
    • Catholic high schools -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History -- 20th century.
    • African American high school students -- Illinois -- Chicago -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Civil rights movements -- Illinois -- Chicago.
      During the 1950s, over 300,000 African Americans from the rural South moved to Chicago, "the capital of black America," in search of a better life. A majority of these newcomers, traveling by train (Illinois Central), got their Þrst glimpse of the promised land at 63rd and Dorchester in Woodlawn. Loretto Academy, an established Catholic girls' high school owned and staffed by the Ladies of Loretto, was located only a few blocks away. Not unlike many other South Side schools, the student population of Loretto Academy changed demographically during the 1950s. In August 1950, only two African Americans had enrolled; a decade later, this high school had only ten white pupils. This article examines the Loretto Sisters' response to racial change. It explores the ways in which the nuns, who always expected to teach white girls, adjusted their ministry both in the school and in the neighborhood of Woodlawn by demonstrating that their commitment to racial justice preceded the Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954 and the participation of numerous Catholic sisters in the Selma march of 1965. More important, it analyzes the workings of race, religion, gender, and education at the local level during the early years of the modern civil rights movement.
    Fowler-Salamini, Heather, 1940-
  • Women Coffee Sorters Confront the Mill Owners and the Veracruz Revolutionary State, 1915-1918
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    Subject Headings:
    • Coffee industry -- Employees -- Labor unions -- Mexico -- Veracruz-Llave (State) -- History -- 20th century.
    • Working class women -- Mexico -- Veracruz-Llave (State) -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
    • Labor unions -- Mexico -- Veracruz-Llave (State) -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
    • Mexico -- History -- Revolution, 1910-1920.
      When the Mexican Revolution(1910­1920) erupted, seasonal women coffee sorters like permanent workers were forced to defend their economic livelihood in the face of rampant inþation. This article examines the discourse and strategies of Veracruz women coffee workers, anarchosyndicalist organizers, agro-industry, and the revolutionary state as they negotiated with each other. The embryonic revolutionary state and the trade union activists had different objectives linked to controlling working-class mobilization. As a result, the coffee sorters' discourse can best be framed within the context of women's responsibility for preserving the family and their struggle to fulÞll that obligation.
    Farnsworth, Beatrice.
  • The Rural Batrachka (Hired Agricultural Laborer) and the Soviet Campaign to Unionize Her
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    Subject Headings:
    • Women agricultural laborers -- Soviet Union -- Social conditions.
    • Labor unions -- Soviet Union -- History -- 20th century.
    • Soviet Union -- Politics and government -- 1917-1936.
      This article explores the Soviet campaign in the mid-1920s to unionize the poorest women in rural villages: hired, agricultural laborers known as batrachkas. The goal was to make them literate, class-conscious workers who saw themselves not as peasants but as the vanguard of a rural proletariat. The mobilization movement met with little success--the majority of batrachkas remained outside the union--in part because the Soviet regime was ambivalent toward recruiting women and in part because it was ill-prepared materially to reach an often isolated and largely temporary work force. Moreover, the predominantly urban communists did not understand the needs or cultural assumptions of female agricultural laborers. Poor peasant women tended to rely on traditional village structures and were reluctant to risk losing the meager beneÞts they derived from the "bosses" by joining a union that seemed mainly to make promises.
    Miller, W. Flagg.
  • Public Words and Body Politics: Reflections on the Strategies of Women Poets in Rural Yemen
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    Subject Headings:
    • Magadashiyya, Ghazal -- Political and social views.
    • Salahiyya, Nadra Ahmad -- Political and social views.
    • Rural women -- Yemen -- Political activity.
    • Political poetry, Arabic -- Yemen -- Women authors -- History and criticism.
      This paper provides historical perspective on the mediation of women's public verbal activism in the Republic of Yemen by considering the public expressive strategies of two rural women poets. Much of the research on the expressive lives of Middle Eastern women has focused on verbal genres typically designated private or domestic, such as agricultural and wedding songs, lullabies and songs about personal experiences, and stories, tales, or narratives not traditionally considered "poetry." In contrast, this essay attends to public poetry and related discourses produced by and about two specific rural women. By examining how these women have managed, appropriated, and interrogated dominant patriarchal discourses of tribalism, Islamism, and nationalism, and by considering how media technologies contribute in different ways to embodying women's voices, this essay articulates a methodological framework that can better account for the expressive capacities of contemporary women activists in the rural Middle East.
    Wright, Joanne H.
  • Going Against the Grain: Hobbes's Case for Original Maternal Dominion
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679. Leviathan.
    • Pateman, Carole. Sexual contract.
    • Feminist theory.
    • Patriarchy.
    • Social contract.
      When read in his historical context, Hobbes emerges as an enigmatic figure who, although an advocate for absolute power, went against the grain of his male and female contemporaries in laying the foundation for a thorough critique of the notion of natural inequality between the sexes. In positing the first political right to be that of mothers over children—original maternal dominion—and in using tales of Amazons and historical queens to suggest the legitimacy of female rule as well as the consensual basis of all relationships, Hobbes opened a space in which gender relations might be radically, albeit briefly, reconceived. Hobbes's argument, although purely instrumental, constituted a more direct political attack on the theory of patriarchalism than even female religious activists of the English Civil War were able to mount. While accepting feminist political theorist Carole Pateman's conclusion that Hobbes ultimately reconfirmed modern patriarchy, this article challenges her use of the story of the sexual contract to fill in the gaps of Hobbes's provocative narrative and argues that there is more to Hobbes than his apparent exclusion of women from the social contract.

