United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Psychological aspects.
Stress (Psychology) -- Treatment -- Public opinion -- History -- 19th century.
Public opinion -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
Nostalgia -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
“So Lonesome I Could Die” seeks to historicize the emotional effects of war
by analysing debates over how to manage and treat nostalgia in the Civil War
North. At this time, both physicians and laypeople viewed nostalgia (or homesickness)
as a deadly disease that might kill a man outright, but more frequently
precipitated or exacerbated other illnesses. Focusing on the emotional distress
caused by soldiers’ detachment from homes and families, this diagnosis stands in
contrast to modern conceptions of war trauma, which emphasize the impact of
participating in or witnessing horrific violence. Whereas the diagnosis of nostalgia
generated little controversy in the mid-nineteenth century, there was no
such consensus over the proper treatment of homesick troops. According to certain
physicians and military leaders, the best curative lay in turning soldiers’
thoughts away from home through harsh discipline and active combat. Yet, there
were also many in the North who believed in the medical, military, and political
value of promoting, rather than repressing, strong domestic feeling in the Union
ranks. Wartime debates over the treatment of nostalgic men suggest that even
as some held up the detached warrior as a model, others continued to emphasize
the primary importance of domestic ties in creating ideal soldiers and virtuous
Sports betting -- Public opinion -- History -- 20th century.
Public opinion -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
Leisure -- Moral and ethical aspects -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
The paper argues that over the interwar period attitudes to betting were in the
process of slow but steady change. Broader changes in attitudes to leisure, including
increasing secularization, led to an increasingly widespread acceptance
of moderate betting across all classes. Between 1920 and 1938 estimated legal
gambling expenditure as a proportion of total British consumer spending rose
from 1.3 per cent to 5 per cent of a much higher total consumer expenditure.
The money spent on other illegal but widely popular betting on sports such
as horse races further swelled such totals. Yet betting divided Britain, and a
powerful stigma was attached to it in some circles. There were complex and
(sometimes) contradictory social and cultural meanings attached to sports betting,
and these engendered debates, disputes and divisions across the classes,
churches, and political parties. Despite the range of arguments it employed, the
power base of the anti-gambling groups was in decline. New betting forms were
emerging, with increased impact over time. Greyhound racing and football pools
betting were able to overcome their initial opposition and became legalized and
widely accepted. Various locally and nationally organized sweepstakes on major
horse races, whilst remaining illegal, became tacitly accepted. Even the attempts
by the British government to limit the popularity of the Irish Hospitals’ Trust
Sweepstakes had only limited success. The only major new betting forms to fail
were the British urban tote clubs, popular largely only amongst the working class,
which had few powerful defenders.
Artisans -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiro -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
Artisans -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiro -- Economic conditions -- 19th century.
Neighborhood -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiro -- History -- 19th century.
The social history of Rio de Janeiro’s artisans is approached using an interdisciplinary
methodology based on spatial data (GIS) and concepts of layers, flows,
and intersections. Datasets regarding occupation, real property ownership, and
slaveholding are intersected and social change experienced by artisans resident
in the diverse neighborhoods of the city is analyzed. The story of one tinker
in particular is pursued to illustrate the major changes affecting artisans in Rio
during the second half of the nineteenth century as well as to illuminate the
complex social and economic experiences of common people such as artisans in
a new way based on spatial patterns and social networks. The experience of artisans
in general was of gradual dispersion into more diverse and poorer neighborhoods
as the city center became increasingly dominated by business and retail.
This dispersion resulted in a different set of neighbors and changing social and
economic environments for most artisans as they lost their hold on traditional
zones in the city center.
Welfare fraud -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History -- 20th century.
Welfare recipients -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History -- 20th century.
“Welfare queens” and welfare fraud became national obsessions during the
1970s. This hysteria eroded public support for efforts to redress the racism and
gender bias inherent in state programs and delegitimated the welfare state itself.
This article chronicles the story of the first “welfare queen,” Chicago’s Linda
Taylor, and the context surrounding Illinois legislators’ efforts to crack down on
welfare fraud. In an attempt to curb welfare costs, legislators stiffened criminal
penalties for fraud, accelerated random home visits, established an anonymous
tip line for people to report their acquaintances, and considered plans to fingerprint
all welfare recipients. This article juxtaposes legislators’ fiscal and political
motivations for these policies with the experiences of recipients struggling to
make ends meet when neither welfare nor wage work provided sufficient income.
