Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 38, Number 4, Summer 2005
Special Issue: Globalization and Childhood

CONTENTS

    Grew, Raymond.
  • On Seeking Global History's Inner Child
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    Subject Headings:
    • History -- Philosophy.
    • History -- Methodology.
    • Children -- History.
    Abstract:
      Starting with distinctions between global history and globalization and between the history of childhood and the history of children, this essay suggests some approaches to the global history of childhood. It calls for exploring the common circumstances of childhood; the dissemination of practices, norms, and customs affecting children; the impact on children of webs of connections across nations and continents; and the cultural encounters that result. By doing this, students of childhood in any place or time can establish frameworks through which to recognize and address important aspects of global history and theories of global change.
    Kuznesof, Elizabeth Anne.
  • The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century
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    Subject Headings:
    • Street children -- Latin America -- Social conditions.
    • Street children -- Latin America -- Economic conditions.
    • Kinship -- Latin America.
    Abstract:
      Globalization has produced a common vision of the experience of childhood, a kind of global "morality." However, this "global notion" fails to coincide with the experience of childhood in Latin America. In Latin America family and kinship have served as critical institutions for social stability. Perhaps the starkest example of the impact of globalization on children in Latin America is the growing number of so-called street children. While the nuclear family is widely seen as ideal, it is not prevalent. Latin American families which are often extended and matrifocal often appear in the media or popular literature as being "deviant" or "in crisis." Neoliberal reforms restrict social programs that support education, welfare, housing, and medical care. Nevertheless, children still utilize kinship and family relations in creative and adaptive ways. Structures of dependence and reciprocity sustain children in the wake of economic crisis, marital strife, and parental death or disappearance. Parents also depend upon children. The majority of "street children" are working in the street to bring resources to their families. Globalization has limited the ability of popular families in Latin America to participate in the formal society and economy; what it has not done is to destroy the family.
    Cross, Gary.
    Smits, Gregory, 1960-
  • Japan, the U.S. and the Globalization of Children's Consumer Culture
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    Subject Headings:
    • Toy industry -- Social aspects -- History.
    • Consumption (Economics) -- Social aspects.
    • Popular culture -- American influences.
    • Popular culture -- Japanese influences.
    Abstract:
      This essay explores the linkage between modern children's consumer culture and the globalization of the design and manufacture of playthings. While toy production and innovation were centered in Germany from the 17th through 19th centuries, it shifted to the U.S. and Japan, recently to China in the 20th century. The authors chronicle why the U.S. and Japan drifted from production to product design and marketing and how China became the locus of manufacturing in the last 20 years. Playthings have long roots in local folk cultures and crafts, and regional and national traditions of toy and doll making have long reinforced ethnic and local identities in children. But the construction of modern childhood over the past century especially has paralleled the decline of these craft traditions and the emergence of a global children's commercial culture.
    Cole, Jennifer, 1966-
  • The Jaombilo of Tamatave (Madagascar), 1992-2004: Reflections on Youth and Globalization
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    Subject Headings:
    • Man-woman relationships -- Social aspects -- Madagascar -- Tamatave.
    • Youth -- Madagascar -- Tamatave -- Social life and customs.
    Abstract:
      In Madagascar, the cultural and economic changes that have accompanied economic liberalization have also seen the emergence of the jaombilo, a young man supported by the money that a woman earns from sex work. In this article, I explore the structural forces that have contributed to the emergence of the jaombilo as well as the more subjective process through which young men become jaombilo. I argue that the category of the jaombilo emerged because of the particular ways in which global economic change articulates with local conceptions of youth, gender and economy. I further suggest that the case of the jaombilo challenges the assumption that youth is a normative phase on the way to adulthood. Instead, I argue that for young men in Madagascar, youth is a phase that they cannot escape. Much as savages were figured as "children" in the 19th century evolutionary discourse, many contemporary Malagasy young men have become perpetual youth, and perpetually poor, thereby challenging normative models of human development that emerged in the context of modernity.
    Lukose, Ritty.
  • Consuming Globalization: Youth and Gender in Kerala, India
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    Subject Headings:
    • Youth -- India -- Kerala -- Attitudes.
    • Consumption (Economics) -- India -- Kerala.
    • India -- Civilization -- 1947-
    Abstract:
      This article examines how new, globally-inflected patterns of consumption among young people in the state of Kerala, India are configured in relation to a specifically postcolonial cultural politics of gender, class, and caste, rooted in the colonialist and nationalist projects. Rather than focus on the presence or absence of agency and/or resistance within consuming practices, the article elucidates the cultural-political terrain into which consumption as an objectified field of practice is inserted. By paying attention to this terrain, it becomes possible to examine the contradictions of consumption for young women and men who are both objects of commoditization and subjects of consumption. The article locates consumption within larger discursive domains, at both the national and regional level, which contest the meaning of globalization in ways that produce and circulate highly gendered constructions of consumer agency. Drawing on ethnographic material on gender, youth, and consumption in Kerala, the article traces the intersecting gender, class, and caste terrain that underlies this field of consumption. Negotiating the space of consumption under new conditions of globalization entails traversing a gendered terrain of masculinities and femininities in ways that reveal the link among youth, consumption, and globalization to be a fraught and contradictory.
    Fass, Paula S.
  • Children in Global Migrations
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    Subject Headings:
    • Migration, Internal -- Social aspects -- History.
    • Children -- Social conditions.
    • Social mobility -- History.
    Abstract:
      Despite popular images of the adverse disruptions caused by migration in today's global world, the migration of children in the contemporary world often repeats patterns from the past. We are also witnessing genuinely new elements. In either case, to understand and evaluate these matters requires historical understanding of childhood and knowledge about earlier migrations, such as those of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Important areas affected by migration with significant consequences for children include education, social mobility, family authority, gender roles, and the potential contributions that older children can make to strategies for family success and survival. Changes in these areas have resulted in important social transformations and can be expected to do so again. Understanding contemporary globalization should involve the knowledge of American historians especially because of the long experience in the United States with many of the factors associated with globalization that are currently being played out around the world. The paper looks at how the American experience with migration in the context of free market economic activity and of the resulting interpenetration of many cultures can help us to frame questions about migration and globalization today.
    Mason, Mary Ann.
  • The U.S. and the International Children's Rights Crusade: Leader or Laggard?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
    • Children's rights -- United States.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the global impact of the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and questions why the US has not been a signatory. The ambivalent history of children's rights in the United States is reviewed with special attention to the unique situation of child slavery and other legal forms of child servitude for the first two hundred years. The recent legal controversies over children's participatory rights and privacy are also examined within the context of the Convention.
    Platt, Brian, 1970-
  • Japanese Childhood, Modern Childhood: The Nation-State, the School, and 19th-Century Globalization
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    Subject Headings:
    • Child development -- Japan -- History -- 19th century.
    • Education and state -- Japan -- History -- 19th century.
    • Education, Elementary -- Aims and objectives -- Japan -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This article explores the creation of a concept of childhood in Japan during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite the claims of modern Japanese commentators to the contrary, childhood as a distinct phase of life was not entirely absent from the Japanese cultural landscape. During Japan's early modern period, social and economic changes brought increased attention to children, resulting in the growth of schooling and child-centered rituals. Nonetheless, concepts of childhood were transformed by Japan's engagement with globalization in the second half of the 19th century. This engagement took place in the context of Western imperialism, which presented Japanese leaders with institutional models that generated wide-spread interest in childhood. Especially critical were the nation-state, which created the imperative of mobilizing individuals—and, by extension, children—in service of the state, and the school, which provided a means for accomplishing that goal. By the 1890s, schools, along with other social and economic changes resulting from Japan's integration into the system of global capitalism, had begun to generate new sensibilities regarding childhood. At the same time, social commentators in Japan began to participate in an international debate about issues relating to childhood, and found an eager domestic audience for their voices among the urban middle class.
    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.
  • The Schoolyard Gate: Schooling and Childhood in Global Perspective
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    Subject Headings:
    • Child development.
    • Education, Elementary -- Aims and objectives.
    Abstract:
      This essay asks first whether schooling is truly a global phenomenon and then, if so, how global schooling affects children's experiences and cultural conceptions of childhood. World culture theorists argue that Western-style schooling is global not only because it touches most children in the world today but because its diffusion has been seen, since the 1950s, as inevitable. Granted, classroom experience varies tremendously from country from to country and from the global North to the global South; indeed, it seems as though many children in the North would prefer to escape from school while many children in the South clamor to get in. Schools around the world thus have little in common except a vaguely similar form: age-graded, co-educational, "egg-carton" classes in which teachers rely mainly on lecture-recitation and seatwork. Nonetheless, I propose, the flimsy common form of global schooling has an impact on children's experiences—on what they learn, how they develop socially, and how they are sorted into adult statuses. It also shapes our conceptions of childhood, I suggest, by introducing new traits such as "maturity" and by leading adults to divide childhood into micro age grades.
    Joseph, Suad.
  • Teaching Rights and Responsibilities: Paradoxes of Globalization and Children's Citizenship in Lebanon
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    Subject Headings:
    • Citizenship -- Study and teaching -- Lebanon.
    • Education -- Aims and objectives -- Lebanon.
    • Children -- Lebanon -- Social conditions.
    Abstract:
      Efforts to promote a more individualistic model of childhood, pressed on Leba- non from a variety of outside sources including the United Nations, have affected parents and children in Lebanon. At the same time, however, a more collective, family-centered identity continues to have great force. This essay, based on inquiries in two different local settings, discusses the resultant tensions and combinations over recent decades.
    Schäfer, Wolf.
  • The Uneven Globality of Children
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    Subject Headings:
    • Children's rights -- Developing countries.
    • Children -- Developing countries -- Social conditions.
    Abstract:
      The article shows that geography is still destiny for millions of children. Based on global UN data about various demographic factors and the urban explosion after 1950, the geography of regional poverty and power reveals three major trends. First, over 50 percent of the world population will live in cities after 2007. Second, by 2030, the cities of the poor countries of the world will house four times as many people as the cities of the well-to-do countries. Third, the population living in urban slums—the most rapidly growing structure of the urban landscape in the less developed world—will double to almost 2 billion in the next 15 years. The rifting apart of affluent and poor urban environments thus marks the "uneven globality" of children today. A theoretical note on global homogenization, its political potential and differential force in the socionatural system of global technoscience and local cultures, concludes this contribution.

