AIDS (Disease) in children -- Political aspects -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
Political participation -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
Education and state -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
Queens (New York, N.Y.)
This article details a 1985 protest organized by black and white
parents in two Queens, New York School districts to fight the New York
City's Board of Education policy allowing children with AIDS to attend
public schools. I examine the Queens anti-AIDS protests to assess the
effectiveness of this cross-racial alliance as well as how it functioned in
relationship to the rise of political conservatism in the 1980s. I argue that
it is necessary to situate these community activists in a context not
over-determined by the bifurcated national politics of the period. By
revisiting this community-based movement of the 1980s and
understanding participants' motivations as well as those of the leadership,
we begin to see that this activism acquired its coherence not from
ideology, but from the specific circumstances that forced these activists to
confront AIDS. While many anti-AIDS and anti-gay activists used phases
like "family values," to differentiate themselves from people with AIDS,
particularly gay men, parents in Queens, both black and white, found a
shared enemy instead in the combined power of the municipal bureaucracy
and a remote scientific establishment, paving the way for a political
alliance that bridged an otherwise tense racial divide in New York City
Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas Ofensivas Nacional-Sindicalistas. Sección Femenina.
Physical education for women -- Spain -- History -- 20th century.
The Feminine Section of the Spanish Falange (Sección
Femenina de la FET - SF), founded in June 1934, was for almost four
decades the official women's organization of Franco's Spain, reaching in
its height a total of 680,000 members. Yet despite its impressive size and
diverse activities, the organization received little attention from historians.
A number of new works have been published recently which attempt to
redress the balance. This is achieved mainly through an in-depth
examination of the experiences of a small number of SF members at a
local level, and the relations of those members with the larger women's
population in their provinces. Yet an analysis looking at the formulation
and implementation of policy at a macro level is still missing. When issues
of policy were addressed at such a level in the past, this was done for the
most part through an examination of legislation and formal rhetoric. The
current paper will look at one such aspect of national policy, namely, the
promotion of physical education and competitive sport for women.
Like in the cases of Italian Fascism and German Nazism, the SF saw in
sport a tool for creating healthier future mothers and imposing on women
discipline and group consciousness. The policy in this field aimed to
expose the largest number of young girls and women to basic sporting
activities through compulsory classes of physical education (PE) within
schools, the youth movement, university and the work place. However, it
also created a space where pride, nurturing and even public exposure of
the female body were acceptable. The article looks at the struggle for the
institution of female sports carried against the wishes of most of the
Church hierarchy and of many educators and some parents; at the training
of PE instructors as young and attractive agents working in an often
hostile environment; and the way in which the SF capitalized on the
uniqueness of its policy in this field in order to highlight its distinctiveness
from other groups within the Francoist coalition.
Public Health Service Hospital at Carville, La. -- History -- 20th century.
Leprosy -- Patients -- Civil rights -- Louisiana -- Carville -- History -- 20th century.
Historians strongly associate the 1960s as marking the
beginnings of radical changes in patients' orientation toward their rights.
Yet the social and political context of the decades prior to the Second
World War distinctly shaped the patient experience in much the same
fashion that it gave form to the Civil Rights Movement. The patient
struggle for autonomy at the US Public Health Service Hospital in
Carville, Louisiana, in particular, must be located in the postwar period.
Against the backdrop of how the institution was organized and
administered from the 1920s to the 1930s, I focus in this paper on the
conflict between patients and hospital administrators over control of
institutional life in the 1950s. Their encounters exposed tension between
Carville as home and as hospital. Given this focus, the patient challenge
to the institutions, which reached a national audience, began to coalesce
around the home in general and the kitchen in particular, mirroring the
growing prominence of the political dimensions of suburban domesticity
as a powerful democratic ideal. At Carville, the private "surburban" home
represented freedom from the state.
Earthquakes -- Japan -- Psychological aspects -- History -- 19th century.
Prints, Japanese -- Japan -- Tokyo -- 19th century.
Catfishes in art.
Following the Ansei Edo Earthquake of 1855, Japanese print
makers produced hundreds of varieties of catfish picture prints (namazu-e). These prints afforded the common people of Edo (soon to
become Tokyo) an ideal vehicle for commenting on politics and society
under the cover of discussing the recent earthquake. Some were sharply
critical of the existing situation, and some adumbrated alternative political
and social visions. One of these visions was of "Japan" as a natural
community. Some prints portrayed the earthquake that shook Edo as
having shaken all of Japan, and others incorporated events of the recent
past into new narratives of world-renewal and change. The solar deity
Amaterasu, who played a prominent role in national ideology after 1868,
first came to widespread attention in Edo via these prints. In this and
other ways, the catfish picture prints helped lay the psychological
groundwork for the process of "making Japanese" that would begin in
earnest after 1868. Furthermore, owing to a coincidence in which 1855
and 1867 were both years of special religious significance, it is likely that
the folk memory of the Ansei Edo Earthquake helped condition popular
expectations of upheaval and change during the Tokugawa bakufu's final
Military pensions -- Florida -- Civil War, 1861-1865.
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Veterans -- Florida.
Public welfare -- Florida -- History.
Southern states used their Confederate pension programs for
several purposes. These state welfare programs served to bolster white
supremacy, support Democratic party hegemony, and reinforce
conservative gender roles. While male applicants for Confederate
pensions were expected to demonstrate their continued loyalty to the "lost
cause," female applicants were also examined for their sexual behavior.
