Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 40, Number 1, Fall 2006

CONTENTS

Section I
Crime and Social Impact

    Adler, Jeffrey S.
  • "It Is His First Offense. We Might As Well Let Him Go": Homicide and Criminal Justice in Chicago, 1875-1920
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    Subject Headings:
    • Homicide -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History.
    • Criminal justice, Administration of -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History.
    • Murderers -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History.
    Abstract:
      At the start of the twentieth century, political and legal reformers initiated far-ranging changes in the American criminal justice system, particularly in cities such as Chicago, where violent crime rates were high and where the Progressive movement was especially influential. Yet law enforcers rarely convicted killers, more than three-fourths of whom went unpunished. Even in homicide cases in which the identity of killers was certain and the police made arrests, jurors typically exonerated or acquitted killers. Using police and court records and tracing the legal outcomes of nearly six thousand cases, this essay analyzes patterns of conviction in Chicago homicide cases between 1875 and 1920 and argues that a blend of gender-, race-, and class-based notions of justice trumped the rule of law, producing low homicide conviction rates during a period of soaring violence.
    Shan, Patrick Fuliang.
  • Insecurity, Outlawry and Social Order: Banditry in China's Heilongjiang Frontier Region, 1900-1931
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    Subject Headings:
    • Heilongjiang Sheng (China) -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Outlaws -- China -- Heilongjiang Sheng -- History -- 20th century.
    • Criminal justice, Administration of -- China -- Heilongjiang Sheng -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      By using copious primary sources, this article probes the banditry in China's northeasternmost province of Heilongjiang during the period from 1900 to 1931. While the region was a developing frontier, bandits posed a major social problem. Factors such as ecological surroundings, loose political control, regional militant traditions, rapid social changes, and sex ratio imbalance each played a role in producing outlaws. Bandits organized themselves into bands, ranging from small groups consisting of several dozen men to large units of a few thousand brigands. They sustained themselves well, established many domains, and maintained ties with locals. Indeed, banditry became a subculture. However, the bandits were nevertheless the most hated by locals. Battles against them became an unending campaign, with civilians taking measures for self-protection, and officials adopting policies for military suppression. Regardless, bandits were never entirely rooted out; instead they continued to be an undesirable yet inseparable part of the life of this frontier society.

Section II
Working Class: Action and Expression

    Rowe, Steven Edward, 1971-
  • Writing Modern Selves: Literacy and the French Working Class in the Early Nineteenth Century
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    Subject Headings:
    • Working class writings, French -- 19th century -- History and criticism.
    • Autobiographical memory in literature.
    • France -- Intellectual life -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Throughout the early to mid-nineteenth century, French urban workers developed literacy practices—specific acts of writing and reading—that encouraged socially-oriented forms of self-reflection. By examining the letter writing, reading, and circulation practices and the autobiographical writing practices of several distinctly different groups of French urban workers, this essay presents a comparative analysis of forms and practices of writing and reading most often associated with the personal realm. In these literacy practices, French workers cultivated forms of socially-mediated reflection in which acts of self-disclosure and claims of authority were directly tied to their relations with others and their identifications with particular groups—such as their families, friends, and their fellow workers. The ways that literacy developed such complex, heterogeneous selves for French urban workers in the nineteenth century ultimately challenge the argument that links literacy, and writing in particular, to the formation of an individualist self, as part of the social transformations that lead to the formation of modern society in France.
    Ho, Wing Chung.
  • From Resistance to Collective Action in a Shanghai Socialist "Model Community": From the Late 1940s to Early 1970s
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    Subject Headings:
    • Farmers -- China -- Shanghai -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
    • Political leadership -- China -- Shanghai -- History -- 20th century.
    • Socialism and society -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This paper examines the changes in people's experience concerning the rise of the community-based collectivist spirit and inter-personal cohesion in about three decades of time. Based on the observations of Cucumber Lane, a migrant community-turned-socialist "model community" in Shanghai, the author emphasizes that the rise of community-based collectivism was mediated by, among other factors, a moral politics that involved traditional forms of morality. Since any collective action intensified the conflict between individual and group interests, the residents and local cadres/leaders tended to apply moral yardsticks originating from the traditional Chinese worldview to understand, evaluate, and argue whether particular state-led collective campaigns should be supported or resisted, and to what extent. The paper argues that the mediation of moral politics as perceived and constructed by the residents under specific ideological landscapes and systems for the distribution of resources shaped the ways in which they engaged in collective action and individual resistance.

