In Ancestors: The Loving Family in Old Europe, his thought
provoking essay on the premodern family, Stephen Ozment justifies dependence
on personal letters to document family dynamics, stating, "Particularly in
correspondence between family members, colleagues, friends, and lovers, where
clarity and truth have a premium and can be matters of life and death, 'live'
personal reactions to people, experiences, and events have been preserved as
reliably as can be done in historical sources." Precisely, however, because
the psychological and material stakes are
highest in dealing with such significant others, the costs of "clarity and
truth" may often be deemed too high by writers of personal letters. On the
basis of research in the correspondence of British immigrants to North America
in the nineteenth century, this essay accounts for the telling of untruths and
the maintenance of strategic silences through examining the real world of
situations and choices within which immigrants sought simultaneously to maintain
ties with family, kin and friends in their
homelands and to mislead those same parties about the circumstances of their
City and town life -- England -- London -- History -- 20th century.
Community life -- England -- London -- History -- 20th century.
Working class -- England -- London -- History -- 20th century.
Until the interwar period, the term "the East End" functioned
largely as a metaphor, symbolizing problems of urban poverty and crime.
The term had little meaning for the residents of the area, whose horizons
were limited to the immediate surroundings of street and neighborhood.
These surroundings provided a localized sense of community, and formed
the basis of working-class networks of reciprocity. The Jewish residents of
the East End were not part of these communities—they formed their own
localized communities that were also based on territory and exchange. In
the interwar period, however, a new community was created. Due to a
series of developments in work patterns, leisure, and politics, the horizons
of the East End's residents began to expand, to encompass the entire East
End. For the first time they began to see themselves as East Enders, a local
identity which included both the Jewish and non-Jewish populations
of the area.
Riots -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
Germans -- Great Britain -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
In May, 1915, a wave of anti-alien rioting spread through the
poorer neighborhoods of Liverpool, Manchester, London, and other English
cities, resulting in the most wide-spread civic unrest in modern British
history. The ostensible cause of the rioting was the sinking of the passenger
liner Lusitania on May 7, 1915 by a German U-boat hiding off the Irish
coast. This essay examines the riots in the context of neighborhood politics
and family life, focusing particularly on the impact of the riots on
interpersonal relations. While the German navy sank the Lusitania,
ordinary Britons ransacked, beat, and looted German neighbors who were
often long-time associates and friends. Unable to stem the riots though
police measures and legal action alone, the government responded to
popular hostility with the internment of enemy aliens and the repatriations
of large numbers of ethnic Germans. This paper draws on archival and
published materials to make sense of the local and interpersonal dimensions
of the Lusitania riots and to explore the emotional dimensions of civic
Naturalization -- England -- South Shields -- History.
Immigrants -- Social networks -- England -- South Shields -- History.
Applications for naturalization in late nineteenth-and early
twentieth-century Britain reveal the ways migrants and natives defined and
articulated British nationality. The demand that candidates produce
British-born referees made relations between these individuals and the state
contingent on prior relationships with neighbors, co-workers, and local
states, while it simultaneously drew native-born Britons into collusion with
this nation-building project. This evidence sheds light on migrants' social
networks: neighbors, friends, spouses, employers, business and religious
contacts, landlords, and the "customary practices" through which outsiders
became British. These stories show that naturalization was not simply an
objective, legal, and secular contract between an individual and the state,
but also a personal, subjective, and collective process in which native
Britons as well as migrants played decisive roles. British nationality formed
in asymmetrical dialogue between local and national, migrants and natives,
state and society.
Women in charitable work -- Ireland -- Dublin -- History -- 19th century.
This article is about an 1860 riot in a South Dublin workhouse,
when sixteen-year-old girls assaulted workhouse officials so violently they
could only be pacified by the police. When a Roman Catholic chaplain was
fired for defending the girls, he became a cause celebre for the Catholic
church. The church, together with lady reformers such as Louisa Twining,
attacked the cold machinery of the British state and envisioned new ways of
bringing up children. This incident reveals the tensions within
nineteenth-century liberal governmentality, to use Foucault's term, between
an idea of the individual as a subject of an institution, and an individual as a
self-governing subject. The state also relied on religious and female
philanthropists to supplement its disciplinary institutions, but these agents
could also use their participation to challenge the state. This tension was
particularly acute in Ireland, symptomatic of the problems of colonial
Gladstone, W. E. (William Ewart), 1809-1898 -- Family.
Brothers and sisters -- England -- History -- 19th century -- Case studies.
In the past few decades there has been a re-thinking about kinship
and family relations across several disciplines. Kinship relations are now
regarded more as active participation than static categories, always part of
the cultural context of period and place. The Western emphasis on vertical
relationships of parent and child has neglected the wider web of kinship,
especially relations among siblings. Historians are increasingly aware of the
greater saliency of wider kin in the 18th and 19th century shift to capitalist
economic development, especially in an era of large families. These general
issues are examined in the case of the upper middle class, Evangelical
Gladstone family, particularly William Ewart's relationships with his older
sister, Anne, and younger sister, Helen. Here the development of gender
identity and the effect of age and birth order are highlighted within the
intensely religious and moral culture of 19th century England.
