Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 39, Number 4, Summer 2006

CONTENTS

    Brier, Jennifer.
  • "Save Our Kids, Keep AIDS Out": Anti-AIDS Activism and the Legacy of Community Control in Queens, New York
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    Subject Headings:
    • AIDS (Disease) in children -- Political aspects -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    • Political participation -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    • Education and state -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    • Queens (New York, N.Y.)
    Abstract:
      This article details a 1985 protest organized by black and white parents in two Queens, New York School districts to fight the New York City's Board of Education policy allowing children with AIDS to attend public schools. I examine the Queens anti-AIDS protests to assess the effectiveness of this cross-racial alliance as well as how it functioned in relationship to the rise of political conservatism in the 1980s. I argue that it is necessary to situate these community activists in a context not over-determined by the bifurcated national politics of the period. By revisiting this community-based movement of the 1980s and understanding participants' motivations as well as those of the leadership, we begin to see that this activism acquired its coherence not from ideology, but from the specific circumstances that forced these activists to confront AIDS. While many anti-AIDS and anti-gay activists used phases like "family values," to differentiate themselves from people with AIDS, particularly gay men, parents in Queens, both black and white, found a shared enemy instead in the combined power of the municipal bureaucracy and a remote scientific establishment, paving the way for a political alliance that bridged an otherwise tense racial divide in New York City
    Ofer, Inbal.
  • Am I that Body? Sección Femenina de la FET and the Struggle for the Institution of Physical Education and Competitive Sports for Women in Franco's Spain
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    Subject Headings:
    • Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas Ofensivas Nacional-Sindicalistas. Sección Femenina.
    • Physical education for women -- Spain -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The Feminine Section of the Spanish Falange (Sección Femenina de la FET - SF), founded in June 1934, was for almost four decades the official women's organization of Franco's Spain, reaching in its height a total of 680,000 members. Yet despite its impressive size and diverse activities, the organization received little attention from historians. A number of new works have been published recently which attempt to redress the balance. This is achieved mainly through an in-depth examination of the experiences of a small number of SF members at a local level, and the relations of those members with the larger women's population in their provinces. Yet an analysis looking at the formulation and implementation of policy at a macro level is still missing. When issues of policy were addressed at such a level in the past, this was done for the most part through an examination of legislation and formal rhetoric. The current paper will look at one such aspect of national policy, namely, the promotion of physical education and competitive sport for women.

      Like in the cases of Italian Fascism and German Nazism, the SF saw in sport a tool for creating healthier future mothers and imposing on women discipline and group consciousness. The policy in this field aimed to expose the largest number of young girls and women to basic sporting activities through compulsory classes of physical education (PE) within schools, the youth movement, university and the work place. However, it also created a space where pride, nurturing and even public exposure of the female body were acceptable. The article looks at the struggle for the institution of female sports carried against the wishes of most of the Church hierarchy and of many educators and some parents; at the training of PE instructors as young and attractive agents working in an often hostile environment; and the way in which the SF capitalized on the uniqueness of its policy in this field in order to highlight its distinctiveness from other groups within the Francoist coalition.