Section III
Other Articles

    Fink, Leon, 1948-
  • When Community Comes Home to Roost: The Southern Milltown as Lost Cause
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    Subject Headings:
    • Memory -- Social aspects -- North Carolina -- Cooleemee.
    • Local history.
    • Cooleemee (N.C.) -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the experience of the Cooleemee Historical Association in North Carolina. It notes the many successes of this community history project, while examining the intellectual and professional trajectories of its principal sponsors, Jim and Lynn Rumley. The article argues that the project also became politicized and distorted, particularly in terms of issues of race relations and relationships between community and the outside world, ultimately projecting a highly selective historical memory.
    Graizbord, David L.
  • Becoming Jewish in Early Modern France: Documents on Jewish Community-Building in Seventeenth-Century Bayonne and Peyrehorade
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sephardim -- France -- History -- 17th century.
    • Christian converts from Judaism -- France -- History -- 17th century.
    • Sephardim -- France -- Identity -- History -- 17th century.
    Abstract:
      This article sheds light on the complex process by which Ibero-Catholic refugees of Jewish origin, known collectively as conversos and New Christians, adopted normative Judaism and forged Jewish communities in the southern Aquitainian towns of Saint-Esprit-lès Bayonne and Peyrehorade in the latter half of the seventeenth century. Through an examination of testimony that two of the refugees rendered to officers of the Spanish Inquisition, the work reconstructs the social context and practical means by which Iberian immigrants obtained and internalized the knowledge—the models of belief, ritual practice, and quoti- dian behavior—that would cause others in the Jewish Diaspora to recognize the makeshift colonies, and more importantly, cause the refugees to view themselves, as normatively and unambiguously Jewish. Against a dominant historiographical tendency to impute a deep-seated Jewishness to conversos, therefore, my analysis explores the constructed and contingent quality of the Franco-Sephardi communities in question.
    Di Stefano, Diana.
  • Alfred Packer's World: Risk, Responsibility, and the Place of Experience in Mountain Culture, 1873-1907
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    Subject Headings:
    • Packer, Alferd, 1842-1907 --Trials, litigation, etc.
    • Trials (Murder) -- Colorado -- Lake City.
    • Miners -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Colorado -- History -- 19th century.
    • Frontier and pioneer life -- Colorado.
    Abstract:
      In 1874, Alfred Packer, a prospector and mountain guide, appeared at the Los Pinos Indian Agency in southwestern Colorado. He declared that all his comrades had died, and near starvation had forced him to eat their flesh. On the surface, the story of Alfred Packer resembles other stories of people driven to extreme action in order to survive in the wilderness. But Packer's inability to keep his story straight and the subsequent discovery of the brutally murdered bodies of his companions tells another tale—one of murder and theft. Some began to suspect that Packer had lured the men to their deaths by his claims that he could take them across the snowy mountains. Examination of Packer's multiple versions of what happened, the recollections of those who knew Packer, court records, and other evidence support the conclusion that while cannibalism disgusted mountain miners, Packer's betrayal of these newcomers' trust infuriated them.

      Natural hazards, especially in the winter, played a central role in how prospectors and how those who followed them into the mountains understood their environment. Furthermore, the harsh environment shaped the interactions they had with one another. From the early days and into the early twentieth century, mountain residents depended on one another when disaster struck. This dependency, coupled with reliance on more experienced people to identify and offset risks, contributed to the creation of socio-cultural adaptations specific to the Mountain West. Packer broke the law, but he also violated codes of conduct that mountain people relied on for survival. Placing Packer within the context of mountain culture allows for a more nuanced understanding of how the environment influenced human actions in the Mountain West.

