Journal of Social History
Volume 38, Number 2, Winter 2004
Cooperative Motherhood and Democratic Civic Culture in Postwar Suburbia, 1940-1965 [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Cooperative nursery schools -- Political aspects -- Maryland -- Montgomery County -- History -- 20th century.
Motherhood -- Political aspects -- Maryland -- Montgomery County -- History -- 20th century.
Women in politics -- Maryland -- Montgomery County -- History -- 20th century.
This essay explores the meaning of local associations
in America's postwar suburbs. It
asks especially whether local associations tended
to distract members from larger issues
of public concern or to draw them out of the
purely local into movements of wider
significance. Using the cooperative nursery
school movement in Montgomery County,
Maryland as a case study, the essay argues
that these associations tended to pull members
into larger public issues and networks;
enmeshed members in communities devoted to
democratic values and practices; and
prefigured the participatory democracy to which so
many social movements of the 1960s claimed
commitment. It also shows that women in
the cooperative nursery school movement
created a new form of motherhood, here called
cooperative motherhood, which aimed both
to embed families in larger communities and
to allow suburban mothers the freedom to
pursue lives beyond domesticity.
Casa de Huérfanos (Santiago, Chile) -- History -- 19th century.
Orphans -- Chile -- Santiago -- History -- 19th century.
Orphanages -- Chile -- Santiago -- History -- 19th century.
This essay examines the Casa de
Huérfanos, the largest and most
important orphanage in
Santiago, Chile in the late nineteenth
century, through the lens of child circulation. By
child circulation, I refer to a diverse
constellation of practices, from apprenticeship to
adoption, in which minors were reared
outside their natal households by unrelated
caretakers. Child circulation has been
a ubiquitous practice in Latin American and
Caribbean societies from the colonial
period into the twentieth century.
Using notarial and judicial records,
I attempt to reconstruct the basic cultural contours of
child circulation in Chile. I then
explore how the orphanage, which may be characterized
as a "formal" or "institutional" mode
of child circulation, interfaced with the "informal"
or "extrainstitutional" cultures and practices
of circulation described in the first section.
The documentation reveals that, rather than
displacing "traditional," informal modes of
charity, the expanding public welfare apparatus
of the late nineteenth century actually
reproduced, reinscribed, and in some measure
legitimated these practices. This analysis
of the Casa de Huérfanos thus sheds light not
only on the comparative history of
foundling homes and child abandonment but also
on the historical evolution of welfare
provision in its informal and institutionalized
Breen, Michael P.
Addressing La Ville des Dieux: Entry Ceremonies and Urban Audiences in Seventeenth-Century Dijon [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Ceremonial entries -- Social aspects -- France -- Dijon -- History -- 17th century.
Louis XIII, King of France, 1601-1643 -- Travel -- France -- Dijon.
Condé, Henri II de Bourbon, prince de, 1588-1646 -- Travel -- France -- Dijon.
This article re-examines the early modern
entrée, a ceremony staged by towns to
welcome monarchs and princes. In contrast
with the usual interpretation of entrées as
"state ceremonials" that articulated the
relationship between prince and city, I argue
that entrées were also local political
rituals used by municipal elites to negotiate their
complex and unstable relationships with
the city's middling and popular classes.
Through an analysis of two entrées into
seventeenth-century Dijon, this article shows
how the notables of Dijon's city government
used entrées to reinforce vertical ties with
artisans, shopkeepers, wine-growers and
others whose participation in the civic militia
and acceptance of the status-quo were
indispensable to preserving order. It examines
not only the language and symbolism of
the entries themselves but also the roles
different social groups played in the
ceremonies and the local contexts in which they
were staged. The article also analyzes
how the entrées' messages were reinforced in
patois street plays of Dijon's
carnivalesque mère folle troupe. These plays, written and
staged by many of the same notables
responsible for the entries, translated the
ceremonies' classical humanist imagery into
terms accessible to the broader populace
and reaffirmed the latter's place in the
larger urban community.
