Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 37, Number 4, Summer 2004

CONTENTS

    Grant, Julia, 1953-
  • A "Real Boy" and not a Sissy: Gender, Childhood, and Masculinity, 1890-1940
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sex role in children -- United States -- History.
    • Boys -- United States -- Psychology -- History.
    • Psychosexual disorders in children -- United States -- History.
    • Masculinity -- United States -- History.
    Abstract:
      This essay charts the changing definitions and experiences of sissy boys in early twentieth century America. At this time the term sissy, which had emerged out of the boy culture of mid nineteenth century America, evolved to encompass not only social but familial and clinical opprobium. In the nineteenth century, sissies might be castigated by their peers but celebrated by their families. Little boys were considered to be the province of their mothers and were not expected to adhere to strict gender boundaries. By the turn of the century, both little and older boys were held to a higher gender standard due to major transformations in child rearing, peer culture, and adult masculinity.

      The behaviors of little boys were closely monitored for signs of gender nonconformity as the twentieth century progressed. Even preschoolers were expected to dress in appropriately boyish clothing, to play with gender-specific toys, and to display personality traits associated with the masculine gender. "Real" or normal boys, as defined by boy culture, were postulated as ideal boys. Increasingly parents and professionals identified little boys who strayed from this ideal as in need of parental and professional intervention. The newly emerging sciences of the human psyche, which sought to explain the development of gender identity and sexual orientation, provided professionals with a framework for assessing and treating sissy boys. Together, parents, peers, and professionals worked to ensure that male children become "real boys" and not sissies.