    Levine, David, 1946-
  • Review Essay: Re-Membering the Past
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    Subject Headings:
    • Collins, Michael, 1961- Likes of us: an official biography of the white working class.
    • Cook, Hera. Long sexual revolution: English women, sex, and contraception, 1800-1975.
    • Garfield, Simon. Our hidden lives: the remarkable diaries of post-war Britain.
    • Rose, Jonathan, 1952- Intellectual life of the British working classes.
    • Working class whites -- England -- London.
    • Birth control -- England -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This essay deals with four recent and important books on aspects of British social history. These four studies are concerned with different aspects of historical memory through a consideration of different kinds of social documents: autobiographies, letters, oral histories and social statistics. Taken together, they expand the social parameters of past experience.

Reviews

Section 1
Childhood

    Zuckerman, Michael, 1939-
  • Huck's Raft: A History of American Childhood (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mintz, Steven, 1953- Huck's raft: a history of American childhood.
    • Childhood -- United States -- History.
    Hwa, Lily, 1947-
  • Representations of Childhood and Youth in Early China (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kinney, Anne Behnke. Representations of childhood and youth in early China.
    • Children -- China -- History.
    Mann, Susan, 1943-
  • A Tender Voyage: Children and Childhood in Late Imperial China (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hsiung, Ping-chen, 1952- Tender voyage: children and childhood in late imperial China.
    • Children -- China -- History.
    Beaudoin, Steven M. (Steven Maurice), 1965-
  • Discovering Child Poverty: The Creation of a Policy Agenda from 1800 to the Present (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Platt, Lucinda. Discovering child poverty: the creation of a policy agenda from 1800 to the present.
    • Poor children -- Great Britain -- History.
    Fass, Paula S.
  • Crimes Against Children: Sexual Violence and Legal Culture in New York City, 1880-1960 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robertson, Stephen (Stephen Murray) Crimes against children: sexual violence and legal culture in New York City, 1880-1960.
    • Child sexual abuse -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
    Schrum, Kelly.
  • Jewish Girls Coming of Age in America, 1860-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Klapper, Melissa R. Jewish girls coming of age in America, 1860-1920.
    • Jewish girls -- United States -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    Devlin, Rachel.
  • How Young Ladies Became Girls: The Victorian Origins of American Girlhood (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hunter, Jane, 1949- How young ladies became girls: the Victorian origins of American girlhood.
    • Middle class -- Northeastern States -- History -- 19th century.

Section 2
Race and Slavery

    Eltis, David, 1940-
  • The Final Victims: Foreign Slave Trade to North America, 1783-1810 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McMillin, James A., 1950- Final victims: foreign slave trade to North America, 1783-1810.
    • Slave trade -- North America -- History.
    Littlefield, Daniel C.
  • Slavery and Frontier Mississippi, 1720-1835 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Libby, David J., 1969- Slavery and frontier Mississippi, 1720-1835.
    • Slavery -- Mississippi -- History -- 18th century.
    Lang, Clarence.
  • Race, Class and Power in the Building of Richmond, 1870-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hoffman, Steven J. Race, class and power in the building of Richmond, 1870-1920.
    • Richmond (Va.) -- History.
    Vandal, Gilles.
  • The Atlanta Riot: Race, Class, and Violence in a New South City (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mixon, Gregory. Atlanta riot: race, class, and violence in a New South city.
    • African Americans -- Civil rights -- Georgia -- Atlanta -- History -- 20th century.

Section 3
Politics and Law

    Crew, David F., 1946-
  • Neighbors and Enemies:The Culture of Radicalism in Berlin, 1929-1933 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Swett, Pamela E., 1970- Neighbors and enemies: the culture of radicalism in Berlin, 1929-1933.
    • Berlin (Germany) -- Politics and government.
    Achenbaum, W. Andrew.
  • From Welfare to Workfare: The Unintended Consequences of Liberal Reform, 1945-1965 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mittelstadt, Jennifer, 1970- From welfare to workfare: the unintended consequences of liberal reform, 1945-1965.
    • Aid to families with dependent children programs -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Bohac, Rodney.
  • Russian Peasants Go to Court: Legal Culture in the Countryside, 1905-1917 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burbank, Jane. Russian peasants go to court: legal culture in the countryside, 1905-1917.
    • Justice, Administration of -- Russia -- History -- 20th century.
    Smits, Gregory, 1960-
  • Bonds of Civility: Aesthetic Networks and the Political Origins of Japanese Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ikegami, Eiko. Bonds of civility: aesthetic networks and the political origins of Japanese culture.
    • Japan -- Civilization.
    Chambers, Sarah C., 1963-
  • Democracy in Latin America, 1760-1900: Volume I, Civic Selfhood and Public Life in Mexico and Peru (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Forment, Carlos A. Democracy in Latin America, 1760-1900.
    • Mexico -- History -- 19th century.

