Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Volume 60, Number 1, January 2005

CONTENTS

    Cantor, David, 1957-
  • Between Galen, Geddes, and the Gael: Arthur Brock, Modernity, and Medical Humanism in Early-Twentieth-Century Scotland
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    Subject Headings:
    • Brock, Arthur John.
    • Galen.
    • Geddes, Patrick, Sir, 1854-1932.
    • Celts -- Scotland -- History.
    • Medicine, Greek and Roman.
    • Medicine -- Scotland -- Philosophy -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Arthur Brock (1879-1947) is generally remembered as the physician who treated poet Wilfred Owen for shell shock and as the translator of Galen and other ancient physicians. He was also a key figure in the early-twentieth-century humanist revival within medicine. Brock's interest in humanism, I argue, was inspired by a broader concern about modernity and by a desire to return medicine and society to the more harmonious, organic existence that he believed was characteristic of ancient Greece and could still be found among "primitive" peoples, such as the Scottish Gaels. This article explores Brock's anxieties about modernity and its relations to his interests in ancient and "primitive" peoples; to his medical thought and practice; to his interests in history, sociology, language, and translation; and to his involvement in the social and political life of Edinburgh and North Queensferry, where he moved in 1925. Crucially, it shows how all these interests and activities were influenced by Brock's mentor, Edinburgh polymath Patrick Geddes. The article concludes with a discussion of Brock's place in early-twentieth-century medical humanism.
    Keywords:
      Arthur J.Brock, Patrick Geddes, ancient Greece, ancient medicine, "Back to the Land," cancer, Celtic revivalism, classical revivalism, Craiglockhart War Hospital, Edinburgh, ergotherapy, Gael, medical humanism, medical sociology, neurasthenia, North Queensferry, Scotland, shell shock, Wilfred Owen.
    Beemer, Jeffrey K.
    Anderton, Douglas L.
    Leonard, Susan Hautaniemi.
  • Sewers in the City: A Case Study of Individual-Level Mortality and Public Health Initiatives in Northampton, Massachusetts, at the Turn of the Century
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sewage -- Health aspects -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
    • Mortality -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
    • Public health -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
    • Industries -- Health aspects -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Emerging industrial communities of nineteenth-century New England experienced both rapid population growth and lagging development of public health infrastructures. In turn, high mortality in these newly urban cities contributed to a delay in the regional mortality transition of the late nineteenth century. Analyzing death records and a file of linked cause-specific death and manuscript census records for the industrializing community of Northampton, Massachusetts, we show that early in the city's development, mortality clustered near industrial activities and open sewers. When industrial areas were sewered, clustering of mortality abated, and differences between industrial and commercial areas of the town were no longer significant. These findings illustrate Szreter's emphasis on considering both the benefits and costs of development.1 Initial development contributed to high mortality in newly emergent urban-industrial centers like Northampton and was abated only when lagging public health infrastructures caught up with rapid growth and development near the turn of the century.
    Keywords:
      Mortality, sewers, public health, nineteenth century, Massachusetts, Northampton.
    Padiak, Janet.
  • The Role of Morbidity in the Mortality Decline of the Nineteenth Century: Evidence from the Military Population at Gibraltar, 1818-1899
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mortality -- Gibraltar -- History -- 19th century.
    • Diseases -- Gibraltar -- History -- 19th century.
    • Great Britain -- Armed Forces -- Medical care -- Gibraltar -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      The causes of the nineteenth-century decline of mortality, characterized by lower mortality rates and increased longevity, have been the subject of debate among researchers for the past half-century. Because of a paucity of reliable data, little is understood about the role of morbidity, or illness episodes, in the mortality decline. This article introduces the results of a study that looks at the relationship of morbidity in the mortality decline during this portion of the epidemiological transition. The data are comprised of hospital admissions and deaths collected by the British army on the soldiers of the Gibraltar garrison from 1819 to 1899. Morbidity dropped during this period, but at a slower rate than mortality, and all categories of disease did not fall in concert; in some categories, morbidity rose as mortality dropped. Statistical modeling is used to analyze the categories of diseases that were most influential in the decline of mortality in this group. This research shows that there are discernible relationships between morbidity and mortality and that the two parameters are responding to different driving forces. Because changes within the military medical system may have had an effect on the relationship of the morbidity and mortality rates of the soldiers, surviving medical reports are used to reconstruct the medical care of the troops during the study period.
    Keywords:
      Morbidity, decline of mortality, Gibraltar, military medicine, colonial health, Victorian British army, soldiers.

