Cheerfulness -- Social aspects -- United States -- History.
Social psychology -- United States -- History.
Industrial management -- United States -- Psychological aspects -- History.
National characteristics, American.
This paper attempts to outline the social history of cheerfulness using the constructivist perspective on emotions. The role of cheerfulness in American society grew in relation to modern ideological frameworks and various economic and social factors. Embraced by the middle class since the eighteenth century for reasons of social identity and philosophical outlook, cheerfulness became a national emotional standard perceived by outsiders of the culture as part of the American character. It was fostered by a tradition of optimism, self-reliance and self-centeredness. Being socially and individually beneficial, it was cultivated in the Victorian family. In the industrial age, cheerfulness was found to be economically productive and was administered in the workplace by the managerial leadership. The lower classes engaged in it through the job market and other social pressures. Cheerfulness escalated in business and corporate culture with competition. Thus, it proved to be the most useful of emotions in an increasingly rational culture and was individually sought and socially encouraged until it became the emotional highlight of the American social landscape. In late capitalism cheerfulness has been commodified, commercialized and recycled by media, possibly with some repercussions on depression.
Body, Human -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 18th century.
Body, Human -- Social aspects -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
Group identity -- United States -- History -- 18th century.
Group identity -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
In eighteenth-century Britain and North America, newspaper advertisements were the primary means of publishing accounts of troublesome people and requesting further information about them. Army deserters and runaway convicts, slaves, servants, apprentices or husbands, are all described in great detail through this culture of advertisement. Knowledge of the bodies of social subordinates therefore was an essential means of controlling them, and through print culture, this private knowledge became public. Bodies of ordinary people were revealed to a wider audience by those who knew them, and were made available for public consumption. These descriptions also demonstrate different cultures of self-presentation, the ways men and women decorated their bodies, and, through marks and clothing, sustained their identities. This study compares American and English newspapers, the contrasting languages of description, particularly of color, and the different ways that intimate knowledge of the body was made public. The advertisements show that while eighteenth-century bodies were often marked by hardship, accident and corporal punishment, they were also decorated by words and symbols expressing pride and defiance. Only at the end of the eighteenth century was this culture of advertisement replaced by official processes of inspection and description of bodies of the poor and the deviant.
Katz, Michael B., 1939-
Stern, Mark J.
Fader, Jamie J.
Women -- United States -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
Women -- United States -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
Sex discrimination against women -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
This article uses the history of women in twentieth-century United States to explore the paradox of inequality in American history: the coexistence of durable inequality with immense individual and group mobility. Using census data, the article traces inequality along four dimensions: participation, distribution, rewards, and differentiation. Differentiation, the article argues, resolves the paradox of inequality by showing how mobility reinforces rather than challenges existing social structures. The analysis highlights differences in women's experiences by cohort and race and emphasizes the role of education, technological change, and, especially, government's impact on labor markets. The article concludes by evaluating and extending Charles Tilly's theory of durable inequality in light of the trends in women's experience.
Poor blacks -- England -- London -- Social conditions -- 18th century.
Citizenship -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
Great Britain -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy -- History -- 18th century.
London (England) -- Race relations -- History -- 18th century.
This article assesses the strengths and weaknesses of Linda Colley's thesis about the formation of British identity, using the public response to black war veterans as a case study. Colley's contention that behavior, not birthplace or bloodline, was enough to qualify a person as "British" is in keeping with recent scholarly interpretations of Enlightenment theories of human difference, which were xenophobic or ethnocentric, but not racist in the modern sense. Responses to the significantly named "Black Poor" of the late 1780s, however, demonstrate that color-coded thinking could play an important role in shaping philanthropic and government responses to poverty in London. Jonas Hanway, who was best known as an advocate of charities to foster Britain's "nursery of seamen," led an effort to name, register, and remove the "Black Poor"—despite the fact that about half of these individuals had sea experience. In response, black sailors such as Joseph Johnson sought to articulate a different definition of Britishness, exploiting the ambiguity of the term. Johnson's successful career as a street entertainer who sang patriotic war songs with a model ship bound to his head illustrates the possibilities of a social history of citizenship "from the bottom up."
Trials -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee -- History -- 20th century.
Birth control -- Law and legislation -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee -- History -- 20th century.
American Birth Control League -- History -- 20th century.
Birth control -- Moral and ethical aspects -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee -- History -- 20th century.
This essay concerns a woman by the name of Adele Gordon. Adele Gordon was a nurse who, during the 1930s, operated a commercially-sponsored birth control clinic in the city of Milwaukee and who, in 1935; was arrested and tried for precisely these activities. However, while her story is the guiding theme of this narrative, her life (as well as the lessons to be learned from the history of medicine) invites us to consider the larger world in which her work took place, in particular the early days of the birth control clinic movement. Indeed, what this essay asks us to imagine is the presence of what I call the Irregular birth control clinic movement, a movement of clinics which continued to embody the supposedly lost radicalism of Margaret Sanger in the teens. And this Irregular clinic movement, in turn, invites us to re-think the efforts of the American Birth Control League in its quest for professionalization and the backing of the American Medical Association. Hence Nurse Gordon's story is an important one in part, because she is an intriguing individual who embodied an uncommon sense of modesty and determination, dignity and pride. But also because Nurse Gordon offers us a new way to tell the story of twentieth-century birth control, encouraging us to appreciate the breadth of the birth control clinic movement, the malleability of the birth control institution, and the American Birth Control League's efforts to contain them both.