Section 4
Labor

    Cumbler, John T.
  • Slaves to Fashion: Poverty and Abuse in the New Sweatshops (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ross, Robert J. S., 1943- Slaves to fashion: poverty and abuse in the new sweatshops.
    • Sweatshops.
    Oestreicher, Richard Jules, 1947-
  • The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fine, Lisa M. Story of Reo Joe: work, kin, and community in Autotown, U.S.A.
    • Automobile industry workers -- Michigan -- Lansing.
    Olssen, Erik.
  • "Rats and Revolutionaries": The Labour Movement in Australia and New Zealand 1890-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bennett, James, 1964- 'Rats and revolutionaries': the labour movement in Australia and New Zealand 1890-1940.
    • Labor unions.

Section 5
Regional Topics

    Achenbaum, W. Andrew.
  • Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mormino, Gary Ross, 1947- Land of sunshine, state of dreams: a social history of modern Florida.
    • Florida -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    Van Young, Eric.
  • The Time of Liberty: Popular Political Culture in Oaxaca, 1750-1850 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guardino, Peter F., 1963- Time of liberty: popular political culture in Oaxaca, 1750-1850.
    • Government, Resistance to -- Mexico -- Oaxaca Region -- History.

Section 6
General Reviews

    Hemphill, C. Dallett, 1959-
  • Sex and Manners: Female Emancipation in the West, 1890-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wouters, Cas. Sex and manners: female emancipation in the West, 1890-2000.
    • Women -- Social life and customs -- 20th century.
    Kline, Wendy, 1968-
  • Eugenic Design: Streamlining America in the 1930s (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cogdell, Christina. Eugenic design : streamlining America in the 1930s.
    • Eugenics -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Eustace, Nicole.
  • A Cultural History of Causality: Science, Murder Novels and Systems of Thought (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kern, Stephen. Cultural history of causality: science, murder novels, and systems of thought.
    • Causation in literature.
    Iu, Petula Mei Y.
  • The Chinatown Trunk Mystery: Murder, Miscegenation, and Other Dangerous Encounters in Turn-of-the-Century New York City (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lui, Mary Ting Li, 1967- Chinatown trunk mystery: murder, miscegenation, and other dangerous encounters in turn-of-the-century New York City.
    • United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy.
    Frank, Christopher.
  • English Society and the Prison: Time, Culture and Politics in the Development of the Modern Prison, 1850-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Brown, Alyson. English society and the prison: time, culture, and politics in the development of the modern prison, 1850-1920.
    • Prisons -- England -- History - -19th century.
    Royle, Edward.
  • Lords of Misrule: Hostility to Aristocracy in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Britain (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Taylor, Antony. Lords of Misrule: hostility to aristocracy in late nineteenth and early twentieth century Britain.
    • Aristocracy (Political science) -- Great Britain -- History.
    Kuznesof, Elizabeth Anne.
  • Family and Frontier in Colonial Brazil: Santana de Parnaiba, 1580-1822 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Metcalf, Alida C., 1954- Family and frontier in colonial Brazil: Santana de Parnaiba, 1580-1822.
    • Family -- Brazil -- Santana de Parnaíba -- History.
    Atwill, David G.
  • Reluctant Pioneers: China's Expansion Northward, 1644-1937 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Reardon-Anderson, James. Reluctant pioneers: China's expansion northward, 1644-1937.
    • Migrant labor -- China -- Manchuria.
    Baskin, Judith Reesa, 1950-
  • Pious and Rebellious: Jewish Women in Medieval Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grossman, Avraham. Pious and rebellious: Jewish women in Medieval Europe.
    • Women in Judaism -- Europe -- History -- To 1500.



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