Fashion -- Political aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Consumption (Economics) -- Political aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Boycotts -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Silk -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
United States -- Relations -- Japan.
Japan -- Relations -- United States.
This article examines debates about the merits of a boycott of Japanese products, especially silk, in the late 1930s as a lens through which to examine the relationship between consumer activism and consumer society in the United States. It argues that both supporters and opponents of the silk boycott, in promoting a politics that was both virtuous and pleasurable, marked a departure from the dominant tradition of consumer activism before and since, which has defined virtue and fashion as opposing forces. As the article shows, the silk boycotters (and their opponents) took fashion and pleasure seriously and embedded their campaigns in popular culture.
Incest -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Fathers and daughters -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Teenage girls -- United States -- Sexual behavior -- History -- 20th century.
The impact of Freudian psychoanalysis on the interpretation of father-daughter incest in courts of law, the social sciences and child-serving agencies during the postwar period was not, as has commonly been assumed, to uniformly silence discussion and prosecution. In fact, psychoanalysts themselves began to pursue case histories of incest between fathers and adolescent daughters in the 1940s. These case histories—couched as examinations of female adolescent Oedipal behavior—reinfored ideas about paternal power by focusing on girls' psychological need for paternal sexual attention. Court cases from Cook County, Illinois, dating from the same period reveal that judges often believed girls' claims of incest, even when contradicted by testimony from adult members of the fmaily. Whil psychoanalysts and pshychoanalytic social workers diminished and even dismissed the idea that father-daughter incest was damaging to adolescent girls, and concentrated instead on the importance of Oedipal desire, lawyers and judges viewed father-daughter incest as a particularly heinous crime. That psychoanalytic social workers and the legal community were so at odds with one another suggests that postwar society was conflicted about father-daughter incest, rather than uniformly invested in denial as a way to shore up paternal power and the ideological parameters of familialism.
Corporal punishment of children -- Moral and ethical aspects -- Ireland -- History -- 20th century.
Child abuse -- Law and legislation -- Ireland -- History -- 20th century.
Children -- Ireland -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
In recent years allegations have been made against the male and female religious orders that ran Irish industrial schools. These allegations range from sexual abuse to neglect of educational, training, and employment opportunities to malnutrition and starvation. One of the most common allegations relates to physical abuse and excessive corporal punishment. Media and popular accounts of these allegations have tended to highlight the most salacious and lurid details while silencing alternative memories or accounts and ignoring the historical context. In order to assess these allegations, it is necessary to examine prevailing policy and practice in homes and schools, to see what was regarded as acceptable and legitimate corporal punishment there. The physical chastisement of children was widely tolerated for much of the twentieth century, even to extremes that by today's standards would be regarded as abuse. This article examines corporal punishment in Ireland, in policy and practice, from the 1930s to the 1980s, drawing on a wide variety of sources including Department of Education files and circulars, Irish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (ISPCC) case files, Dail (Irish parliament) debates, letters to newspapers, newspaper coverage of court cases, and biographical and autobiographical accounts of twentieth century Irish childhood.
Migration, Internal -- Indiana -- Indianapolis -- History -- 20th century.
This article considers the incidence and meaning of return migration that took place during the twentieth-century "Great Migration" of southern whites and
African-Americans to the U.S. North and West. Southern whites in particular had an unusually high rate of return, though this pattern varied significantly from one northern city to another. After presenting an overview of return movement in the Great Migration, this article compares migrants' experiences in two northern cities that had very different histories of return migration. Southern migrants to Indianapolis, Indiana, came mainly from a relatively prosperous southern region to which they returned with great frequency. Southern migrants to Cincinnati, Ohio, on the other hand, moved from one of the most impoverished subregions of the Appalachian South and were much more likely to choose life in the North over a questionable future at home. Ultimately, Cincinnati's migrants drew on their common sense of exile to build a vocal migrant community in the North, while Indianapolis's migrants showed no similar efforts. The two cases together demonstrate the importance of understanding the tight relationship between patterns in return migration and migrant community development.
Unmarried mothers -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- France -- Burgundy -- History -- 18th century.
Child support -- Law and legislation -- France -- Burgundy -- History -- 18th century.
Conflict of generations -- France -- Burgundy -- History -- 18th century.
