Criminal justice, Administration of -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History.
Murderers -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History.
At the start of the twentieth century,
political and legal reformers initiated
far-ranging changes in the American criminal
justice system, particularly in cities such as
Chicago, where violent crime rates were high and
where the Progressive movement was especially
influential. Yet law enforcers rarely convicted
killers, more than three-fourths of whom went
unpunished. Even in homicide cases in which the
identity of killers was certain and the police
made arrests, jurors typically exonerated or
acquitted killers. Using police and court records
and tracing the legal outcomes of nearly six
thousand cases, this essay analyzes patterns of
conviction in Chicago homicide cases between 1875
and 1920 and argues that a blend of gender-,
race-, and class-based notions of justice trumped
the rule of law, producing low homicide
conviction rates during a period of soaring
Heilongjiang Sheng (China) -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
Outlaws -- China -- Heilongjiang Sheng -- History -- 20th century.
Criminal justice, Administration of -- China -- Heilongjiang Sheng --
History -- 20th century.
By using copious primary sources, this
article probes the banditry in China's
northeasternmost province of Heilongjiang during
the period from 1900 to 1931. While the region was
a developing frontier, bandits posed a major
social problem. Factors such as ecological
surroundings, loose political control, regional
militant traditions, rapid social changes, and sex
ratio imbalance each played a role in producing
outlaws. Bandits organized themselves into bands,
ranging from small groups consisting of several
dozen men to large units of a few thousand
brigands. They sustained themselves well,
established many domains, and maintained ties with
locals. Indeed, banditry became a subculture.
However, the bandits were nevertheless the most
hated by locals. Battles against them became an
unending campaign, with civilians taking measures
for self-protection, and officials adopting
policies for military suppression. Regardless,
bandits were never entirely rooted out; instead
they continued to be an undesirable yet
inseparable part of the life of this frontier
Working class writings, French -- 19th century -- History and criticism.
Autobiographical memory in literature.
France -- Intellectual life -- 19th century.
Throughout the early to
mid-nineteenth century, French urban workers
developed literacy practices—specific acts of
writing and reading—that encouraged
socially-oriented forms of self-reflection. By
examining the letter writing, reading, and
circulation practices and the autobiographical
writing practices of several distinctly different
groups of French urban workers, this essay
presents a comparative analysis of forms and
practices of writing and reading most often
associated with the personal realm. In these
literacy practices, French workers cultivated
forms of socially-mediated reflection in which
acts of self-disclosure and claims of authority
were directly tied to their relations with others
and their identifications with particular
groups—such as their families, friends, and
their fellow workers. The ways that literacy
developed such complex, heterogeneous selves for
French urban workers in the nineteenth century
ultimately challenge the argument that links
literacy, and writing in particular, to the
formation of an individualist self, as part of
the social transformations that lead to the
formation of modern society in France.
Farmers -- China -- Shanghai -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
Political leadership -- China -- Shanghai -- History -- 20th century.
Socialism and society -- History -- 20th century.
This paper examines the changes in
people's experience concerning the rise of the
community-based collectivist spirit and
inter-personal cohesion in about three decades of
time. Based on the observations of Cucumber Lane,
a migrant community-turned-socialist "model
community" in Shanghai, the author emphasizes
that the rise of community-based collectivism was
mediated by, among other factors, a moral
politics that involved traditional forms of
morality. Since any collective action intensified
the conflict between individual and group
interests, the residents and local cadres/leaders
tended to apply moral yardsticks originating from
the traditional Chinese worldview to understand,
evaluate, and argue whether particular state-led
collective campaigns should be supported or
resisted, and to what extent. The paper argues
that the mediation of moral politics as perceived
and constructed by the residents under specific
ideological landscapes and systems for the
distribution of resources shaped the ways in
which they engaged in collective action and
Memory -- Social aspects -- North Carolina -- Cooleemee.
Cooleemee (N.C.) -- Historiography.
This article examines the experience of
the Cooleemee Historical Association in North
Carolina. It notes the many successes of this
community history project, while examining the
intellectual and professional trajectories of its
principal sponsors, Jim and Lynn Rumley. The
article argues that the project also became
politicized and distorted, particularly in terms
of issues of race relations and relationships
between community and the outside world,
ultimately projecting a highly selective
Christian converts from Judaism -- France -- History -- 17th century.
Sephardim -- France -- Identity -- History -- 17th century.
This article sheds light on
the complex process by which
Ibero-Catholic refugees of Jewish
origin, known collectively as conversos and New Christians, adopted
normative Judaism and forged Jewish
communities in the southern Aquitainian
towns of Saint-Esprit-lès Bayonne and
Peyrehorade in the latter half of the
seventeenth century. Through an
examination of testimony that two of the
refugees rendered to officers of the
Spanish Inquisition, the work
reconstructs the social context and
practical means by which Iberian
immigrants obtained and internalized the
knowledge—the models of belief, ritual
practice, and quoti-
would cause others in the Jewish
Diaspora to recognize the makeshift
colonies, and more importantly, cause
the refugees to view themselves, as
normatively and unambiguously Jewish.
Against a dominant historiographical
tendency to impute a
deep-seated Jewishness to conversos, therefore, my analysis
explores the constructed and contingent
quality of the Franco-Sephardi
communities in question.
Packer, Alferd, 1842-1907 --Trials, litigation, etc.
Trials (Murder) -- Colorado -- Lake City.
Miners -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Colorado -- History -- 19th century.
Frontier and pioneer life -- Colorado.
In 1874, Alfred Packer, a prospector
and mountain guide, appeared at the Los Pinos
Indian Agency in southwestern Colorado. He
declared that all his comrades had died, and near
starvation had forced him to eat their flesh. On
the surface, the story of Alfred Packer resembles
other stories of people driven to extreme action
in order to survive in the wilderness. But
Packer's inability to keep his story straight and
the subsequent discovery of the brutally murdered
bodies of his companions tells another tale—one
of murder and theft. Some began to suspect that
Packer had lured the men to their deaths by his
claims that he could take them across the snowy
mountains. Examination of Packer's multiple
versions of what happened, the recollections of
those who knew Packer, court records, and other
evidence support the conclusion that while
cannibalism disgusted mountain miners, Packer's
betrayal of these newcomers' trust infuriated
Natural hazards, especially in the winter, played
a central role in how prospectors and how those
who followed them into the mountains understood
their environment. Furthermore, the harsh
environment shaped the interactions they had with
one another. From the early days and into the
early twentieth century, mountain residents
depended on one another when disaster struck. This
dependency, coupled with reliance on more
experienced people to identify and offset risks,
contributed to the creation of socio-cultural
adaptations specific to the Mountain West. Packer
broke the law, but he also violated codes of
conduct that mountain people relied on for
survival. Placing Packer within the context of
mountain culture allows for a more nuanced
understanding of how the environment influenced
human actions in the Mountain West.
Collins, Michael, 1961- Likes of us: an official biography of the white working class.
Cook, Hera. Long sexual revolution: English women, sex, and contraception, 1800-1975.
Garfield, Simon. Our hidden lives: the remarkable diaries of post-war Britain.
Rose, Jonathan, 1952- Intellectual life of the British working classes.
Working class whites -- England -- London.
Birth control -- England -- History -- 19th century.
This essay deals with four recent and important books
on aspects of British social history. These four studies are concerned
with different aspects of historical memory through a consideration
of different kinds of social documents: autobiographies, letters,
oral histories and social statistics. Taken together, they expand
the social parameters of past experience.