Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 39, Number 2, Winter 2005
Kith and Kin: Interpersonal Relationships and Cultrual Practices
Guest Editors: Richard Ivan Jobs and Patrick McDevitt

CONTENTS

    Gerber, David A., 1944-
  • Acts of Deceiving and Withholding in Immigrant Letters: Personal Identity and Self-Presentation in Personal Correspondence
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    Subject Headings:
    • Immigrants -- Canada -- Correspondence.
    • Immigrants -- United States -- Correspondence.
    • Immigrants -- Canada -- Psychology.
    • Immigrants -- United States -- Psychology.
    Abstract:
      In Ancestors: The Loving Family in Old Europe, his thought provoking essay on the premodern family, Stephen Ozment justifies dependence on personal letters to document family dynamics, stating, "Particularly in correspondence between family members, colleagues, friends, and lovers, where clarity and truth have a premium and can be matters of life and death, 'live' personal reactions to people, experiences, and events have been preserved as reliably as can be done in historical sources." Precisely, however, because the psychological and material stakes are highest in dealing with such significant others, the costs of "clarity and truth" may often be deemed too high by writers of personal letters. On the basis of research in the correspondence of British immigrants to North America in the nineteenth century, this essay accounts for the telling of untruths and the maintenance of strategic silences through examining the real world of situations and choices within which immigrants sought simultaneously to maintain ties with family, kin and friends in their homelands and to mislead those same parties about the circumstances of their lives.
    Lammers, Benjamin J.
  • The Birth of the East Ender: Neighborhood and Local Identity in Interwar East London
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    Subject Headings:
    • East End (London, England)
    • City and town life -- England -- London -- History -- 20th century.
    • Community life -- England -- London -- History -- 20th century.
    • Working class -- England -- London -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Until the interwar period, the term "the East End" functioned largely as a metaphor, symbolizing problems of urban poverty and crime. The term had little meaning for the residents of the area, whose horizons were limited to the immediate surroundings of street and neighborhood. These surroundings provided a localized sense of community, and formed the basis of working-class networks of reciprocity. The Jewish residents of the East End were not part of these communities—they formed their own localized communities that were also based on territory and exchange. In the interwar period, however, a new community was created. Due to a series of developments in work patterns, leisure, and politics, the horizons of the East End's residents began to expand, to encompass the entire East End. For the first time they began to see themselves as East Enders, a local identity which included both the Jewish and non-Jewish populations of the area.
    Gullace, Nicoletta.
  • Friends, Aliens, and Enemies: Fictive Communities and the Lusitania Riots of 1915
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    Subject Headings:
    • Riots -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Germans -- Great Britain -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Lusitania (Steamship)
    Abstract:
      In May, 1915, a wave of anti-alien rioting spread through the poorer neighborhoods of Liverpool, Manchester, London, and other English cities, resulting in the most wide-spread civic unrest in modern British history. The ostensible cause of the rioting was the sinking of the passenger liner Lusitania on May 7, 1915 by a German U-boat hiding off the Irish coast. This essay examines the riots in the context of neighborhood politics and family life, focusing particularly on the impact of the riots on interpersonal relations. While the German navy sank the Lusitania, ordinary Britons ransacked, beat, and looted German neighbors who were often long-time associates and friends. Unable to stem the riots though police measures and legal action alone, the government responded to popular hostility with the internment of enemy aliens and the repatriations of large numbers of ethnic Germans. This paper draws on archival and published materials to make sense of the local and interpersonal dimensions of the Lusitania riots and to explore the emotional dimensions of civic expulsion.
    Tabili, Laura.
  • "Having Lived Close Beside Them All the Time": Negotiating National Identities Through Personal Networks
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    Subject Headings:
    • Naturalization -- England -- South Shields -- History.
    • Immigrants -- Social networks -- England -- South Shields -- History.