The early modern era in European history has come to be seen as a period marked by more or less successful attempts by elites to impose "civilized" behavioral norms on ordinary people, especially women. The present examination of suits for child support and breach of promise in the French province of Burgundy, however, suggests that both ordinary people and judges remained sympathetic to unmarried women who found themselves pregnant. The jurisprudence practiced in Burgundy's local courts accepted the testimony of the woman in naming the father, and automatically assigned a lump sum payment for the costs of the delivery, as well as regular payments for the child's upkeep to majority, and sometimes a payment of money for the harm done to her honor (by refusing to marry her). Furthermore, there were ways of ensuring the collection of child support, including judicial seizure and imprisonment. Finally, the article argues that many paternity disputes resulted from considerable uncertainty about whether parental permission was required for marriage---and pitted a pregnant young woman against her lover's parents.
Public opinion -- Italy -- Rome -- History -- 18th century.
Women -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Italy -- Rome -- History -- 18th century.
During a frustrating custody battle for his niece, a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church (Francesco Barberini Junior, (1662--1738)) successfully plotted her kidnapping, nearly lost custody of her because of his dramatic tirades before the pope, and in calmer but no less bitter moments, lamented what he saw as the dangerous link between public sympathy for the child's mother and the legal decisions of papal magistrates in the 1720s. This article analyzes the issues at stake in this aristocratic controversy, demonstrating that as was the case in France, such legal cases showed the impact of women's effective use of the law courts to address their grievances in the family. Of particular interest in this case is the central place the cardinal assigned to public emotion for the mother as the deciding factor, limiting his "victories," and overturning legal precedents. The case suggests that the increasing support in the mid-eighteenth century for celebrating human sentiment and for overturning laws that violate it may trace its origins to the proliferation of litigation by women for their interests in the family.
African Americans -- Segregation -- Missouri -- Saint Louis -- History -- 20th century.
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- Race relations -- History -- 20th century.
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
The relationship between segregation, black political experience, and civic culture in urban America is neither simple nor straightforward. This paper examines the development of a rich and varied black civic life in St. Louis during the first half of the twentieth century amid a climate of deepening racial hostility. As African-American migration accelerated, the city's white power structure mobilized for segregation. At the same time, African-Americans in St. Louis shifted political alliance to the Democratic Party, earlier than national trends. Black leaders capitalized on increasing numbers to seize the vote-getting power of the political machine, and used the Democratic Party to challenge old-line Republican ward bosses. Republican complicity in segregation, coupled with Democratic delivery of a major black teaching hospital, sealed the shift. Meanwhile, while segregation remained a constant feature of daily life, its application on the ground was uneven. African-American religious leaders, politicians, publishers, trade unionists, educators, and women's clubs took advantage of this uneven racial climate to construct a vibrant array of civic institutions. The clubs, churches, schools, hospitals, and media organs developed under Jim Crow nurtured a generation of African-Americans that would reject the segregationist framework of civic life in St. Louis.
Gymnastics for women -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
Femininity -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
Women -- United States -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
Between 1830--1870, a number of influential texts promoting gymnastics deemed appropriate for U.S. women claimed that those exercise regimes would cultivate feminine rectitude along postural, moral, and procedural lines. In doing so, while promising at once to straighten women's spines, to increase their chest size as well as their lung capacities, and to foster beauty and grace, those discourses promoted a female figure that stood in direct opposition to contemporary representations of incapable housekeepers and useless invalids. Many gymnastics regimens thus functioned as disciplinary mechanisms that sought to forge docile bodies, to infuse those bodies with (disciplinary) temporality, to encourage habits of precision, system, and order, and to cultivate postures and sensibilities of feminine rectitude that would reconcile (true) women with conceptions of domesticity that required them to conceal the strains of their duties. Those gymnastics systems, then, encouraged U.S. women and girls to refigure their physiques and their identities as social subjects: to materially constitute themselves in clearly identifiable ways as healthy, pious, and thus authentically true women who had inherited crucial traits of Republican Motherhood.
Barahona, Renato, 1944- Sex crimes, honour, and the law in early modern Spain: Vizcaya, 1528-1735.
Sex crimes -- Spain -- Vizcaya -- History -- Sources.
Widows in White: Migration and the Transformation of Rural Italian Women, Sicily, 1880-1920, and: White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890-1945 (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Reeder, Linda. Widows in white: migration and the transformation of rural Italian women, Sicily, 1880-1920.
Guglielmo, Thomas A. White on arrival: Italians, race, color, and power in Chicago, 1890-1945.
Rural women -- Italy -- Sicily -- Social conditions.
Italian Americans -- Illinois -- Chicago -- Ethnic identity.