Women's History in the New Millennium: A Retrospective Analysis of Barbara Welter's "The Cult of True Womanhood, 1820-1860"

    Hewitt, Nancy A., 1951-
  • Taking the True Woman Hostage
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    Subject Headings:
    • Welter, Barbara. Cult of true womanhood, 1820-1860.
    • Feminism -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    • Feminism and literature -- United States.
    Fessenden, Tracy.
  • Gendering Religion
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    Subject Headings:
    • Welter, Barbara. Cult of true womanhood, 1820-1860.
    • Feminism and literature -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    • Feminism -- United States -- Religious aspects -- Christianity -- History -- 19th century.

Book Reviews

    Johnson, Joan Marie.
  • Sex, Race, Gender and Power: Southern Rhodesia and the American South
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    Subject Headings:
    • McCulloch, Jock, 1945- Black peril, white virtue: sexual crime in Southern Rhodesia.
    • Edwards, Laura F. Scarlett doesn't live here anymore: Southern women in the Civil War era.
    • Sex crimes -- Zimbabwe -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Women.
    Gardner, Kirsten E. (Kirsten Elizabeth)
  • Gender and Medicine: Blurring the Boundaries of Tradition
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hunt, Nancy Rose. Colonial lexicon of birth ritual, medicalization, and mobility in the Congo.
    • Leopold, Ellen, 1944- Darker ribbon: breast cancer, women, and their doctors in the twentieth century.
    • Ward, Jule DeJager. La Leche League: at the crossroads of medicine, feminism, and religion.
    • Whitaker, Elizabeth Dixon, 1962- Measuring mamma's milk: fascism and the medicalization of maternity in Italy.
    • Birth customs -- Congo (Democratic Republic)
    • Breast -- Cancer -- History -- 20th century.
    McCune, Mary.
  • Gender and the Americanization of Judaism
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    Subject Headings:
    • Goldman, Karla, 1960- Beyond the synagogue gallery: finding a place for women in American Judaism.
    • Women in Judaism -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Davy, Jennifer Anne.
  • Interpreting Marital Status as a Political and Cultural Marker in Mid-Twentieth-Century Germany
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    Subject Headings:
    • Heineman, Elizabeth D., 1962- What difference does a husband make?: women and marital status in Nazi and postwar Germany.
    • Single women -- Germany -- Social conditions -- History.

Dissertations in Women's History

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