Gifted persons -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
Intellectuals -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
Europe -- Intellectual life -- 19th century.
This article examines a cohort of intellectuals born between 1795
and 1820. Specifically, it offers a prosopographical account of the select
group of individuals who regarded themselves (and were regarded by at
least some others) as 'geniuses', who were destined to synthesize hitherto
irreconcilable oppositions, such as those between rationalism and
romanticism, or revolution and reaction.
I argue that the work that these
individuals eventually produced was deeply influenced by the household
mode of intellectual production within which they were enmeshed. In
particular, I show how the gendered social relations that they established
with their partners (both male and female) had a significant impact on the
character and quality of their work. Those who problematized these gender
relations produced oeuvres that were more nuanced and realistic, albeit
at the expense of their original syncretic aims. Those who did not, retained
the pristine purity of their synoptic vision, albeit at the expense of realism
Intelligence officers -- Recruiting -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
Intelligence officers -- Selection and appointment -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
In today's intelligence community, elaborate background checks
yield mounds of details about a prospect's life and history, but in the
formative years of British intelligence between 1909-1919, these
procedures were only just emerging. As with diplomatic personnel,
intelligence workers needed to be "known" entities, whose discretion and
background could be assured. This process of subjecting prospects to an
examination in order to separate likely candidates from unsuitable ones is
known today as "vetting." This paper explores the cultural practice of
vetting and the ways in which twentieth-century British intelligence not
only depended upon and exploited familial connections in order to gain
recommendations for personnel, but more importantly, used the notion of
family loyalty to shape the assumptions and realities of such intelligence
work. Certainly intelligence workers were not without considerable skills,
often in languages, yet other considerations such as class background,
family connections, gender, and nationality were the real filters used to vet
Through oral history, this essay explores the relationship among
home, family and place in the memories and life experiences of two women
who are part of the post-colonial British diaspora. Children at the time of
Pakistani independence in 1947, Josephine and Judy Beck grew up in an
English family in Baluchistan and the North West Frontier Province, where
their father worked as a police official. While still children, decolonization
transformed the sisters into "remnants of something." Middle-class
femininity and domesticity emerged as their primary identity, inflecting
other forms of belonging, including nationality. Each woman adapted
familiar aspects of her colonial childhood to an adult life in which personal
relationships and geographical mobility have remained central. Josephine
settled in a region of the American west that visually resembles Pakistan
while Judy has spent much of her life abroad in expatriate western
communities that socially resembled those of her youth.
Advertising -- Cigarettes -- Social aspects -- Egypt -- History -- 20th century.
The article explores advertisements as a source for historical
ethnography. It argues that ads serve this purpose well because they
preserve the cultural repertoire of their intended audiences. By means of
cigarette advertisements the article examines identity politics among a new,
"middle" (effendi) stratum in Egypt—the cultural understanding of the
effendiya is better tuned to inter-group distinctions and intra-group
contradictions than earlier, more rigid economic and political definitions of
an emerging middle-class. The analysis of contemporary smoking patterns
in ads further reveals the methodological benefits of studying their
In Egyptian culture the cigar was associated with elite and modern
consumption patterns, the water-pipe with a lower class and traditional
lifestyle, and the cigarette with the new group which was negotiating ways
to be modern but authentic/local at the same time. Advertisers used such
negotiations of binary oppositions to promote their cigarette brands to men;
in their ads, cigarette smoking retained the earlier social etiquette of the
water-pipe, while simultaneously being considered up-to-date and future
oriented. The conservative nature of the business led advertisers to treat
women's smoking as a "veiled" activity, to be taken in public only under the
tutelage of men. Because smoking was associated with adult power, youth
as a particular consumerist age was too contested to be openly promoted.
Educational change -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
Education, Higher -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
In March 1918, students at the National University of
Córdoba (UNC), Argentina, rebelled against the university system,
accusing professors of being authoritarian, inefficient, clerically
oriented, and obscurantist. Through strikes, rallies, petitions to the
national authorities, and the seizure of the UNC in September 1918,
the students successfully forced the national government to carry
out the University Reform, thus serving as an inspiration to
university students all over Argentina and Latin America. This is an
analysis of the collective self-representation of the reformists—the
young, male, and socially privileged students who participated in
the University Reform Movement. The essay examines the two
interrelated meanings of the reformist identity: that of a distinct
generation with a specific historical mission, and of a particular
masculinity that embodied the ideals of science, intellectualism,
morality, and heroism. The study of the reformists' agenda,
corporate organization, and collective action reveals the
simultaneity of student identity formation and student politics as
well as the way in which the reformist identity was instrumental to
the movement's political goals. Equally important, it demonstrates
how an identity constructed on ideals of a distinct masculinity and
generation was the product of complex relations of identification,
differentiation, and opposition that the reformists established with
workers, women, Catholic students, and especially, with their