It also examines the role of the thousands of informants who reported
recipients for earning wages, sexual impropriety, or owning “inappropriate” consumer
The article argues that the spectacle of surveillance and prosecutions convinced
many citizens that all welfare recipients were deceitful, undeserving, and
linked to criminality. These punitive policies served to obscure poor families’
material conditions while helping to construct a highly stigmatized social category
outside of full citizenship.
Infanticide -- Social aspects -- Jamaica -- History.
Illegitimacy -- Jamaica -- History.
Women, Black -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Jamaica -- History.
This article examines 125 court cases of infanticide and concealment of birth
that were reported in a Jamaican newspaper between 1865 and 1938 and were
mainly committed by lower-class women. Informed by recent medical, psychological
and legal studies on child murder, it demonstrates that historians can
gain a more complete understanding of child murder in the modern period if
they pay attention not only to poverty and a stigma attached to illegitimacy but
also to societal norms of mothering and psycho-social stress factors. And more
particularly, it will show that in spite of attempts to bring them in line with the
metropolitan ideal of a family of husband/breadwinner, wife/homemaker and legitimate
children, most lower-class African Jamaicans continued to hold on to
their own norms of family, sexuality and gender, which had been carried over
from Africa and reinforced by plantation practices during slavery.
Indian slaves -- United States -- History -- 17th century.
United States -- Race relations -- History -- 17th century.
The enslavement of Indians by Englishmen in seventeenth-century America is
often characterized by historians as an inconsequential phenomenon that either
presaged the large scale enslavement of African peoples or, conversely, resulted
from the expansion of the plantation complex. The early enslavement of Indians,
however, was neither closely related to emerging labor demands nor an
accident of Anglo-American colonialism. Indian slavery was purposeful and rationalized,
often, by pointing to the need to punish natives for their crimes and
by emphasizing that bondage might serve to rehabilitate recalcitrant individuals.
Eventually, the enslavement of Indians would be almost indistinguishable
from the enslavement of Africans, but throughout much of the seventeenth century
Indian slavery was a distinct practice. African slavery was accepted, in part,
because the English viewed them as fundamentally different. Indian slavery was
accepted, paradoxically, because the English allowed that the indigenous inhabitants
of North America were not unlike themselves. Indian slavery was premised
on social and cultural assumptions that appear contradictory in retrospect. Yet,
by retelling the story of Indian slavery in the context of the early modern Atlantic
world, including Anglo-Spanish relations, this essay reveals that human
bondage was both more important to the English inhabitants of colonial America
than is generally appreciated and more complicated than historians have
National Endogamy and Double Standards: Sexuality and Nationalism in East-Central Europe during the 19th Century [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Nationalism -- Europe, Eastern -- History -- 19th century.
Sex -- Political aspects -- Europe, Eastern -- History -- 19th century.
Members of what Carol Pateman has memorably analyzed as the “national brotherhood”
attempted to nationalize sexuality during the nineteenth century.
Throughout East-Central Europe, a region with many competing national concepts,
patriotic authors encouraged national women to choose sexual partners
from within the nation. A comparative analysis of Polish, Ukrainian, Czech,
Slovak, German, Hungarian, and South-Slavic patriots suggests that the rhetoric
of national endogamy presupposed and reified “ethnic” nationalism. Patriotic
men celebrated national sexuality as virtuous, and explicitly discouraged female
chastity. Several patriot men who advocated national endogamy, finally, personally
married non-national women: they believed that men nationalized foreign
brides, and imagined various mechanisms of national conversion that reflect
their respective linguistic, religious, spiritual, or legal definitions of the nation.
Frohnen, Bruce, ed. American conservatism: an encyclopedia.
Beer, Jeremy, ed.
Nelson, Jeffrey O, ed.
Conservatism -- United States -- Encyclopedias.
Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614, and: The Handless Maiden: Moriscos and the Politics of Religion in Early Modern Spain, and: Between Christians and Moriscos: Juan de Ribera and Religious Reform in Valencia, 1568–1614 (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Harvey, L. P. (Leonard Patrick) Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614.
Perry, Mary Elizabeth, 1937- Handless maiden: Moriscos and the politics of religion in early modern Spain.
Ehlers, Benjamin. Between Christians and Moriscos: Juan de Ribera and religious reform in Valencia, 1568-1614.