    Abstract:
      Applications for naturalization in late nineteenth-and early twentieth-century Britain reveal the ways migrants and natives defined and articulated British nationality. The demand that candidates produce British-born referees made relations between these individuals and the state contingent on prior relationships with neighbors, co-workers, and local states, while it simultaneously drew native-born Britons into collusion with this nation-building project. This evidence sheds light on migrants' social networks: neighbors, friends, spouses, employers, business and religious contacts, landlords, and the "customary practices" through which outsiders became British. These stories show that naturalization was not simply an objective, legal, and secular contract between an individual and the state, but also a personal, subjective, and collective process in which native Britons as well as migrants played decisive roles. British nationality formed in asymmetrical dialogue between local and national, migrants and natives, state and society.
    Clark, Anna.
  • Wild Workhouse Girls and the Liberal Imperial State in Mid-Nineteenth Century Ireland
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    Subject Headings:
    • Workhouses -- Ireland -- Dublin -- History -- 19th century.
    • Teenage girls -- Ireland -- Dublin -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    • Women in charitable work -- Ireland -- Dublin -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This article is about an 1860 riot in a South Dublin workhouse, when sixteen-year-old girls assaulted workhouse officials so violently they could only be pacified by the police. When a Roman Catholic chaplain was fired for defending the girls, he became a cause celebre for the Catholic church. The church, together with lady reformers such as Louisa Twining, attacked the cold machinery of the British state and envisioned new ways of bringing up children. This incident reveals the tensions within nineteenth-century liberal governmentality, to use Foucault's term, between an idea of the individual as a subject of an institution, and an individual as a self-governing subject. The state also relied on religious and female philanthropists to supplement its disciplinary institutions, but these agents could also use their participation to challenge the state. This tension was particularly acute in Ireland, symptomatic of the problems of colonial modernity.
    Davidoff, Leonore.
  • Kinship as a Categorical Concept: A Case Study of Nineteenth Century English Siblings
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gladstone, W. E. (William Ewart), 1809-1898 -- Family.
    • Brothers and sisters -- England -- History -- 19th century -- Case studies.
    Abstract:
      In the past few decades there has been a re-thinking about kinship and family relations across several disciplines. Kinship relations are now regarded more as active participation than static categories, always part of the cultural context of period and place. The Western emphasis on vertical relationships of parent and child has neglected the wider web of kinship, especially relations among siblings. Historians are increasingly aware of the greater saliency of wider kin in the 18th and 19th century shift to capitalist economic development, especially in an era of large families. These general issues are examined in the case of the upper middle class, Evangelical Gladstone family, particularly William Ewart's relationships with his older sister, Anne, and younger sister, Helen. Here the development of gender identity and the effect of age and birth order are highlighted within the intensely religious and moral culture of 19th century England.
    Koditschek, Theodore.
  • 'Genius' and the Household Mode of Intellectual Production: 1795-1885
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gifted persons -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
    • Intellectuals -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
    • Europe -- Intellectual life -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This article examines a cohort of intellectuals born between 1795 and 1820. Specifically, it offers a prosopographical account of the select group of individuals who regarded themselves (and were regarded by at least some others) as 'geniuses', who were destined to synthesize hitherto irreconcilable oppositions, such as those between rationalism and romanticism, or revolution and reaction. I argue that the work that these individuals eventually produced was deeply influenced by the household mode of intellectual production within which they were enmeshed. In particular, I show how the gendered social relations that they established with their partners (both male and female) had a significant impact on the character and quality of their work. Those who problematized these gender relations produced oeuvres that were more nuanced and realistic, albeit at the expense of their original syncretic aims. Those who did not, retained the pristine purity of their synoptic vision, albeit at the expense of realism and nuance.
    Proctor, Tammy M., 1968-
  • Family Ties in the Making of Modern Intelligence
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    Subject Headings:
    • Intelligence officers -- Recruiting -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Intelligence officers -- Selection and appointment -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      In today's intelligence community, elaborate background checks yield mounds of details about a prospect's life and history, but in the formative years of British intelligence between 1909-1919, these procedures were only just emerging. As with diplomatic personnel, intelligence workers needed to be "known" entities, whose discretion and background could be assured. This process of subjecting prospects to an examination in order to separate likely candidates from unsuitable ones is known today as "vetting." This paper explores the cultural practice of vetting and the ways in which twentieth-century British intelligence not only depended upon and exploited familial connections in order to gain recommendations for personnel, but more importantly, used the notion of family loyalty to shape the assumptions and realities of such intelligence work. Certainly intelligence workers were not without considerable skills, often in languages, yet other considerations such as class background, family connections, gender, and nationality were the real filters used to vet personnel.