    Fairchild, Amy L.
  • Leprosy, Domesticity, and Patient Protest: The Social Context of a Patients' Rights Movement in Mid-Century America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Public Health Service Hospital at Carville, La. -- History -- 20th century.
    • Leprosy -- Patients -- Civil rights -- Louisiana -- Carville -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Historians strongly associate the 1960s as marking the beginnings of radical changes in patients' orientation toward their rights. Yet the social and political context of the decades prior to the Second World War distinctly shaped the patient experience in much the same fashion that it gave form to the Civil Rights Movement. The patient struggle for autonomy at the US Public Health Service Hospital in Carville, Louisiana, in particular, must be located in the postwar period. Against the backdrop of how the institution was organized and administered from the 1920s to the 1930s, I focus in this paper on the conflict between patients and hospital administrators over control of institutional life in the 1950s. Their encounters exposed tension between Carville as home and as hospital. Given this focus, the patient challenge to the institutions, which reached a national audience, began to coalesce around the home in general and the kitchen in particular, mirroring the growing prominence of the political dimensions of suburban domesticity as a powerful democratic ideal. At Carville, the private "surburban" home represented freedom from the state.
    Smits, Gregory, 1960-
  • Shaking Up Japan: Edo Society and the 1855 Catfish Picture Prints
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    Subject Headings:
    • Earthquakes -- Japan -- Psychological aspects -- History -- 19th century.
    • Prints, Japanese -- Japan -- Tokyo -- 19th century.
    • Catfishes in art.
    Abstract:
      Following the Ansei Edo Earthquake of 1855, Japanese print makers produced hundreds of varieties of catfish picture prints (namazu-e). These prints afforded the common people of Edo (soon to become Tokyo) an ideal vehicle for commenting on politics and society under the cover of discussing the recent earthquake. Some were sharply critical of the existing situation, and some adumbrated alternative political and social visions. One of these visions was of "Japan" as a natural community. Some prints portrayed the earthquake that shook Edo as having shaken all of Japan, and others incorporated events of the recent past into new narratives of world-renewal and change. The solar deity Amaterasu, who played a prominent role in national ideology after 1868, first came to widespread attention in Edo via these prints. In this and other ways, the catfish picture prints helped lay the psychological groundwork for the process of "making Japanese" that would begin in earnest after 1868. Furthermore, owing to a coincidence in which 1855 and 1867 were both years of special religious significance, it is likely that the folk memory of the Ansei Edo Earthquake helped condition popular expectations of upheaval and change during the Tokugawa bakufu's final year.
    Green, Elna C.
  • Protecting Confederate Soldiers and Mothers: Pensions, Gender, and the Welfare State in the U.S. South, a Case Study from Florida
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    Subject Headings:
    • Military pensions -- Florida -- Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Veterans -- Florida.
    • Public welfare -- Florida -- History.
    Abstract:
      Southern states used their Confederate pension programs for several purposes. These state welfare programs served to bolster white supremacy, support Democratic party hegemony, and reinforce conservative gender roles. While male applicants for Confederate pensions were expected to demonstrate their continued loyalty to the "lost cause," female applicants were also examined for their sexual behavior. The Confederate welfare systems were thus heavily gendered. Although Southern whites embraced these welfare programs, they did not lead to Southern support for a federal welfare system.
    Durrill, Wayne K. (Wayne Keith)
  • Ritual, Community and War: Local Flag Presentation Ceremonies and Disunity in the Early Confederacy
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Flags.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Social aspects -- Southern States.
    • Political customs and rites -- Southern States -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      For a few months in 1861, hundreds of communities in the South staged flag presentation ceremonies to send their men off to war. These ceremonies were attended by hundreds and sometimes thousands of white Southerners, and narratives of the ceremonies circulated widely in Southern newspapers. The ceremonies themselves consisted of a several speeches by local notables and presentation of a flag made by the elite women of the community. This article argues that flag presentations resulted from a distinct lack of commitment among most Southern men to the Confederacy early in the Civil War, and sees the ceremonies as coercive rituals designed to force men into the army before conscription solved the Confederacy's recruitment problem.
    Monsma, Karl.
  • Symbolic Conflicts, Deadly Consequences: Fights between Italians and Blacks in Western São Paulo, 1888-1914
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    Subject Headings:
    • São Paulo (Brazil : State) -- Race relations -- History.
    • Ethnic conflict -- Brazil -- São Paulo (State) -- History.
    • Blacks -- Violence against -- Brazil -- São Paulo (State) -- History.
    • Italians -- Violence against -- Brazil -- São Paulo (State) -- History.
    Abstract:
      Recent advances in studies of Brazilian slavery and abolition contrast with the lack of attention to what happened to freedmen and women after emancipation. Some scholars compare the trajectories of Afro-Brazilians and immigrants in the state of São Paulo, but rarely study everyday relations between them. This article, based on police investigations and criminal trial records resulting from violent conflicts between Italians and blacks, complemented by census data, examines the tensions between these groups after abolition in the municipality of São Carlos, which was on the coffee frontier and attracted large numbers of immigrants. Italians and Afro-Brazilians often worked in the same occupations, leading to Italian fears of leveling with blacks, which were heightened by planter and police mistreatment of immigrants. Interactions leading to violence between the two groups and depositions of witnesses reveal acute symbolic conflicts. Afro-Brazilians insisted that they be treated with dignity and respect, refusing to humble themselves in interactions with Italians, but Italians demanded deference. The insults in these fights constituted classification struggles, in which each side tried to associate the other with negative characteristics. The demographic preponderance of immigrants, combined with collective rancor against blacks, favored group aggression by Italians against isolated black individuals.
    Malherbe, V. C. (Vertrees Canby)
  • Illegitimacy and Family Formation in Colonial Cape Town, to c. 1850
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    Subject Headings:
    • Illegitimacy -- South Africa -- Cape Town -- History.
    • Family -- South Africa -- Cape Town -- History.
    Abstract:
      In South Africa, as elsewhere, illegitimacy has been identified as an important focus of inquiry respecting the history of sexual behavior and family formation. Illegitimacy and prenuptial pregnancy increased significantly in Europe from the late 1700s until c. 1845. Cape Town was tied to Europe by the flow of immigrants, by incorporation in its trading networks, and by the modes of governance which were imported from the Netherlands and, after 1806, from Britain. Inevitably, there was some correspondence with respect to the incidence of, and the responses by church and state to out-of-wedlock births. Nevertheless, distinctive "patterns of family formation and sexuality" emerged from the complex demography and social relations which were particular to Cape Town from the point of European settlement, in 1652, to the immediate aftermath of slave emancipation in 1838. This article asks: what is the evidence for illegitimacy within relationships of concubinage and promiscuity? Do the records of cohabitation and out-of-wedlock births reveal trends over time? How did the law treat extra-marital reproduction, and what sanctions did the church apply? Finally, what conclusions respecting family formation in Cape Town, until the mid-1800s, does the evidence suggest?

