Medicine -- Scotland -- Philosophy -- History -- 20th century.
Arthur Brock (1879-1947) is generally
remembered as the physician who treated poet Wilfred Owen for shell
shock and as the translator of Galen and other ancient physicians. He
was also a key figure in the early-twentieth-century humanist revival
within medicine. Brock's interest in humanism, I argue, was inspired by
a broader concern about modernity and by a desire to return medicine and
society to the more harmonious, organic existence that he believed was
characteristic of ancient Greece and could still be found among
"primitive" peoples, such as the Scottish Gaels. This article explores
Brock's anxieties about modernity and its relations to his interests in
ancient and "primitive" peoples; to his medical thought and practice; to
his interests in history, sociology, language, and translation; and to
his involvement in the social and political life of Edinburgh and North
Queensferry, where he moved in 1925. Crucially, it shows how all these
interests and activities were influenced by Brock's mentor, Edinburgh
polymath Patrick Geddes. The article concludes with a discussion of Brock's place in early-twentieth-century medical humanism.
Arthur J.Brock, Patrick Geddes, ancient Greece,
ancient medicine, "Back to the Land," cancer, Celtic revivalism,
classical revivalism, Craiglockhart War Hospital, Edinburgh,
ergotherapy, Gael, medical humanism, medical sociology, neurasthenia,
North Queensferry, Scotland, shell shock, Wilfred Owen.
Beemer, Jeffrey K.
Anderton, Douglas L.
Leonard, Susan Hautaniemi.
Sewage -- Health aspects -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
Mortality -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
Public health -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
Industries -- Health aspects -- Massachusetts -- Northampton -- History -- 19th century.
industrial communities of nineteenth-century New England experienced
both rapid population growth and lagging development of public health
infrastructures. In turn, high mortality in these newly urban cities
contributed to a delay in the regional mortality transition of the late
nineteenth century. Analyzing death records and a file of linked
cause-specific death and manuscript census records for the
industrializing community of Northampton, Massachusetts, we show that
early in the city's development, mortality clustered near industrial
activities and open sewers. When industrial areas were sewered,
clustering of mortality abated, and differences between industrial and
commercial areas of the town were no longer significant. These findings
illustrate Szreter's emphasis on considering both the benefits and costs
of development.1 Initial
development contributed to high mortality in newly emergent
urban-industrial centers like Northampton and was abated only when
lagging public health infrastructures caught up with rapid growth and
development near the turn of the century.
sewers, public health, nineteenth century, Massachusetts,
Mortality -- Gibraltar -- History -- 19th century.
Diseases -- Gibraltar -- History -- 19th century.
Great Britain -- Armed Forces -- Medical care -- Gibraltar -- History -- 19th century.
The causes of the nineteenth-century decline of mortality, characterized by lower mortality rates and increased longevity, have been the subject of debate among researchers for the past half-century. Because of a paucity of reliable data, little is understood about the role of morbidity, or illness episodes, in the mortality decline. This article introduces the results of a study that looks at the relationship of morbidity in the mortality decline during this portion of the epidemiological transition. The data are comprised of hospital admissions and deaths collected by the British army on the soldiers of the Gibraltar garrison from 1819 to 1899. Morbidity dropped during this period, but at a slower rate than mortality, and all categories of disease did not fall in concert; in some categories, morbidity rose as mortality dropped. Statistical modeling is used to analyze the categories of diseases that were most influential in the decline of mortality in this group. This research shows that there are discernible relationships between morbidity and mortality and that the two parameters are responding to different driving forces. Because changes within the military medical system may have had an effect on the relationship of the morbidity and mortality rates of the soldiers, surviving medical reports are used to reconstruct the medical care of the troops during the study period.
Morbidity, decline of mortality, Gibraltar, military medicine, colonial health, Victorian British army, soldiers.