    Formes, Malia.
  • Post-Colonial Domesticity amid Diaspora: Home and Family in the Lives of Two English Sisters from India
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    Subject Headings:
    • British -- Pakistan -- Biography.
    • Field, Judy Beck, 1943-
    • Beckel, Josephine Beck, 1938-
    Abstract:
      Through oral history, this essay explores the relationship among home, family and place in the memories and life experiences of two women who are part of the post-colonial British diaspora. Children at the time of Pakistani independence in 1947, Josephine and Judy Beck grew up in an English family in Baluchistan and the North West Frontier Province, where their father worked as a police official. While still children, decolonization transformed the sisters into "remnants of something." Middle-class femininity and domesticity emerged as their primary identity, inflecting other forms of belonging, including nationality. Each woman adapted familiar aspects of her colonial childhood to an adult life in which personal relationships and geographical mobility have remained central. Josephine settled in a region of the American west that visually resembles Pakistan while Judy has spent much of her life abroad in expatriate western communities that socially resembled those of her youth.
    Shechter, Relli.
  • Reading Advertisements in a Colonial/Development Context: Cigarette Advertising and Identity Politics in Egypt, c1919-1939
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    Subject Headings:
    • Advertising -- Cigarettes -- Social aspects -- Egypt -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The article explores advertisements as a source for historical ethnography. It argues that ads serve this purpose well because they preserve the cultural repertoire of their intended audiences. By means of cigarette advertisements the article examines identity politics among a new, "middle" (effendi) stratum in Egypt—the cultural understanding of the effendiya is better tuned to inter-group distinctions and intra-group contradictions than earlier, more rigid economic and political definitions of an emerging middle-class. The analysis of contemporary smoking patterns in ads further reveals the methodological benefits of studying their "contextualized" meaning.

      In Egyptian culture the cigar was associated with elite and modern consumption patterns, the water-pipe with a lower class and traditional lifestyle, and the cigarette with the new group which was negotiating ways to be modern but authentic/local at the same time. Advertisers used such negotiations of binary oppositions to promote their cigarette brands to men; in their ads, cigarette smoking retained the earlier social etiquette of the water-pipe, while simultaneously being considered up-to-date and future oriented. The conservative nature of the business led advertisers to treat women's smoking as a "veiled" activity, to be taken in public only under the tutelage of men. Because smoking was associated with adult power, youth as a particular consumerist age was too contested to be openly promoted.

    Milanesio, Natalia.
  • Gender and Generation: The University Reform Movement in Argentina, 1918
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    Subject Headings:
    • Educational change -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
    • Education, Higher -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      In March 1918, students at the National University of Córdoba (UNC), Argentina, rebelled against the university system, accusing professors of being authoritarian, inefficient, clerically oriented, and obscurantist. Through strikes, rallies, petitions to the national authorities, and the seizure of the UNC in September 1918, the students successfully forced the national government to carry out the University Reform, thus serving as an inspiration to university students all over Argentina and Latin America. This is an analysis of the collective self-representation of the reformists—the young, male, and socially privileged students who participated in the University Reform Movement. The essay examines the two interrelated meanings of the reformist identity: that of a distinct generation with a specific historical mission, and of a particular masculinity that embodied the ideals of science, intellectualism, morality, and heroism. The study of the reformists' agenda, corporate organization, and collective action reveals the simultaneity of student identity formation and student politics as well as the way in which the reformist identity was instrumental to the movement's political goals. Equally important, it demonstrates how an identity constructed on ideals of a distinct masculinity and generation was the product of complex relations of identification, differentiation, and opposition that the reformists established with workers, women, Catholic students, and especially, with their professors.
