Criminal justice, Administration of -- France -- Paris -- History -- 19th century.
Family violence -- Law and legislation -- France -- Paris -- History -- 19th century.
In fin-de-siècle France, jurists became alarmed by the high
rate of acquittals in cases of "crimes of passion" tried by jury in the assize
courts. The acquittal of so many defendants who readily admitted their
crimes seemed to prove that the citizen jurors of the Third Republic were
not competent to render justice. Through an investigation of French judicial
procedures, together with evidence from 251 cases of intimate violence
tried in the assize court of the Seine, this article contends that the high rate
of acquittal was due to the transfer of a popular system
of retributive justice
into the verdict of the court. Surprisingly, judicial procedures worked to
privilege the stories, knowledge, and standards of witnesses and
defendants—not a strict application of the law. This analysis sheds light on
popular attitudes about the use of violence in domestic disputes, as well as
the complex interactions among multiple systems of judgment at stake in
Working class -- Sexual behavior -- England -- Yorkshire.
Fiction and historical tests carefully positioned in Anglo-American historiography provide new perspectives on the elusive world
of female working-class sexuality. Working women are portrayed, not as
victims or objects, but as active players in gender and class conflicts.
Yorkshire lasses and older women used their sexuality to define their
female adulthood through sexual experimentation during courtship, to
discipline male aggressiveness and patriarchy, and to advance their status
as working women. These antagonisms included sexually charged
customs and behaviors, such as the ritual of "sunning": the sexual
humiliation of young men by working women, and new meanings for
female agency in premarital sexual activities. The behaviors and customs
of Yorkshire working-class women reveal their uses of individual and
collective activities to confront on their own terms both gender and class
conflicts in the family, the workplace, and the trade union. The
threatening power of female sexuality exercised collectively, openly, and
dramatically was a reminder to all that the private world of sexuality and
the workplace were deeply intertwined but not always at the expense of
With an acutely imbalanced power relationship, no financial
control, and a Marian ideal of total passivity flaunted before them, wives
are usually thought to have borne the brunt of medieval marriages. In
particular, in a Catholic world where marriage was held up as a
sacrament, and thus a permanent, monogamous union, it has often been
assumed that medieval wives were caught in an earthly purgatory,
suffering a life-time of marital misery. Over the past two decades,
historians like R.H. Helmholz, Sue Sheridan Walker and Henry Ansgar
Kelly have challenged previous ideals about the permanence of marriage.
Helmholz has suggested that "self-divorce" among the medieval English
may have been more common than we think. Walker and Kelly have
made similar suggestions. The goal of this paper is to use their work as a
foundation, to explore the various licit and illicit means of separation in
late medieval England. Using marriage litigation, bishops' registers,
ecclesiastical actbooks, manorial courts, chancery records, and assize
rolls, this paper will attempt to discern the risks involved in husband
desertion to both the wife and her "rescuers," common features of wife
desertion, as well as contemporary attitudes held by both wives and
society in general.
Boy Scouts -- Kenya -- Uniforms -- History -- 20th century.
Uniforms -- Social aspects -- Kenya -- History -- 20th century.
Uniforms -- Political aspects -- Kenya -- History -- 20th century.
Boy Scout uniforms in colonial East Africa, like civilian
clothing, were tangible but malleable archives of social reality that
enabled young African men to imagine, if not create, new identities and
realities. By appropriating Scout clothing and symbols and turning them to
new purposes, they challenged the established colonial order and proposed
new social identities. Yet uniforms constituted a special category of
clothing that is largely missing from broader studies of African dress.
Scholars have tended to assume that the disciplined and regimented nature
of Scout clothing protected from capture
both authorized and unauthorized wearers.
Uniforms conveyed great power in colonial Kenyan society. The
colonial regime used them to discipline and empower the African soldiers,
policemen, and civil servants who extended its reach into urban and rural
African communities. The uniforms of these colonial proxies conveyed the
standardized message that their wearers represented the authority of the
state and accepted its guidance and discipline regardless of who they
actually were. Yet the institutionalized power embedded in uniforms also
made them vulnerable to appropriation. Their conformity and enforced
anonymity meant that anyone putting them on could claim the authority
and privileges they represented. The Scout uniform therefore became the
center of a fierce struggle in colonial Kenya between Africans who sought
to turn it to their own uses and the colonial authorities who recognized that
it had the ability to undermine British rule by blurring racial, class, and
Consumption (Economics) -- Political aspects -- England -- History -- 19th century.
Middle class women -- England -- History -- 19th century.