    Bankoff, Greg.
  • 'These Brothers of Ours': Poblete's Obreros and the Road to Baguio 1903-1905
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    Subject Headings:
    • Construction workers -- Labor unions -- Philippines -- Manila -- History -- 20th century.
    • Construction workers -- Philippines -- Manila -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
    • Construction workers -- Philippines -- Manila -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      On July 21, 1903, some two hundred labourers recently recruited to construct the Benguet Road linking the Americans' erstwhile summer capital of the Philippines at Baguio with the railhead to Manila refused to report for work and peremptorily marched out of camp. While the incident is barely if at all remembered, it became something of a cause célèbre at the time. The affair was made much of by a nationalist press owned by Manila-based literati deeply involved in non-military confrontation with the new colonial administration. The Americans were equally as anxious to prove they were different to other colonial regimes and that nothing was amiss. The workers, of course, the obreros simply disappear once again into the historical twilight but not before leaving behind them a glimpse at the changes that were taking place in the local labour market. While it may be premature to talk about the dawning of a distinctive worker consciousness as yet, there were significant socio-economic developments in Filipino society at this time that were just as significant as the much more contestable political ones. It is against these wider considerations that the events surrounding the recruitment of labour on the road are played out. Named after the chief recruitment agent, Pascual Poblete, the affair is one of those rare occasions when long term historical developments at work in the less visible strata of late colonial society come to the surface.
    Behrend-Martinez, Edward.
  • Manhood and the Neutered Body in Early Modern Spain
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    Subject Headings:
    • Men -- Spain -- Identity -- History.
    • Masculinity -- Social aspects -- Spain -- History.
    • Body image in men -- Social aspects -- Spain -- History.
    Abstract:
      This paper examines the links between the construction of masculinity and the male body in eighteenth century Spain. It scrutinizes unpublished cases of annulments due to impotency in a northern Spanish church court between 1650 and 1750, in the diocese of Calahorra and La Calzada. The proceedings against a hermaphrodite, several castrates, and many impotent men are explored thoroughly. The author follows the lead of James Farr and Joan Scott, agreeing with them that refining sexual differences reinforced social order and hierarchy in Counter-Reformation Europe. But, instead of examining how this was done to clarify the male/female binary hierarchy, the author applies this conceptualization to argue that there were also progressively more reified definitions of manhood in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The article concludes that a legal confidence in the medical profession during the eighteenth century focused attention on the male body and allowed authorities to expose "unmanly" bodies. Communities called upon an increasingly self-assured medical profession to diagnose the physical attributes of non-masculinity, in much the same way they would describe the unhealthy, the abnormal, or the insane.