    Nesvig, Martin Austin, 1968-
  • Recent Work on Early Western Mexico and the Revival of the Black Legend
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    Subject Headings:
    • León Alanís, Ricardo, 1966- Orígenes del clero y la Iglesia en Michoacán, 1525-1640.
    • Carrillo Cázares, Alberto. Vasco de Quiroga: la pasión por el derecho.
    • Verástique, Bernardino. Michoacán and Eden: Vasco de Quiroga and the evangelization of western Mexico.
    • Krippner-Martínez, James, 1962- Rereading the conquest: power, politics, and the history of early colonial Michoacán, 1521-1565.
    • Catholic Church -- Mexico -- Michoacán de Ocampo -- History.
    • Quiroga, Vasco de, 1470-1565 -- Trials, litigation, etc.

Reviews

    Falck, Zachary J. S.
  • A Time to Every Purpose: The Four Seasons in American Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kammen, Michael G. Time to every purpose: the four seasons in American culture.
    • United States -- Civilization.
    Herzig, Rebecca M., 1971-
  • The Body Electric: How Strange Machines Built the Modern American (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peña, Carolyn Thomas de la. Body electric: how strange machines built the modern American.
    • Quacks and quackery -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Reynard, Pierre-Claude.
  • The Light-Green Society: Ecology and Technological Modernity in France, 1960-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bess, Michael. Light-green society: ecology and technological modernity in France, 1960-2000.
    • Environmentalism -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    Neiberg, Michael S.
  • The British Working Class and Enthusiasm for War, 1914-1916 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Silbey, David. British working class and enthusiasm for war, 1914-1916.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Great Britain.
    St. Jean, Wendy.
  • Okfuskee: A Creek Indian Town in Colonial America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Piker, Joshua Aaron. Okfuskee: a Creek Indian town in colonial America.
    • Creek Indians -- Alabama -- Oakfuskee -- History -- 18th century.
    Krech, Shepard, 1944-
  • Shades of Hiawatha: Staging Indians, Making Americans, 1880-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Trachtenberg, Alan. Shades of Hiawatha: staging Indians, making Americans, 1880-1930.
    • Indians of North America -- Public opinion.
    Lane, Roger, 1934-
  • Hoodlums: Black Villains and Social Bandits in American Life (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Van Deburg, William L. Hoodlums: Black villains and social bandits in American life.
    • African American criminals -- History.
    Mandle, Jay R.
  • Black Life on the Mississippi: Slaves, Free Blacks and the Western Steamboat World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Buchanan, Thomas C., 1967- Black life on the Mississippi: slaves, free Blacks and the western steamboat world.
    • African Americans -- Mississippi River Valley -- History -- 19th century.
    Vandal, Gilles.
  • The Making of a Lynching Culture: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836-1916 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Carrigan, William D., 1970- Making of a lynching culture: violence and vigilantism in central Texas, 1836-1916.
    • Mobs -- Texas -- History -- 19th century.
    French, Scot.
  • Foul Means: The Formation of a Slave Society in Virginia, 1660-1740 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Parent, Anthony S. Foul means: the formation of a slave society in Virginia, 1660-1740.
    • Slavery -- Virginia -- History -- 17th century.
    Miltenberger, Scott.
  • In the Shadow of Slavery: African-Americans in New York City, 1625-1863 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harris, Leslie M. In the shadow of slavery: African-Americans in New York City, 1625-1863.
    • African Americans -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
    Amato, Joe, 1955-
  • A Shifting Shore: Locals, Outsiders, and the Transformation of a French Fishing Town (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Garner, Alice, 1969- Shifting shore: locals, outsiders, and the transformation of a French fishing town.
    • Arcachon (France) -- History -- 19th century.
    Lees, Andrew, 1940-
  • Young People and the European City: Age Relations in Nottingham and Saint-Etienne, 1890-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pomfret, David M., 1973- Young people and the European city: age relations in Nottingham and Saint-Etienne, 1890-1940.
    • City and town life -- England -- Nottingham -- History.
    Cross, Gary S.