Day care centers -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Working mothers -- Services for -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Wage-earning mothers of the Progressive-era United States shared a very pressing concern: securing care for their young children during their working hours. While many relied upon relatives or friends, others turned to day nurseries, institutions created by reform-minded women to address changing family needs in the industrial cities of the United States. National in scope, with particular focus on several municipal day nursery associations and individual nurseries, this study investigates how these early day care centers were shaped by the women whose lives intersected there: the managers who founded the nurseries, the matrons hired to run them, and the mothers who sought their services. Women at various levels of the day nursery movement approached this reform work from different perspectives, as some of the local managers and matrons fashioned policies that responded to the needs of actual wage-earning mothers rather than the dictates of the national day nursery and charity establishments And wage-earning mothers, despite the vulnerability that came with their precarious economic situations, sometimes found ways to assert their rights as parents and their aspirations for their families.
United States. Federal Board for Vocational Education -- History -- 20th century.
National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers -- History -- 20th century.
World War, 1914-1918 -- Veterans -- New York (State) -- New York.
Disabled veterans -- Vocational rehabilitation -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
As a group, the disabled veterans of the First World War made unique demands upon the United States government. Veterans and policymakers alike believed that wounded soldiers were especially entitled to public assistance and, for the first time in United States history, expected those disabled by the war to contribute their labor power to the postwar economy. While veterans and public officials agreed that disabled soldiers could become economically self-sufficient after completing courses in vocational reeducation, federal policy was vague about whether veterans would be allowed to select their path of vocational rehabilitation. Using the New York City district of the Federal Board for Vocational Education (FBVE) as a case study, this article analyzes discrepancies between veteran and official visions of educational entitlement. In the process, the article illuminates the nation's conflicting commitments to democracy and social efficiency in the Progressive era. While the disabled veterans of WWI were often disappointed by the manner in which the U.S. government responded to their demands, their postwar activism foreshadowed the platform of the modern disability rights movement and contributed to the development of the GI Bill.
"Long Live Liberty, Equality, Fraternity and Dynamite:" The German Bourgeoisie and the Constructing of Popular Liberal and National-Socialist Subculture in Marginal Germany [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Middle class -- Germany -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
Liberalism -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
National socialism -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Political culture -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Germany -- Politics and government -- 1918-1933.
It is well known that in most regions which were the strongholds of German Liberalism in the decade before 1914 the Nazi Party won massive support from the late 1920s. The article would like to add another dimension to the many explanations which have been offered in recent decades for the Nazi success. It seeks to exonerate the provincial-bourgeois- Liberals from the accusation of being proto-fascists or völkisch-nationalists, and explain the dual nature of German Liberalism and National Socialism before 1933. In order to do this, the article examines neglected radical-bourgeois elements in some southern German regions which were strongholds of National-Socialism in the late 1920s and early 1930s, and draw attention to the continuity and similarity between Liberal radicalism within the bourgeois Liberal organisations of the second half of the 19th and early 20th century and National Socialism before 1933.
Children -- Books and reading -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
This article examines the evolution of American child-rearing practices through the lens of the famous Curious George children's stories. As the title suggests, in contrast to the Victoria era, in which children were seen as hardy and resilient, parents in the post-World War II period began to view their children as fragile and besieged by threats. Because of the unusual background of its authors, the Curious George series offers an intriguing window into this transformation in American child-rearing practices. The early Curious George books are madcap adventures, reflecting the Victorian sensibility, but, as the series progressed, the pediatric-educational complex in Dr. Spock's America exerted pressure on the authors to write instructive, cautionary tales. The shift in George's character, from adventurous and bold to frightened and meek, mirrors the transformation in American child-rearing practices during the twentieth century.
Nicolaides, Becky M. My blue heaven: life and politics in the working-class suburbs of Los Angeles, 1920-1965.
Self, Robert O., 1968- American Babylon: race and the struggle for postwar Oakland.
Sides, Josh. L.A. city limits: African Americans in Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the present.
Wiese, Andrew. Places of their own: African American suburbanization in the twentieth century.
Working class -- California -- South Gate.
Oakland Region (Calif.) -- Race relations.
Despite the increased demographic diversity of U.S. suburbs and the long history of working-class and nonwhite suburbanization, both scholarly and popular assessments tend to perpetuate the stereotype of these suburban places as being homogeneous white-collar enclaves, numbingly similar in form and function. Urban and social historians have enriched popular understanding of the development of suburbs, but suburban variegation has been less explored. Four new monographs complicate common presumptions about city and suburb and move the field of U.S. urban—and suburban—history in exciting new directions. This essay reviews Becky Nicolaides' My Blue Heaven (2002), Robert Self's American Babylon (2003), Josh Sides' L.A. City Limits (2004), and Andrew Wiese's Places of their Own (2004), assessing their contributions to the literature and their broader implications upon scholarly and popular understandings of city and suburb.