Descartes' conceptual distinction (or distinctio rationis) is commonly understood to be a distinction created by the mind's activity without a foundation in re. This paper challenges this understanding partially based on a letter to an unknown correspondent in which Descartes claims not to admit distinctions without a foundation. He goes on to claim that his conceptual distinction is not a distinctio rationis ratiocinantis (i.e. a distinction of reasoning reason) but is something like a formal distinction or, more precisely, a distinctio ! rationis ratiocinatae (i.e. a distinction of reasoned reason). This remark is then explored through Descartes' other writings and his scholastic intellectual heritage. I conclude that Descartes' conceptual distinction just is a formal distinction understood as a distinctio rationis ratiocinatae as expressed in the works of Scotus, Suarez and Eustachius, and so it has a foundation in re in very much the same way as a formal distinction.
Bayle, Pierre, 1647-1706. Dictionnaire historique et critique.
Bayle, Pierre, 1647-1706. Systême abrégé de philosophie.
Pierre Bayle is the most forthright and systematic early modern proponent of the actual parts doctrine, the period's counterpart to the 'doctrine of arbitrary undetached parts' familiar from current analytic mereology and metaphysics. In this paper I introduce both the actual parts account of the internal structure of matter and the rival system of potential parts. I then identify Bayle as the leading advocate of the actual parts doctrine and examine his arguments for this account.
Kant, Immanuel, 1724-1804. De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis.
Kant, Immanuel, 1724-1804. Untersuchung über die Deutlichkeit der Grundsätze der natürlichen Theologie und der Moral.
Mathematics -- Philosophy.
In this paper I argue that Kant's distinction in the Inaugural Dissertation between the sensible and the intelligible arises in part out of certain open questions left open by his comparison between mathematics and metaphysics in the Prize Essay. This distinction provides a philosophical justification for his distinction between the respective methods of mathematics and metaphysics and his claim that mathematics admits of a greater degree of certainty. More generally, this illustrates the importance of Kant's reflections on mathematics for the development of his Critical philosophy.
Kant, Immanuel, 1724-1804. Kritik der reinen Vernunft.
Mathematics -- Philosophy.
Space and time.
Kant's 'argument from geometry' is usually interpreted to be a regressive transcendental argument in support of the claim that we have a pure intuition of space. In this paper I defend an alternative interpretation of this argument according to which it is rather a progressive synthetic argument meant to identify and establish the essential role of pure spatial intuition in geometric cognition. In the course of reinterpreting the 'argument from geometry' I reassess the arguments of the Aesthetic and illustrate the origin of Kant's view of the role of pure intuition in geometry.
McKirahan, Richard D.
Bibliographica Praesocratica: A Bibliographical Guide to the Studies of Early Greek Philosophy in its Religious and Scientific Contexts with an Introductory Bibliography on the Historiography of Philosophy (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Sijakovic, Bogoljub, 1955- Bibliographica praesocratica: a bibliographical guide to the studies of early Greek philosophy in its religious and scientific contexts with an introductory bibliography on the historiography of philosophy.