Review Essay

    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • Reform and Social Change
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bailey, Joanne, Dr. Unquiet lives: marriage and marriage breakdown in England, 1660-1800.
    • Burns, Arthur (R. Arthur), ed. Rethinking the age of reform: Britain 1780-1850.
    • Innes, Joanna, ed.
    • Finn, Margot C. Character of credit: personal debt in English culture, 1740-1914.
    • Floud, Roderick, ed. Cambridge economic history of modern Britain.
    • Johnson, Paul (Paul A.), ed.
    • Lindert, Peter H. Growing public: social spending and economic growth since the eighteenth century.
    • Ottaway, Susannah R., 1967- Decline of life: old age in eighteenth-century England.
    • Marriage -- England -- History -- Sources.
    • Great Britain -- Politics and government -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      The books reviewed variously convey notions of reform and momentous social change in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Law and lawyers, gender/family, and demographic change are recurring topics in several works. Three—Finn's, Bailey's, and Ottaway's—complement each other in their treatment of family, consumption, welfare, household, and money matters. Ottoway's analysis fills an important gap in both poor law literature and the social history of aging in the eighteenth century. Bailey's contribution in marriage history is her focus on the 'middling sort' rather than the well-documented aristocracy. Bums' and Innes' "fresh look" at the 'age of reform' includes art, theater, opera, medicine, and empire as well as parliamentary reform. Clearly, the most varied content is to be found in Floud's and Johnson's The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, an update of an earlier work while the most original piece is Peter Lindert's. Described by Jeffrey Sachs as "dazzling" (which it is), Growing Public is essentially about the welfare state and its various metamorphoses.