Recent Dissertations

Book Reviews

    Hanson, Ann Ellis.
  • Malaria and Rome: A History of Malaria in Ancient Italy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sallares, Robert. Malaria and Rome: a history of malaria in ancient Italy.
    • Malaria -- Italy -- Rome -- History.
    Mitchell, Piers D.
  • The Bioarchaeology of Tuberculosis: A Global View on a Reemerging Disease (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Roberts, Charlotte A. Bioarchaeology of tuberculosis: a global view on a reemerging disease.
    • Buikstra, Jane E.
    • Tuberculosis -- History.
    Shackelford, Jole.
  • Turquet de Mayerne as Baroque Physician: The Art of Medical Portraiture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nance, Brian. Turquet de Mayerne as baroque physician: the art of medical portraiture.
    • Mayerne, Théodore Turquet de, Sir, 1573-1655.
    Reay, Barry.
  • Medical Conflicts in Early Modern London: Patronage, Physicians, and Irregular Practitioners, 1550-1640 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pelling, Margaret. Medical conflicts in early modern London: patronage, physicians, and irregular practitioners, 1550-1640.
    • White, Frances.
    • Medicine -- England -- London -- History -- 16th century.
    Fagan, Ryan Raymond, 1972-
  • The Eighteenth-Century Origins of Angina Pectoris: Predisposing Causes, Recognition and Aftermath (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Michaels, Leon. Eighteenth-century origins of angina pectoris: predisposing causes, recognition and aftermath.
    • Angina pectoris -- History.
    Barker, Crispin.
  • Masturbation: The History of a Great Terror (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stengers, Jean. Masturbation: the history of a great terror.
    • Neck, Anne van, d. 1982.
    • Hoffmann, Kathryn A., 1954-, tr.
    • Masturbation -- History.
    Marks, Lara, 1963-
  • Experimenting with Humans and Animals: From Galen to Animal Rights (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guerrini, Anita, 1953- Experimenting with humans and animals: from Galen to animal rights.
    • Vivisection -- History.
    McCrae, Morrice.
  • The History of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow: The Shaping of the Medical Profession, 1858-1999 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hull, Andrew. History of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow: the shaping of the medical profession, 1858-1999.
    • Geyer-Kordesch, Johanna.
    • Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow -- History.
    Junod, Suzanne White.
  • Quacks & Crusaders: The Fabulous Careers of John Brinkley, Norman Baker, and Harry Hoxsey (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Juhnke, Eric S., 1970- Quacks & crusaders: the fabulous careers of John Brinkley, Norman Baker, and Harry Hoxsey.
    • Quacks and quackery -- United States.
    Acker, Caroline Jean, 1947-
  • Love on the Rocks: Men, Women, and Alcohol in Post-World War II America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rotskoff, Lori. Love on the rocks: men, women, and alcohol in post-World War II America.
    • Alcoholism -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Hoffer, M. Mark, 1935-
  • Onward and Upward: The Career Trajectory and Memories of Leonard F. Peltier, M.D., Ph.D. (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • LoVecchio, Janolyn G. Onward and upward: the career trajectory and memories of Leonard F. Peltier, M.D., Ph.D.
    • Reckling, Frederick W.
    • Reckling, JoAnn B.
    • Peltier, Leonard F., 1920-
    Nicolson, Malcolm.
  • Industrializing Organisms: Introducing Evolutionary History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scranton, Philip, ed. Industrializing organisms: introducing evolutionary history.
    • Schrepfer, Susan R., ed.
    • Agricultural biotechnology.
    Crozier, Ivan, 1972-
  • The Gilded Age Construction of Modern American Homophobia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hatheway, Jay. Gilded Age construction of modern American homophobia.
    • Homophobia -- United States -- History -- 19th century.

Books Received

Contributors




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