Planned Serendipity: American Travelers and the Transatlantic Voyage in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Transatlantic voyages -- Social aspects.
Americans -- Travel -- Europe.
From 1870 through 1940 numbers of
American travelers to Europe increased as
the transatlantic voyage became cheaper,
safer, and shorter. For many historians of travel
this period represents its transformation
from an original and individualistic experience
of a tiny elite to a more mundane element
of capitalist exploitation and mass consumption
among middle-class masses. However,
writings by two generations of
Americans—intellectual elites and university
students—reveal that the transatlantic voyage
throughout this transformative period offered
travelers the opportunity to engage in a constructive
questioning and self-examination of
previously unquestioned beliefs and habits. Despite
their diverse class and regional backgrounds,
and their many different goals for
transatlantic travel, these American
voyagers across the Atlantic shared a sense of
wonder, dislocation, excitement, and
anticipation during the week or weeks they spent at
sea. This study argues that the
transatlantic voyage presented new imaginative and
creative possibilities for American
travelers, and led to a broader appreciation of
nationalism and internationalism.
Legislating Women's Sexuality: Cherokee Marriage Laws in the Nineteenth Century [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Cherokee law -- History -- 19th century.
Intermarriage -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
During the first half of the nineteenth
century, the Cherokee Nation passed many laws to
regulate marriage and sex. This essay
first contemplates the gendered aspects of such laws
by exploring the importance of Cherokee
women's marital choices and official response
to those choices. In particular, Cherokee
women's choice of non-Cherokee marital
partners, most frequently whites, and the
concomitant introduction of outsiders into the
Nation forced the Cherokee legislative
branch to reformulate Cherokee women's
relationship to the production of new citizens
in the Nation. Then the essay turns more
explicitly to the laws' racial implications
and examines who could marry in the Cherokee
Nation and why by first examining Cherokee
laws regulating marriage with people of
African descent. Cherokees increasingly
excluded people of African descent from
membership in the Nation through legislation
prohibiting legal marriage between
Cherokees and people of African descent.
Lastly, this essay considers Cherokee
legislative provisions to include whites
as marriage partners and citizens in the Cherokee
Nation. Ultimately, this essay finds that
Cherokee officials were redefining Cherokee
Indians racially and used marriage laws to
write and reinforce this new definition.
"Moving On," Men and the Changing Character of Interwar Working-Class Neighborhoods: From the Files of the Manchester and Liverpool City Police [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Working class -- England -- Manchester -- History -- 20th century.
Working class -- England -- Liverpool -- History -- 20th century.
Community life -- England -- Manchester -- History -- 20th century.
Community life -- England -- Manchester -- History -- 20th century.
Investigations of complaints regarding police
families made to the Manchester and Liverpool City Police
provide insights into working-class neighborhoods
not available in standard sources. The files suggest that
interwar neighborhoods were losing long-term residents
and becoming more diverse and variable. Families tried to
find areas with similar standards regarding noise,
space and privacy. Formerly stable neighborhoods changed,
creating stress if changes were too dramatic. Even minor
tensions could unsettle streets since causes of strain
tended to reflect on respectability and status. While
women remained the main presence due to their domestic
responsibilities, men were spending more time with
their families. The presence of men exacerbated
misunderstandings, adding frictions over masculinity
and territoriality. Complaints over noise overlapped with
concerns over space which overlapped with anxiety over
respectability and masculinity, all aggravated by children
and gossip. When differences became too extreme,
neighbors started campaigns of arguments, complaints, and
harassment. Ultimately, if families were not in harmony
with the rest of a street, efforts were made to force them
to move. Yet neighborliness had not disappeared.
Working-class neighbors generally managed to get along even
in the unsettled conditions of interwar Liverpool
"Where Everyone Goes to Meet Everyone Else": The Translocal Creation of a Slovak Immigrant Community [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Slovak Americans -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- History -- 20th century.
