Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Volume 62, Number 3, July 2007
Parascandola, John, 1941-
Physiology, Propaganda, and Pound Animals: Medical Research and Animal Welfare in Mid-Twentieth Century America [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Animal Welfare Institute.
National Society for Medical Research (U.S.)
Animal experimentation -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Physiology -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert
Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American
Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he
claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by
scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for
Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to
defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader
struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare
advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on
animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not
pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two
of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the
Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell’s daughter, Christine
Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations
within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.
animal research, animal welfare, antivivisection, National Society for
Medical Research, Animal Welfare Institute, American Physiological
Society, Robert Gesell, Christine Stevens, Ralph Rohweder.
Cortas, Chadi S.
Talley, Colin Lee, 1963-
"Appropriate Remedial Action?" Medical Students, Medical Schools, and Smoking and Health Education in New York and the United States, 1964-87 [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Medical education -- Curricula -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Smoking -- Health aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Lungs -- Cancer -- United States -- Prevention -- History -- 20th century.
The Surgeon General’s 1964 report on smoking and health,
which declared that cigarette smoking was a cause of lung cancer, is considered
a landmark in the history of medicine and public health. This
article examines the impact of the report on medical student education by
reviewing how the relationship between smoking and lung cancer was
presented in medical school textbooks and syllabi between 1964 and
1987, changes in hospital smoking regulations and doctors’ attitudes
toward smoking following the publication of the report, and medical students’
smoking patterns and attitudes toward cigarette smoking in the
years after 1964. Although it provided some advanced students with
additional insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis related to smoking,
the education that many medical students received seems to have been
neither a primary influence on their smoking patterns nor an important
source of their scientific understanding of the causal link between
smoking and lung cancer for at least a decade following the publication of
the Surgeon General’s report.
smoking, lung cancer, medical
education, medical students, textbooks, hospitals.
Wall, L. Lewis, 1950-
Did J. Marion Sims Deliberately Addict His First Fistula Patients to Opium? [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Sims, J. Marion (James Marion), 1813-1883.
Fistula, Vesico-vaginal -- Surgery -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
Opium -- Therapeutic use -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
Anesthesia -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
Women slaves -- Medical care -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
American surgeon J. Marion Sims (1813–83) is regarded
by many modern authors as a controversial figure because he carried out
a series of experimental surgeries on enslaved African American women
between 1846 and 1849 in an attempt to cure them of vesicovaginal fistulas,
which they had all developed as a result of prolonged obstructed
labor. He operated on one woman, Anarcha Westcott, thirty times before
he successfully closed her fistula. Sims performed these fistula repair operations
without benefit of anesthesia but gave these women substantial
doses of opium afterwards. Several modern writers have alleged that Sims
did this in order to addict them to the drug and thereby to enhance his
control over them. This article examines the controversy surrounding
Sims’ use of postoperative opium in these enslaved surgical patients. The
evidence suggests that although these women were probably tolerant to
the doses of opium that he used, there is no evidence that he deliberately
tried to addict them to this drug. Sims’ use of postoperative opium
appears to have been well supported by the therapeutic practices of his
day, and the regimen that he used was enthusiastically supported by many
J. Marion Sims, vesicovaginal
fistula, surgical experimentation, opium, history of gynecology, slave
Dellapenna, Joseph W. Dispelling the myths of abortion history.
Abortion -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History.
Levison, Julie H.
Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Briggs, Laura, 1964- Reproducing empire: race, sex, science, and U.S. imperialism in Puerto Rico.
Birth control -- Puerto Rico -- History.
Quack, Quack, Quack: The Sellers of Nostrums in Prints, Posters, Ephemera & Books (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Helfand, William H. Quack, quack, quack: the sellers of nostrums in prints, posters, ephemera & books : an exhibition on the frequently excessive & flamboyant seller of nostrums as shown in prints, posters, caricatures, books, pamphlets, advertisements & other graphic arts over the last five centuries.
Quacks and quackery -- History.
Inventing Pollution: Coal, Smoke, and Culture in Britain since 1800 (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Thorsheim, Peter. Inventing pollution: coal, smoke, and culture in Britain since 1800.
Air -- Pollution -- Great Britain -- History.
Healing the Nation: Soldiers and the Culture of Caregiving in Britain during the Great War (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Reznick, Jeffrey S. (Jeffrey Stephen) Healing the nation: soldiers and the culture of caregiving in Britain during the Great War.
World War, 1914-1918 -- Medical care -- Great Britain.