This article attempts to reconnect the culture with the
politics of the campaign for free trade through a case study of the National
Anti-Corn Law League Bazaar held at Covent Garden Theatre London in
the spring of 1845. Four major themes are considered. First, the ways in
which the bazaar pulled together commerce and politics are explored. The
League was not only concerned with the abolition of excise duty on staple
goods (especially 'the people's corn') but was also keen to address the
commodity world of Victorian capitalism more generally, and a focus on
the bazaar helps unravel the significance of this preoccupation. The article
then goes on to consider the central role played by middle-class women in
this area and suggests why their participation was thought vital. Third,
contradictory attitudes toward consumption and continuing fears provoked
by the commercialization of politics are discussed in more detail.
Finally, the study suggests, more speculatively and in the longer term,
that the culture of the League—embodied in the bazaar of 1845—helped
prepare the ground for the emergence, or rather invention, of the modern
consumer in Victorian England.
African Americans -- Migrations -- History -- 20th century.
During the period between 1930 and 1970 more than 17,000
migrants were drawn to Louisville, challenging us to rethink the centrality
of rural to urban migration narratives during the era of the Second Great
Migration. African American migration in Louisville, Kentucky
demonstrates the necessity of recognizing the distinctiveness of the
Second Great Migration as well as the need to turn our attention to Black
mobility within the South. Between 1935-1940, the largest Southern
cities witnessed an influx of Black population; many of these migrants
originated in the urban, not rural South. That Kentucky's Black
population was primarily urban stood in stark contrast with much of the
South; however, Blacks in Tennessee, Alabama, Florida and North
Carolina were also predominantly urban. Not only does examining urban
to urban migration patterns offer a more complex view of African
American migration, it also offers a more nuanced view of African
American urbanization as a process. African American migration in
Louisville, Kentucky challenges us to rethink the centrality of rural to
urban migration narratives during the era of the Second Great Migration.
Elite (Social sciences) -- Flanders -- History -- To 1500.
Flanders -- Politics and government.
The county of Flanders belonged to one of the most urbanised
regions of Western Europe. In the later medieval period, it witnessed the
rise of a new power elite. As a consequence of the state formation process
impoverished noble lineages who survived by serving the prince fused
with rich patrician families who also took up princely offices. They did
this by forming social networks based on marriage alliances. The nobility
did not at all close itself off from newcomers. During the fifteenth century,
the possibilities for interaction between nobles and non-nobles were
frequent Burghers and members of the rural elites were ennobled in
different ways. The ducal officers constructed family and social networks
that went beyond their class and geographical origins. The elite groups of
the city and the surrounding countryside had a tendency to overlap.
Important layers of this composite political elite developed into what
could be considered a new 'state nobility'. Along with ennoblement and
upward social mobility, high officials adopted the family structure of the
patrilineal 'lineage' typical of the nobility. The new regional political elite
which was partially created by the state formation process also constructed
itself subjectively by adapting what we could call a 'state ideology'.
Public welfare -- Scotland -- History -- 18th century.
Public welfare -- Scotland -- History -- 19th century.
Dangerously mentally ill -- Law and legislation -- Scotland -- History -- 18th century.
Dangerously mentally ill -- Law and legislation -- Scotland -- History -- 19th century.
The historiography of Scottish poor relief from the late
sixteenth to the early nineteenth century conventionally portrays it as an
undeveloped version of the English system. It assumes that the lack of
structured care based on rating (that was the foundation of the English
model) equates to parsimony. By focusing on limited entitlements and
debates on disablement, historians have studied exclusion more than
provision. This article gives a different emphasis on poor relief in Scotland
through a study of a particular group of the deserving poor. Offering a
general discussion illuminated by detailed case studies, its aim is to locate
dangerous insane paupers within the structures of Scottish poor relief and
to assess how distinctively they were treated compared with the merely
poor. It also outlines change over time
in the legal parameters governing
pauper lunatics and particularly the changes in law and practice during the
1800s and 1810s. Finally, it seeks to demonstrate the strength of the
commitment to caring for the insane as an element of the deserving poor
and to show how a system based more on casual charity than that of
England could nevertheless be effective.
Shklar, Judith N. Political thought and political thinkers.
Hoffmann, Stanley, ed.
Robin, Corey, 1967- Fear: the history of a political idea.
Glassner, Barry. Culture of fear: why Americans are afraid of the wrong things.
Füredi, Frank, 1947- Culture of fear: risk-taking and the morality of low expectation.
Bourke, Joanna. Fear: a cultural history.
Lambert, Christophe, 1965- Société de la peur.
Orr, Jackie, 1960- Panic diaries: a genealogy of panic disorder.
Political science -- History.
Fear has become the emotion du jour, among scholars and, most
argue, among wider publics as well. This essay reviews several important
works, in several disciplines, that have appeared over the past seven
years. The essay discusses their relationship to earlier historical
findings and their implications for recent emotional history and its
ramifications in culture and politics.