  • Boardwalk of Dreams: Atlantic City and the Fate of Urban America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Simon, Bryant. Boardwalk of dreams: Atlantic City and the fate of urban America.
    • Atlantic City (N.J.) -- History.
    Winling, LaDale C.
  • Downtown America: A History of the Place and the People Who Made It (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Isenberg, Alison. Downtown America: a history of the place and the people who made it.
    • Cities and towns -- United States -- History.
    Turner, Katherine Leonard.
  • Standard of Living: The Measure of the Middle Class in Modern America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moskowitz, Marina, 1968- Standard of living: the measure of the middle class in modern America.
    • Middle class -- United States -- History.
    Spellman, Susan V.
  • Boosters, Hustlers, and Speculators: Entrepreneurial Culture and the Rise of Minneapolis and St. Paul, 1849-1883 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wills, Jocelyn, 1960- Boosters, hustlers, and speculators: entrepreneurial culture and the rise of Minneapolis and St. Paul, 1849-1883.
    • Industrialization -- Minnesota -- Minneapolis -- History -- 19th century.
    Byrne, Frank J.
  • The Origins of the Southern Middle Class, 1800-1861 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wells, Jonathan Daniel, 1969- Origins of the southern middle class, 1800-1861.
    • Middle class -- Southern States -- History -- 19th century.
    Lanier, Gabrielle M.
  • The Planting of New Virginia: Settlement and Landscape in the Shenandoah Valley (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hofstra, Warren R., 1947- Planting of New Virginia: settlement and landscape in the Shenandoah Valley.
    • Shenandoah River Valley (Va. and W. Va.) -- Historical geography.
    Clements, Barbara Evans, 1945-
  • Sexual Revolution in Bolshevik Russia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Carleton, Gregory. Sexual revolution in Bolshevik Russia.
    • Sex customs -- Soviet Union -- History.
    Banner, Lois W.
  • The Spectacular Modern Woman: Feminine Visibility in the 1920s (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conor, Liz, 1966- Spectacular modern woman: feminine visibility in the 1920s.
    • Mass media and women -- History -- 20th century.
    Baily, Samuel L.
  • Women, Gender, and Transnational Lives: Italian Workers of the World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gabaccia, Donna R., 1949-, ed. Women, gender, and transnational lives: Italian workers of the world.
    • Iacovetta, Franca, 1957-, ed.
    • Women -- Employment -- Italy -- History.
    Back, Adina.
  • The Politics of Public Housing: Black Women's Struggles Against Urban Inequality (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Williams, Rhonda Y. Politics of public housing: Black women's struggles against urban inequality.
    • Poor women -- Maryland -- Baltimore.
    Mapes, Kathleen.
  • All We Know Was to Farm: Rural Women in the Upcountry South, 1919-1941 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walker, Melissa, 1962- All we know was to farm: rural women in the upcountry South, 1919-1941.
    • Women farmers -- Appalachian Region.
    Stein, Sarah Abrevaya.
  • Reading Jewish Women: Marginality and Modernization in Nineteenth-Century Eastern European Jewish Society (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Parush, Iris. Reading Jewish women: marginality and modernization in nineteenth-century Eastern European Jewish society.
    • Sternberg, Saadya, tr.
    • Jewish women -- Books and reading -- Europe, Eastern -- History -- 19th century.
    Zumoff, J. A.
  • The Secret of the Hardy Boys: Leslie McFarlane and the Stratemeyer Syndicate (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Greenwald, Marilyn S. Secret of the Hardy boys: Leslie McFarlane and the Stratemeyer Syndicate.
    • McFarlane, Leslie, 1902-
    LoPatin, Nancy D.
  • British Friendly Societies, 1750-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cordery, Simon, 1960- British friendly societies, 1750-1914.
    • Friendly societies -- Great Britain -- History.
    Misner, Paul.
  • The War against Catholicism: Liberalism and the Anti-Catholic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gross, Michael B., 1961- War against Catholicism: liberalism and the anti-Catholic imagination in nineteenth-century Germany.
    • Kulturkampf -- Germany.



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