Essay Review

    Foulkes, Julia L.
  • Social History and the Arts
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    Subject Headings:
    • Costabile-Heming, Carol Anne, ed. Berlin: the symphony continues: orchestrating architectural, social, and artistic change in Germany's new capital.
    • Halverson, Rachel J., 1961-, ed.
    • Foell, Kristie A., 1962-, ed.
    • Saab, A. Joan. For the millions: American art and culture between the wars.
    • Cole, Catherine M. Ghana's concert party theatre.
    • McCann, Bryan, 1968- Hello, hello Brazil: popular music in the making of modern Brazil.
    • Arts and society -- Germany -- Berlin -- History -- 20th century.
    • Art, American -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The arts have received relatively little attention from social historians and this review essay serves as a way to ponder that neglect and its ramifications. Surveying four recent books, whose topics range from roving theater groups in Ghana to the radio airwaves of Brazil, the visual arts of the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s in the U.S., and a collection of essays on contemporary Berlin, this article offers an opportunity to investigate the field—and suggests what social historians might add. The books reveal the embedded effects of the lessons of social history in current scholarship: the privileging of social forces over formal analysis of aesthetics; attention to the institutionalization of the arts; attempts to analyze audiences; and the grounding of theoretical concerns by adherence to evidence and the specifics of time and place. They also raise the specter of what is lost—the reduction of the arts to socially determined categories. Through a closer understanding of urbanization and local situations, social historians have the opportunity to detail a context for the arts which both specifies the underlying social forces and reveals the subtle transformations the arts can inspire.

