Catholics -- United States -- Intellectual life -- 20th century.
While American Catholics stand out as some
of the few voices of cultural opposition to the eugenics movement
in the United States, Catholics and eugenicists actively engaged in
conversational exchanges during the late 1920s. In association with
the Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen of the American Eugenics
Society, John A. Ryan and John Montgomery Cooper engaged in a process
that Sander Gilman and Nancy Leys Stepan call "recontextualization,"
whereby they challenged the social and scientific basis for eugenics
policy initiatives while constantly urging American eugenicists to
rid their movement of racial and class prejudice. In the process, they
participated in a revealing debate on immigration restriction, charity,
racial hierarchies, feminism, birth control, and sterilization that
points to both the instances of convergence and divergence of Catholic
and eugenic visions for the national community.
Catholicism, eugenics, John A. Ryan, John
Montgomery Cooper, Paul Popenoe, Leon Whitney, American Eugenics Society,
Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen, Casti Connubii.
Tuberculosis -- Treatment -- History -- 20th century.
Gold -- Therapeutic use -- History -- 20th century.
This is a historical study of the
popularization of a medical therapy contrary to pertinent experimental
findings. Presumably this circumstance reflects the desperation
about tuberculosis: highly prevalent, highly fatal, and lacking
any etiologically directed therapy. Gold compounds were introduced,
based initially on the reputation of Robert Koch, who had found gold
cyanide effective against M. tuberculosis in cultures, but not in
experimentally infected animals. Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis with
these compounds was popularized, particularly by Danish physicians, in
the mid-1920s, despite consistently negative experimental results, based
on Paul Ehrlich's theories of antimicrobial drug effects. Difficulties
in the design of interpretable clinical studies were soon recognized
but also generally ignored, thus permitting data to be interpreted
as favorable to antituberculous gold therapy. Eventually toxicity
was considered to outweigh the alleged therapeutic benefit of all gold
compounds. This resulted in their discard shortly before the introduction
of streptomycin therapy.
Tuberculosis treatment, gold drugs, research
People with mental disabilities -- Education -- Connecticut -- History.
People with mental disabilities -- Institutional care -- Connecticut -- History.
This case study of mental retardation
in Connecticut during 1818-1917 questions the existing model of
interpretation. The discovery of mental retardation in Connecticut did
not emanate from social fear overthose who were different, difficult, or
dangerous. Nor did state government initiate the institutionalization of
the feeble-minded. Instead, Dr.Henry M. Knight, who founded the private
Connecticut School for Imbeciles in 1858, was motivated by antebellum
religious benevolence. His altruism was additionally motivated by cultural
concerns to shape behavior according to middle-class, Protestant norms. By
the end of the century, his son and successor Dr. George H. Knight
departed from his father's emphasis on education and assimilation to
embrace eugenics and segregation of the mentally retarded. Connecticut's
pioneering marital ban (1895) and sterilization law (1909) were,
however, virtually ineffective. Instead, the state sponsored in 1917 a
large-scale custodial facility that sought to isolate the feeble-minded,
whom reformers now portrayed as a menace to society. In sum, the Knights
show a clear departure in policy between the first and second generation
Mental retardation, eugenics, Connecticut, Dr. Henry M. Knight, Dr. George H. Knight, Lakeville School for Imbeciles, Mansfield State Training School and Hospital.