Journal 
of the History of Philosophy

Journal of the History of Philosophy
Volume 41, Number 4, October 2003


Contents

Articles

    Byers, Sarah C.
  • Augustine and the Cognitive Cause of Stoic ‘Preliminary Passions’ (Propatheiai)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Enarrationes in Psalmos.
    • Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Sermons.
    • Stoics.
    • Emotions (Philosophy)
    Abstract:
      Augustine made a significant contribution to the history of philosophical accounts of affectivity which scholars have not yet noticed. He resolved a problem with the Stoic theory as it was known to him: the question of the cognitive cause of "preliminary passions" (propatheiai), reflex-like affective reactions which must be immediately controlled if a morally bad emotion is to be avoided. He identified this cognitive cause as momentary doubt, as I demonstrate by citing passages from sermons spanning twenty-seven years in which Augustine consistently used a particular set of scriptural images and phrases as precise analogies for mental and affective states.
    Buijs, Joseph A.
  • A Maimonidean Critique of Thomistic Analogy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maimonides, Moses, 1135-1204. Dalalat al-hairin.
    • Thomas, Aquinas, Saint, 1225?-1274. Summa theologica.
    • God -- Proof, Cosmological.
    Abstract:
      On the question of language about God, Moses Maimonides and Thomas Aquinas propose directly opposing viewpoints. Whereas Aquinas explicitly argues in favour of an analogical use and against an equivocal use, Maimonides on the contrary argues against an analogical use and in favour of an equivocal use of terms when applied to God. Although their respective concepts of analogical meaning appear to differ, I argue on the basis of an analysis of the criteria for analogical predication implicit in each that a thomistic concept of analogical predication is reducible to a maimonidean concept. Thus, it follows that the explicit critique Maimonides lodges against an analogical use of terms when applied to God, if defensible, can be shown to be successful against Aquinas' proposal for analogical language of God. On this basis I conclude that there is a significant and defensible philosophical difference between Aquinas and Maimonides on language about God.
    Nichols, Ryan.
  • Reid’s Inheritance from Locke, and How He Overcomes It
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    Subject Headings:
    • Locke, John, 1632-1704. Essay concerning human understanding.
    • Reid, Thomas, 1710-1796. Essays on the active powers of man.
    • Reid, Thomas, 1710-1796. Inquiry into the human mind.
    • Metaphysics.
    Abstract:
      Reid's unusual primary/secondary quality distinction is drawn along epistemic lines. Reid takes an epistemic turn because of Locke's failure to draw a metaphysical distinction. Secondary qualities differ from primary qualities in virtue of the fact that we acquire notions of secondary qualities via the mediation of sensations. Primary qualities require no such mediation. In one respect, the analysis I set out renders qualities relative to agents. I address whether Reid advocates a dispositional theory of secondary qualities, whether the phenomenology of color underlying Reid's theory is tenable, and whether Reid's distinction coheres well with his theory of perceptual knowledge.
    Baxley, Anne Margaret.
  • The Beautiful Soul and the Autocratic Agent: Schiller’s and Kant’s ‘Children of the House’
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schiller, Friedrich, 1759-1805.
    • Kant, Immanuel, 1724-1804.
    • Ethics.
    Abstract:
      In his extended essay "On Grace and Dignity," Friedrich Schiller sets out an important challenge to Kant when he argues that sensibility must play a constitutive role in the ethical life. This paper argues that there is much we can learn from Schiller's "corrective" to Kant's moral theory and Kant's reply to this critique, for what is at stake in their debate are rival conceptions of the proper state of moral health for us as finite rational beings and competing political notions concerning the ideal form of self-governance that we ought to strive to attain.
    Thomson, Iain.
  • Heidegger and the Politics of the University
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    Subject Headings:
    • Heidegger, Martin, 1889-1976 -- Views on higher education.
    • Education, Higher -- Philosophy.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the development of Heidegger's philosophical views on university education, situates these views within their broader historical and philosophical context, and shows them to be largely responsible for Heidegger's decision to become the first Nazi Rector of Freiburg University in 1933. Did Heidegger learn from this appalling political misadventure and so transform the underlying philosophical views that helped motivate it? It is argued, against the interpretations of Pöggeler and Derrida, that the later Heidegger continued to develop and refine the core of these philosophical views rather than abandoning them after 1933.

Notes and Discussions

    Flage, Daniel E., 1951-
  • Notes and Discussions: Berkeley’s Principles, Section 10
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    Subject Headings:
    • Berkeley, George, 1685-1753. Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge.
    • Metaphysics.
    Abstract:
      A fundamental tenet of the primary/secondary quality distinction is that objects possessing only primary qualities cause (or cause ideas of ) secondary qualities. While Berkeley acknowledged the causal hypothesis "that colours, sounds, heat, cold, and such like secondary qualities, ... depend on and are occasioned by the different size, texture and motion of the minute particles of matter" (Principles §10), he seems to provide no reply to it. This paper defends the thesis that Principles §10 contains an implicit reply to the causal hypothesis.

      It was a widely accepted principle that the cause of a phenomenon must be numerically distinct from its effect. Call this the distinctness thesis. Insofar as Berkeley shows that the primary qualities cannot be conceived as entities distinct from all secondary qualities, there is no ground for claiming numerical distinctness between the alleged cause and its effect. So, the causal hypothesis is rejected.

      The paper shows that the distinctness thesis was widely accepted and provides evidence that Berkeley accepted it. It sketches a distinction between an ontological and an epistemological approach to the Berkeley's works. It concludes with some speculation on why Berkeley did not make his criticism of the causal hypothesis explicit.

Book Reviews

    Easton, Patricia, 1964-
  • The Problem of Evil in Early Modern Philosophy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kremer, Elmar J., ed. Problem of evil in early modern philosophy.
    • Latzer, Michael John, 1961-, ed.
    • Good and evil -- Congresses.
    Cook, J. Thomas.
  • Spinoza: Metaphysical Themes (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Koistinen, Olli, ed. Spinoza: metaphysical themes.
    • Biro, J. I. (John Ivan), 1940-, ed.
    • Spinoza, Benedictus de, 1632-1677 -- Contributions in metaphysics.
    Bracken, Harry M.
  • Scepticisme, Clandestinité et Libre Pensée (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paganini, Gianni, ed. Scepticisme, clandestinité et libre pensée.
    • Benítez, Miguel, ed.
    • Dybikowski, James, ed.
    • Skepticism -- History -- Congresses.
    Wright, John P.
  • Stability and Justification in Hume's Treatise (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Loeb, Louis E. Stability and justification in Hume's Treatise.
    • Hume, David, 1711-1776. Treatise of human nature.
    Kneller, Jane, 1954-
  • Kant's Search for the Supreme Principle of Morality (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kerstein, Samuel J., 1965- Kant's search for the supreme principle of morality.
    • Kant, Immanuel, 1724-1804 -- Ethics.
    Raymond, Diane Christine, 1949-
  • Dostoevsky the Thinker (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scanlan, James P. (James Patrick), 1927- Dostoevsky the thinker.
    • Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 1821-1881 -- Philosophy.



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