Reviews

    Bender, Thomas.
  • Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mahoney, James, 1968-, ed. Comparative historical analysis in the social sciences.
    • Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, ed.
    • Social sciences -- Research -- Methodology.
    Donoghue, John.
  • The English Atlantic in an Age of Revolution, 1640-1661 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pestana, Carla Gardina. English Atlantic in an age of revolution, 1640-1661.
    • Great Britain -- Colonies -- America -- History -- 17th century.
    Zinsser, Judith P.
  • The Household and the Making of History: A Subversive View of the Western Past (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hartman, Mary S., 1941- Household and the making of history: a subversive view of the Western past.
    • Marriage -- History.
    Crowley, John E., 1943-
  • Europe at Home: Family and Material Culture, 1500-1800 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sarti, Raffaella, 1963- Europe at home: family and material culture, 1500-1800.
    • Cameron, Allan, tr.
    • Europe -- Social life and customs.
    Tinkler, Penny.
  • Gender, Justice and Welfare: Bad Girls in Britain, 1900-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cox, Pamela, 1970- Gender, justice, and welfare: bad girls in Britain, 1900-1950.
    • Female juvenile delinquents -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • The Island Race: Englishness, Empire and Gender in the Eighteenth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wilson, Kathleen. Island race: Englishness, empire, and gender in the eighteenth century.
    • England -- Civilization -- 18th century.
    Faure, David.
  • Private Life under Socialism, Love, Intimacy, and Family Change in a Chinese Village, 1949-1999 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Yan, Yunxiang, 1954- Private life under socialism: love, intimacy, and family change in a Chinese village, 1949-1999.
    • Family -- China -- Xiajia (Heilongjiang Sheng)
    Rawski, Evelyn Sakakida.
  • Disgraceful Matters: The Politics of Chastity in Eighteenth-Century China (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Theiss, Janet M., 1964- Disgraceful matters: the politics of chastity in eighteenth-century China.
    • Chastity.
    Matt, Susan J. (Susan Jipson), 1967-
  • Raising Consumers: Children and the American Mass Market in the Early Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jacobson, Lisa, 1962- Raising consumers: children and the American mass market in the early twentieth century.
    • Child consumers -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Nanton, Philip.
  • Consuming the Caribbean: From Arawaks to Zombies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sheller, Mimi. Consuming the Caribbean: from Arawaks to zombies.
    • Caribbean Area -- Commerce -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Wolcott, David B.
  • Pursuing Johns: Criminal Law Reform, Defending Character, and New York City's Committee of Fourteen, 1920-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mackey, Thomas C., 1956- Pursuing johns: criminal law reform, defending character, and New York City's Committee of Fourteen, 1920-1930.
    • Prostitution -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
    Walkowitz, Daniel J.
  • Minding the Machine: Languages of Class in Early Industrial America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rice, Stephen P. (Stephen Patrick), 1963- Minding the machine: languages of class in early industrial America.
    • Social classes -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Hall, Linda B. (Linda Biesele), 1939-
  • Deference and Defiance in Monterrey: Workers, Paternalism, and Revolution in Mexico, 1890-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Snodgrass, Michael. Deference and defiance in Monterrey: workers, paternalism, and revolution in Mexico, 1890-1950.
    • Industrial relations -- Mexico -- Monterrey -- History.
    Adams, Thomas McStay.
  • France in Crisis: Welfare, Inequality and Globalization since 1980 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Timothy B. (Timothy Beresford) France in crisis: welfare, inequality, and globalization since 1980.
    • France -- Social policy.
    Berkowitz, Edward D.
  • Health Security for All: Dreams of Universal Health Care in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Derickson, Alan. Health security for all: dreams of universal health care in America.
    • Right to health care -- United States -- History.
    Howell, Philip.
  • Venereal Disease Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul Wards," 1600-1800 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Siena, Kevin Patrick. Venereal disease, hospitals, and the urban poor; London's "foul wards," 1600-1800.
    • Sexually transmitted diseases -- England -- London -- History -- 17th century.
    Gollaher, David, 1949-
  • Madhouse: A Tragic Tale of Megalomania and Modern Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scull, Andrew T. Madhouse: a tragic tale of megalomania and modern medicine.
    • Cotton, Henry Aloysius -- Career in psychiatry.
    Stern, Mark J.
  • From Pity to Pride: Growing Up Deaf in the Old South (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Joyner, Hannah. From pity to pride: growing up deaf in the Old South.
    • Deaf -- Southern States -- History -- 19th century.
    Chavez-Garcia, Miroslava, 1968-
  • Whitewashed Adobe: The Rise of Los Angeles and the Remaking of its Mexican Past (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Deverell, William Francis. Whitewashed adobe: the rise of Los Angeles and the remaking of its Mexican past.
    • Mexican Americans -- California -- Los Angeles -- History.
    Knezevic, Jovana.
  • Vienna and the Fall of the Habsburg Empire: Total War and Everyday Life in World War I (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Healy, Maureen. Vienna and the fall of the Habsburg Empire: total war and everyday life in World War I.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Austria -- Vienna.
    Paoletti, John T.
  • Dressing Renaissance Florence: Families, Fortunes, and Fine Clothing (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Frick, Carole Collier. Dressing Renaissance Florence: families, fortunes, & fine clothing.
    • Clothing trade -- Italy -- Florence -- History -- To 1500.
    Hoffman, Steven J.
  • Building the South Side: Urban Space and Civic Culture in Chicago, 1890-1919 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bachin, Robin Faith. Building the South Side: urban space and civic culture in Chicago, 1890-1919.
    • Sociology, Urban -- Illinois -- Chicago.
    Shumway, David R.
  • Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harkins, Anthony. Hillbilly: a cultural history of an American icon.
    • Mountain people in popular culture -- United States.
    Strikwerda, Carl.
  • German Industry and Global Enterprise. BASF: The History of a Company (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Abelshauser, Werner, ed. German industry and global enterprise: BASF: the history of a company.
    • BASF Aktiengesellschaft -- History.
    Kelly, Timothy.
  • Catholics and Contraception: An American History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tentler, Leslie Woodcock. Catholics and contraception: an American history.
    • Birth control -- United States -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church.
    Dierks, Konstantin.
  • Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom: Revolution and Rebellion on a Virginia Plantation, and: Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Isaac, Rhys. Landon Carter's uneasy kingdom: revolution and rebellion on a Virginia plantation.
    • Waldstreicher, David. Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, slavery, and the American Revolution.
    • Carter, Landon, 1710-1778.
    • Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
    Paquette, Robert L., 1951-
  • Bitter Fruits of Bondage: The Demise of Slavery and the Collapse of the Confederacy, 1861-1865 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robinson, Armstead L. Bitter fruits of bondage: the demise of slavery and the collapse of the Confederacy, 1861-1865.
    • Slavery -- Confederate States of America.
    Amato, Joseph Anthony.
  • A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from their American Homeland (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Faragher, John Mack, 1945- Great and noble scheme: the tragic story of the expulsion of the French Acadians from their American Homeland.
    • Acadians -- Migrations -- History.
    Swiencicki, Mark.
  • Educating the Consumer-Citizen: A History of the Marriage of Schools, Advertising, and Media (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Spring, Joel H. Educating the consumer-citizen: a history of the marriage of schools, advertising, and media.
    • Consumer behavior -- United States -- History.

Index




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