Reviews

    Jacobson, Lisa, 1962-
  • The Commodification of Childhood: The Children's Clothing Industry and the Rise of the Child Consumer (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cook, Daniel Thomas, 1961- Commodification of childhood: the children's clothing industry and the rise of the child consumer.
    • Children -- United States -- History.
    Cain, Mary Cathryn.
  • The Whiteness of Child Labor Reform in the New South (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sallee, Shelley, 1967- Whiteness of child labor reform in the New South.
    • Child labor -- Southern States.
    Ross, Robert J. S., 1943-
  • Sweated Work, Weak Bodies: Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns and Languages of Labor (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bender, Daniel E. Sweated work, weak bodies: anti-sweatshop campaigns and languages of labor.
    • Sweatshops -- United States -- History.
    Bon Tempo, Carl J. (Carl Joseph)
  • Science at the Borders: Immigrant Medical Inspection and the Shaping of the Modern Industrial Labor Force (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fairchild, Amy L. Science at the borders: immigrant medical inspection and the shaping of the modern industrial labor force.
    • Immigrants -- Medical examinations -- United States.
    Hoffman, Steven J.
  • American Towns: An Interpretive History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Russo, David J. American towns: an interpretive history.
    • Cities and towns -- United States -- History.
    Trotter, Joe William, 1945-
  • Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pritchett, Wendell E. Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the changing face of the ghetto.
    • Brownsville (New York, N.Y.) -- Race relations.
    Roberts, Kevin D.
  • The Claims of Kinfolk: African American Property and Community in the Nineteenth-Century South (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Penningroth, Dylan C. Claims of kinfolk: African American property and community in the nineteenth-century South.
    • African Americans -- Southern States -- Economic conditions -- 19th century.
    Dorr, Lisa Lindquist.
  • The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Long, Alecia P., 1966- Great Southern Babylon: sex, race, and respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920.
    • Prostitution -- Louisiana -- New Orleans -- History.
    Montgomery, David, 1927-
  • Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ngai, Mae M. Impossible subjects: illegal aliens and the making of modern America.
    • Illegal aliens -- United States -- History.
    Buchanan, Thomas C., 1967-
  • Liberty on the Waterfront: American Maritime Culture in the Age of Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gilje, Paul A., 1951- Liberty on the waterfront: American maritime culture in the Age of Revolution.
    • United States -- History, Naval -- 18th century.
    Paquette, Robert L., 1951-
  • The Rebellious Slave: Nat Turner in American Memory (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • French, Scot. Rebellious slave: Nat Turner in American memory.
    • Southampton Insurrection, 1831.
    Wehrle, Edmund F., 1964-
  • After the Strike: A Century of Labor Struggle at Pullman (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hirsch, Susan E. After the strike: a century of labor struggle at Pullman.
    • Labor movement -- United States -- History.
    Butler, Anne M., 1938-
  • Beaten Down: A History of Interpersonal Violence in the West (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peterson del Mar, David, 1957- Beaten down: a history of interpersonal violence in the West.
    • Violence -- West (U.S.) -- History.
    Copelman, Dina Mira.
  • The Making of Modern Woman: Europe 1789-1918 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Abrams, Lynn. Making of modern woman: Europe 1789-1918.
    • Women -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
    Lewis, Judith Schneid, 1950-
  • The Long Sexual Revolution: English Women, Sex, and Contraception, 1800-1975 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cook, Hera. Long sexual revolution: English women, sex, and contraception, 1800-1975.
    • Birth control -- England -- History -- 19th century.
    Walthall, Anne.
  • Divorce in Japan: Family, Gender, and the State, 1600-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fuess, Harald. Divorce in Japan: family, gender, and the state, 1600-2000.
    • Divorce -- Japan -- History.
    Lang, Clarence.
  • Manliness and Its Discontents: The Black Middle Class and the Transformation of Masculinity, 1900-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Summers, Martin Anthony. Manliness and its discontents: the Black middle class and the transformation of masculinity, 1900-1930.
    • African American men -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    Rubio, Philip F.
  • The Rule of Racialization: Class, Identity, Governance (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Martinot, Steve. Rule of racialization: class, identity, governance.
    • United States -- Race relations.
    Farr, James Richard, 1950-
  • Ehud's Dagger: Class Struggle in the English Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Holstun, James. Ehud's dagger: class struggle in the English Revolution.
    • English literature -- Early modern, 1500-1700 -- History and criticism.
    Stuart, Kathy.
  • Rebellion, Community and Custom in Early Modern Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schindler, Norbert. Rebellion, community and custom in early modern Germany.
    • Selwyn, Pamela Eve, tr.
    • Popular culture -- History.
    Eklof, Ben, 1946-
  • Russia at Play: Leisure Activities at the End of the Tsarist Era, and: Popular Theater and Society in Tsarist Russia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McReynolds, Louise, 1952- Russia at play: leisure activities at the end of the tsarist era.
    • Swift, Eugene Anthony. Popular theater and society in Tsarist Russia.
    • Leisure -- Russia -- History.
    • Theater -- Russia -- History.
    Horrall, Andrew.
  • Scotland and the Music Hall, 1850-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maloney, Paul, M.Phil. Scotland and the music hall, 1850-1914.
    • Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.) -- Scotland -- History -- 19th century.
    Wright, David, 1965-
  • Customers and Patrons of the Mad-Trade: The Management of Lunacy in Eighteenth-Century London, With the Complete Text of John Monro's 1766 Case Book (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Andrews, Jonathan, 1961- Customers and patrons of the mad-trade: the management of lunacy in eighteenth-century London, with the complete text of John Monro's 1766 case book.
    • Scull, Andrew T.
    • Monro, John, 1715-1791.
    Bonner, Robert E., 1967-
  • A Sphinx on the American Land: The Nineteenth Century South in Comparative Perspective (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kolchin, Peter. Sphinx on the American land: the nineteenth century South in comparative perspective.
    • Southern States -- Civilization -- 19th century.
    Widmann, Peter, 1968-
  • Germany and Its Gypsies: A Post-Auschwitz Ordeal (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Margalit, Gilad. Germany and its gypsies: a post-Auschwitz ordeal.
    • Romanies -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Van Young, Eric.
  • The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui History, Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Terraciano, Kevin, 1962- Mixtecs of colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui history, sixteenth through eighteenth centuries.
    • Mixtec Indians -- History -- Sources.
    Spillane, Joseph F.
  • Cannabis Britannica: Empire, Trade, and Prohibition (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mills, James H., 1970- Cannabis Britannica: empire, trade, and prohibition.
    • Drugs -- Government policy -- Great Britain -- Colonies -- History -- 19th century.
    Kelly, Timothy.
  • The Catholic Revolution: New Wine, Old Wineskins, and the Second Vatican Council (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Greeley, Andrew M., 1928- Catholic revolution: new wine, old wineskins, and the Second Vatican Council.
    • Vatican Council (2nd : 1962-1965)
    Bailey, Dean.
  • God, Country and Self-Interest: A Social History of the World War II Rank and File (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Terrar, Edward F., 1944- God, country and self-interest: a social history of the World War II rank and file.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal narratives, American.
    Andrews, George Reid, 1951-
  • Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Telles, Edward Eric, 1956- Race in another America: the significance of skin color in Brazil.
    • Brazil -- Race relations.
    Muncy, Robyn.
  • Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Skocpol, Theda. Diminished democracy: from membership to management in American civic life.
    • Political participation -- United States.

Index




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