The Confederate welfare systems were thus heavily gendered. Although
Southern whites embraced these welfare programs, they did not lead to
Southern support for a federal welfare system.
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Flags.
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Social aspects -- Southern States.
Political customs and rites -- Southern States -- History -- 19th century.
For a few months in 1861, hundreds of communities in the
flag presentation ceremonies to send their men off to war. These
ceremonies were attended by hundreds and sometimes thousands of white
Southerners, and narratives of the ceremonies circulated widely in
Southern newspapers. The ceremonies themselves consisted of a
several speeches by local notables and presentation of a flag made by
the elite women of the community. This article argues that flag
presentations resulted from a distinct lack of commitment among most
Southern men to the Confederacy early in the Civil War, and sees the
ceremonies as coercive rituals designed to force men into the army
before conscription solved the Confederacy's recruitment problem.
São Paulo (Brazil : State) -- Race relations -- History.
Ethnic conflict -- Brazil -- São Paulo (State) -- History.
Blacks -- Violence against -- Brazil -- São Paulo (State) -- History.
Italians -- Violence against -- Brazil -- São Paulo (State) -- History.
Recent advances in studies of Brazilian slavery and abolition
with the lack of attention to what happened to freedmen and women after
emancipation. Some scholars compare the trajectories of Afro-Brazilians
and immigrants in the state of São Paulo, but rarely study everyday
relations between them. This article, based on police investigations and
criminal trial records resulting from violent conflicts between Italians
and blacks, complemented by census data, examines the tensions between
these groups after abolition in the municipality of São Carlos, which
was on the coffee frontier and attracted large numbers of immigrants.
Italians and Afro-Brazilians often worked in the same occupations,
leading to Italian fears of leveling with blacks, which were heightened
by planter and police mistreatment of immigrants. Interactions leading
to violence between the two groups and depositions of witnesses reveal
acute symbolic conflicts. Afro-Brazilians insisted that they be treated
with dignity and respect, refusing to humble themselves in interactions
with Italians, but Italians demanded deference. The insults in these
fights constituted classification struggles, in which each side tried to
associate the other with negative characteristics.
preponderance of immigrants, combined with collective rancor against
blacks, favored group aggression by Italians against isolated black
Illegitimacy -- South Africa -- Cape Town -- History.
Family -- South Africa -- Cape Town -- History.
In South Africa, as elsewhere, illegitimacy has been identified as
an important focus of inquiry respecting the history of sexual behavior and
family formation. Illegitimacy and prenuptial pregnancy increased
significantly in Europe from the late 1700s until c. 1845. Cape Town was
tied to Europe by the flow of immigrants, by incorporation in its trading
networks, and by the modes of governance which were imported from the
Netherlands and, after 1806, from Britain. Inevitably, there was some
correspondence with respect to the incidence of, and the responses by
church and state to out-of-wedlock births. Nevertheless, distinctive
"patterns of family formation and sexuality" emerged from the complex
demography and social relations which were particular to Cape Town
from the point of European settlement, in 1652, to the immediate
aftermath of slave emancipation in 1838. This article asks:
what is the evidence for
illegitimacy within relationships of concubinage and promiscuity? Do the
records of cohabitation and out-of-wedlock births reveal trends over time?
How did the law treat extra-marital reproduction, and what sanctions did
the church apply? Finally, what conclusions respecting family formation
in Cape Town, until the mid-1800s, does the evidence suggest?
Costabile-Heming, Carol Anne, ed. Berlin: the symphony continues: orchestrating architectural, social, and artistic change in Germany's new capital.
Halverson, Rachel J., 1961-, ed.
Foell, Kristie A., 1962-, ed.
Saab, A. Joan. For the millions: American art and culture between the wars.
Cole, Catherine M. Ghana's concert party theatre.
McCann, Bryan, 1968- Hello, hello Brazil: popular music in the making of modern Brazil.
Arts and society -- Germany -- Berlin -- History -- 20th century.
Art, American -- 20th century.
The arts have received relatively little attention from social
historians and this review essay serves as a way to ponder that neglect and
its ramifications. Surveying four recent books, whose topics range from
roving theater groups in Ghana to the radio airwaves of Brazil, the visual
arts of the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s in the U.S., and a
collection of essays on contemporary Berlin, this article offers an
opportunity to investigate the field—and suggests what social historians
might add. The books reveal the embedded effects of the lessons of social
history in current scholarship: the privileging of social forces over formal
analysis of aesthetics; attention to the institutionalization of the arts;
attempts to analyze audiences; and the grounding of theoretical concerns
by adherence to evidence and the specifics of time and place. They also
raise the specter of what is lost—the reduction of the arts to socially
determined categories. Through a closer understanding of urbanization
and local situations, social historians have the opportunity to detail a
context for the arts which both specifies the underlying social forces and
reveals the subtle transformations the arts can inspire.
Tentler, Leslie Woodcock. Catholics and contraception: an American history.
Birth control -- United States -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church.
Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom: Revolution and Rebellion on a Virginia Plantation, and: Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Isaac, Rhys. Landon Carter's uneasy kingdom: revolution and rebellion on a Virginia plantation.
Waldstreicher, David. Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, slavery, and the American Revolution.