Journal of the History of

Journal of the History of Ideas
Volume 64, Number 3, July 2003



    Michael, Emily.
  • John Wyclif on Body and Mind
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wycliffe, John, d. 1384 -- Views on physics.
    • Physics -- History -- To 1500.
      The evangelical doctor, John Wyclif (1320-1384), a prominent, if controversial, Oxford master, is commonly identified as the evening star of scholasticism and the morning star of the Reformation. That Wyclif was a bold thinker is reflected in his philosophical system and in his theological and political views. Our interest here is in Wyclif's now little known natural philosophy. What I wish to examine is whether he can, with any justice, be dubbed the morning star of a reformation in science as well as religion, for his contribution anticipates some developments of early modern natural philosophy.
    Vieira, Mónica Brito.
  • Mare Liberum vs. Mare Clausum: Grotius, Freitas, and Selden's Debate on Dominion over the Seas
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grotius, Hugo, 1583-1645. Mare liberum.
    • Freitas, Serafim de. De iusto imperio Lusitanorum asiatico.
    • Selden, John, 1584-1654. Mare clausum.
    • Freedom of the seas.
      Sixteen years after the publication of Grotius’s Mare Liberum (1609), Serafim de Freitas, a Portuguese friar, published a reply to Grotius’s attack upon the foundations of the Iberian overseas empire.  Freitas’s vindication of the Portuguese dominion over the high seas has, however, been consigned to obscurity, as the Anglophone literature concentrated on John Selden’s Mare Clausum (1636).  This neglect is unjustified.  Not only is Freitas’s treatise an earlier and more systematic response to Grotius, but it also anticipates many of the arguments later deployed by Selden.  The purpose of this article is thus to rescue Freitas’s arguments from oblivion.
    Ellenzweig, Sarah.
  • The Love of God and the Radical Enlightenment: Mary Astell's Brush with Spinoza
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    Subject Headings:
    • Astell, Mary, 1668-1731.
    • Malebranche, Nicolas, 1638-1715 -- Influence.
    • Occasionalism.
      The essay argues that Mary Astell’s support of the theocentric philosophy of Nicolas Malebranche embroiled her in the fray of anti-Spinozism in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century.  Because of her dawning awareness of contemporaries’ associations of Malebranche’s occasionalism with the Spinozist doctrine of one substance, Astell retracted her previous endorsement of this theory in 1694.  When contemporaries briefly turned the accusation of Spinozism against Locke and his followers in the early 1700s, however, Astell felt free to return to a support of Malebranche.
    Preece, Rod, 1939-
  • Darwinism, Christianity, and the Great Vivisection Debate
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    Subject Headings:
    • Animal rights -- Religious aspects -- Christianity.
    • Evolution (Biology)
    • Vivisection.
      The reputation of the Christian tradition has fared poorly in the literature on the history of attitudes to nonhuman animals. This is more a consequence of secularist prejudice than objective scholarship. The idea of "dominion" and the understanding of animal souls are almost universally misrepresented. There has been no firmer conclusion than that Charles Darwin's theory of evolution had a profoundly beneficial impact on the recognition of our similarities to, kinship with, and consequent moral obligations to, other species. In reality, Darwinism had no such effect. That there was an essential kinship with, and homologies between, humans and other species had been attested to for centuries. In the first major ethical issue that arose after the publication of Darwin's The Descent of Man -- legislation to restrict vivisection -- Darwin and Huxley stood on the side of more or less unrestricted vivisection while many major explicitly Christian voices -- from Cardinal Manning to Lord Chief Justice Coleridge to the Earl of Shaftesbury -- demanded the most severe restrictions, in many cases abolition. The customary tale of how Christianity hindered the development of sensibilities to animals and how Darwinism occasioned a revolution in animal ethics needs to be rethought and retold.
    Schmidt, James.
  • Inventing the Enlightenment: Anti-Jacobins, British Hegelians, and the Oxford English Dictionary
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    Subject Headings:
    • Oxford English dictionary.
    • Enlightenment.
      For over a century, the Oxford English Dictionary has defined Enlightenment as “shallow and pretentious intellectualism, unreasonable contempt for tradition and authority.”  But this definition misreads two passages from Stirling's Secret of Hegel (1865) and misrepresents how “enlightenment,” “illumination,”  and “Aufklärung” were employed in the wake of the French Revolution. An examination of British critiques of the Revolution and early translations of texts by Kant, Mendelssohn, and Hegel shows that, prior to the close of the nineteenth century, “enlightenment” designated a process, not a period, and had few negative connotations.
    Carignan, Michael.
  • Analogical Reasoning in Victorian Historical Epistemology
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eliot, George, 1819-1880 -- Views on theory of knowledge.
    • Knowledge, Theory of -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    • History -- Philosophy.
      The usefulness of “analogy” as an epistemological tool was at the center of a Victorian debate over the nature of historical knowledge.  While researching one of her novels, George Eliot combined her obsession with historical veracity with a belief in the efficacy of analogical reasoning in the generation of historical knowledge to create a method of imaginative representation that was meant to advance our understanding of the past.  Her work, along with that of her companion, G.H. Lewes, constituted a rejection of the ascendant view that history needed to become an austere, inductive science, advanced by J.S. Mill, H.T. Buckle, and William Stubbs.
    Hark, Michel Ter, 1953-
  • Searching for the Searchlight Theory: From Karl Popper to Otto Selz
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    Subject Headings:
    • Popper, Karl Raimund, Sir, 1902-
    • Selz, Otto, 1881- -- Influence.
    • Knowledge, Theory of.
    • Philosophy of mind.
      The aim of this article is to show that one of Popper's key ideas in epistemology, his so-called theory of the searchlight, is derived from early German Denkpsychologie, in particular the theory of schematic anticipations of Otto Selz. With his theory of schematic anticipations Selz intended to replace various forms of association psychology. Likewise Popper's theory of the searchlight aims to replace empiricism in epistemology (the Bucket theory, as he calls it). On the basis of Popper's still unpublished manuscripts on psychology between 1927 and 1931, it is shown that his position became increasingly Selzian. The term "Bucket theory" is used by him for the first time in an article in which he defends Selz, and in his earlier Ph.D. thesis there occur passages which show him in complete agreement with the theory of schematic anticipations. It is argued that Popper's Selzian stance in psychology finally enabled him to develop his characteristic deductive stance in epistemology and philosophy of science. It is also emphasized that Popper never credits Selz for this formative role.
    Boutcher, Warren.
  • The Analysis of Culture Revisited: Pure Texts, Applied Texts, Literary Historicisms, Cultural Histories
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    Subject Headings:
    • Culture -- Study and teaching (Higher) -- History -- 20th century.
    • Learning and scholarship -- History -- 20th century.
    • Intellectual history.

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