Community life -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- History -- 20th century.
Around 1910, immigrants were often characterized
as living in homogeneous ghettoes. For
Slovaks in Philadelphia and elsewhere in
industrial America, though, community was not
geographically but institutionally bounded. A
trans-local community of churches and fraternals
served as ethnic magnets, enabling Slovaks
living miles apart to be elastic and selective when
forming community. Translocal attachments
freed immigrants from ghettoes, and a new
paradigm for thinking of immigrant
communities—translocal and institutional, not
geographical—is proposed. Churches and
fraternals served, too, as creators of a bi-national
identity, for signifiers of Americanness
were often adapted to suit immigrant needs, often at
variance from native America's. Creative
appropriation of Slavic and American culture to
meet immigrants' needs also freed them from
ghettoes as they negotiated a bi-national
identity. This also enabled immigrants to
live at peace alongside other ethnic groups with
whom they had little contact, but this model
of overlapping ethnic communities broke down
when Slovaks encountered African-Americans.
Through cultural productions such as articles
on lynchings in the Slovak press, or minstrel
shows at Slovak halls, immigrants learned to
think of themselves as "white" people, and
thus sadly to make the psychic distance from
blacks as America's ultimate outsiders.
"Let us live for those who love us": Faith, Family, and the Contours of Manhood Among the Knights of Columbus in Late Nineteenth-Century Connecticut [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Knights of Columbus.
Catholic men -- Connecticut -- Social life and customs -- 19th century.
Masculinity -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church.
Masculinity -- Connecticut -- History -- 19th century.
In Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian
America, Mark Carnes contends that the
popularity of fraternal secret societies in
the late 19th century was a response to the
extreme gender divide within Victorian society.
Carnes posits that all but the highest
fraternal rituals further perpetuated a
gendered bifurcation of society, constructing male
identities that were predicated upon men's
alienation from both women in the household
and from religious spheres that also carried
the taint of femaleness in Victorian culture.
This article explores the ideals of manhood
articulated in the records and publications of
the first generation of the Knights of Columbus,
a Catholic fraternal organization, arguing
that the commitments that followed from
being immigrant Catholics muddied the
supposed "separateness" of Victorian separate
spheres for early Knights, embedding
powerful evocations of faith and family in
their fraternal rituals and rhetoric. The Knights
advocated sensitive and nurturing fatherhood,
sentimentalized men's emotional ties to
women, and assumed a harmonious relationship
between fraternalism and family. Thus,
men did not escape bonds of religious and
domestic attachment in Columbian fraternity,
rather, they gained from it rites, rhetoric,
and heroic figures that legitimated and valorized
the embedded reality of their lives.
Gras, Henk, 1948-
Vliet, Harry van, 1962-
Paradise Lost nor Regained: Social Composition of Theatre Audiences in the Long Nineteenth Century [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
The received knowledge about theatre audiences from the late eighteenth to the
early twentieth century is a story of Paradise Lost and Regained: a
late-eighteenth century elite audience favored neo-classical drama. Due to the
Revolution, lower middle classes and even laborers entered the theatre and with
them came melodrama. The elite fled to opera. Around 1870 the bourgeois elite
began to reconquer the theatre: Paradise was regained. To test this view, we
analyzed, by way of prosopgraphy, the social background of the subscribers for
drama and opera in Rotterdam, 1773–1912 (14,000 person files). The result of
this analysis rejects the dominant narrative: although there is a difference in
social standing between drama and opera subscribers, the difference is relative.
On the whole, the subscribing audience was trade-based, wealthy, relatively
tolerant in religious beliefs, powerful (social and political functions), culturally and
socially active (sociability), well educated, and liberal. The participation of women
in the audience increased in the course of the century. The social backgrounds
of these of these subscribers (father and grandfather generations) show a
surprising stability: overall, these generations had the same characteristics.
Instead of heroic struggles, the theatre in this period is better characterized as a
prison of longue dureé.