    Gilfoyle, Timothy J.
  • Street-Rats and Gutter-Snipes: Child Pickpockets and Street Culture in New York City, 1850-1900
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    Subject Headings:
    • Street children -- New York (State) -- New York -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    • Pickpockets -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
    • Juvenile delinquency -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      For over half a century, the street child was an inescapable fixture of the nineteenth-century industrial city. Lacking formal education, adult supervision, and sometimes even a home, such youths were derided as "rats," "gamins," "Arabs," "urchins" and "gutter-snipes." In a country which identified geographic mobility and physical movement as freedom, the street kid represented the logical nightmare---the replacement of community, familial and even spiritual bonds with the rootless individualism of the nomad. Street children by necessity developed a confrontational and oppositional subculture relative to adult authority, while simultaneously adopting certain entrepreneurial behaviors as a survival strategy. Struggling to negotiate a terrain between personal autonomy and adult authority, between self-sufficiency and economic dependence, child pickpockets thus cultivated their own conception of freedom and independence.
    Hood, Clifton.
  • An Unusable Past: Urban Elites, New York City's Evacuation Day, and the Transformations of Memory Culture
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    Subject Headings:
    • Evacuation Day, Nov. 25, 1783.
    • Memorialization -- Social aspects -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
    • New York (N.Y.) -- Social life and customs.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the dissolution of tradition through an analysis of the formation, transmission, demise, and failed revival of New York City's Evacuation Day. Honoring the end of Britain's occupation of New York during the Revolutionary War on November 25, 1783, Evacuation Day was associated with elites throughout its history. Its memorialization was initiated by merchants who prized it for denoting elite rule and social harmony, and it acquired a public dimension when Federalists used it in their campaign to ratify the Constitution in 1787. The anniversary experienced a crisis of generational transmission in the 1820s and 1830s that gave it new meanings and stakeholders, becoming used to memorialize the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 and to assert the antebellum elite's claims to social exclusivity and civic leadership. The Civil War's transformation of American ideas of remembrance and warfare weakened adherence to the holiday by undermining its purpose and reducing its audience. Evacuation Day was revived in the early 1880s by the Sons of the Revolution, a patriotic hereditary organization and ancestral society that viewed colonial history as an elite preserve. The Sons of the Revolution completed the tradition's journey into the unusable past by privatizing the holiday.
    Van Sittert, Lance.
  • The Supernatural State: Water Divining and the Cape Underground Water Rush, 1891-1910
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dowsing -- South Africa -- Cape of Good Hope -- History.
    • Water-supply, Agricultural -- Social aspects -- South Africa -- Cape of Good Hope -- History.
    • Agriculture and state -- South Africa -- Cape of Good Hope -- History.
    Abstract:
      The revisionist scholarship on colonial science assumes its inherent rationality. The example of water divining in southern Africa, however, suggests that the irrational was as much a feature of western as indigenous knowledge systems. The state-led opening of an underground water frontier in the arid (Karoo) interior of the Cape Colony in the two decades after 1890 brought this issue into sharp focus. State water boring was guided by a combination of geological and engineering science, but encountered sustained resistance from settler farmers who preferred the word of their water diviners over the official experts in deciding where to bore. After failing to suppress the practice, the colonial state belatedly promoted and adopted it after water-boring was privatized in the mid-1900s. A detailed analysis of the wealth of correspondence on the subject in the department of agriculture journal after 1905 reveals both a sustained attempt by supporters to rationalize divining and a reticence on the part of skeptics to submit to a definitive empirical test. The debate over water divining suggests that colonial ideologies of agricultural improvement were more eclectic and irrational than crude dichotomies opposing western rationality to native superstition allow. In short, the other was within as well as without.
    Hilton, Marjorie L.
  • Retailing the Revolution: The State Department Store (GUM) and Soviet Society in the 1920s
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    Subject Headings:
    • GUM (Department store : Moscow, Russia)
    • Retail trade -- Political aspects -- Russia (Federation) -- Moscow -- History -- 20th century.
    • Consumption (Economics) -- Social aspects -- Russia (Federation) -- Moscow -- History -- 20th century.
    • Soviet Union -- Social conditions -- 1917-1945.
    • Socialism and society -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the role of mass marketing and retailing in the recreation of Soviet society in the NEP period (1921--28). In 1921, the state established the State Department Store (GUM), a model retail enterprise that operated stores throughout Russia and targeted consumers across class, gender, and ethnic lines. GUM's stores served as instruments of the Bolsheviks' goals of conquering private enterprise and rebuilding it along socialist lines and of democratizing consumption for workers and peasants nationwide. GUM also served as an agent of publicity. Its advertising and promotional campaigns communicated to the population the goals of the regime and attempted to inculcate new attitudes and behaviors. In its efforts to create a socialist consumer culture, GUM recast the functions and meanings associated with the everyday activities of buying and selling, turning them into politically charged acts that could either contribute to or delay the transformation of the economy and society. Ultimately, however, GUM's efforts to build communism through consumerism were unsuccessful and only succeeded in alienating consumers from state stores and instituting a culture of complaint and entitlement.
    Randall, Amy E. (Amy Elise) 1967-
  • Legitimizing Soviet Trade: Gender and the Feminization of the Retail Workforce in the Soviet 1930s
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    Subject Headings:
    • Retail trade -- Soviet Union -- Employees -- History -- 20th century.
    • Women -- Employment -- Soviet Union -- History -- 20th century.
    • Women -- Soviet Union -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      In the 1930s the Soviet retail workforce was increasingly feminized. At the same time, Communist leaders launched a campaign to establish "Soviet trade"---what they hoped would be a distinctly non-capitalist state-organized system of "socialist" retail trade. This article explores the feminization of the retail workforce as a window on the Soviet regime's efforts to mobilize retail trade and women in new ways in the 1930s. It argues that the feminization of the retail workforce resulted in more than an influx of women workers; it turned out to be critical to attempts to remake retail trade. As the trade campaign got under way and the female workforce grew, authorities rationalized women's employment by constructing a new woman retail worker who carried out "revolutionary Bolshevik work." They identified "feminine" qualities with excellence in retailing. Highly valued attributes of the idealized new system of socialist trade that reportedly distinguished it from capitalist retailing and the already existing state-controlled system became coded as feminine. As a result, this article argues, the feminization of the retail workforce contributed to the legitimization and gendering of Soviet trade. Moreover, because feminization was accompanied by a new discourse about women that involved a positive reimagining of the feminine and the domestic, it also buttressed a larger transformation in official understandings of women's roles and womanly characteristics in the building of Soviet socialism.
    Grehan, James.
  • The Mysterious Power of Words: Language, Law, and Culture in Ottoman Damascus (17th-18th centuries)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Justice, Administration of -- Syria -- Damascus -- History.
    • Islamic law -- Syria -- Damascus -- History.
    • Turkish language -- Syria -- Damascus-- Psychological aspects -- History.
    • Language and culture -- Syria -- Damascus -- History.
    Abstract:
      Like other aspects of social life, speech and conversation have their own rich and intricate history. But even in fairly recent scholarship, they remain subjects which have gone largely unexplored, mostly due to the limitations in sources which face all researchers and grow ever more intractable as one travels further back in time. This article takes a fresh look at these problems by examining literary and legal materials from Ottoman Damascus in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It reconstructs patterns of speech and manners, and links them with different sets of ideals and social norms that prevailed throughout urban society in the early modern Middle East. Of particular interest are habits of cursing and swearing, which have left residual traces even in written sources. One critical issue is the relationship between language and law, which turns up most vividly in the use of oaths, which were very much a part of everyday speech. They demonstrate how townspeople treated words virtually as deeds, regarding them with a degree of literalism which may not have been present in other cultures such as Western Europe, where their use had become more restricted.
    Hurl-Eamon, Jennine.
  • Policing Male Heterosexuality: The Reformation of Manners Societies' Campaign Against the Brothels in Westminster, 1690-1720
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sex crimes -- England -- London -- History.
    • Prostitution -- Law and legislation -- England -- London -- History.
    • Social problems -- England -- London -- History.
    • Westminster (London, England) -- Social conditions.
    Abstract:
      The societies for the reformation of manners, driven by volunteers' desires to eradicate immorality, operated in cities across England from the 1690s to the 1730s. This article uses a previously ignored source: the recognizance, to show that prostitutes' clients were targeted in their campaigns. Although the thousands of female prostitutes arrested have rightly absorbed historians' attention until now, their male clients also deserve notice. London's recognizances reveal that hundreds of elite and middling men were arrested for consorting with lewd women. This contradicts previous theories that the reformation of manners movement was an episode in policing the poor, and was concerned only with female sexuality. The evidence shows that prostitutes' clients were greatly disturbed by the campaigns, violently resisting arrest, attempting to bribe officials to spare them, or indulging in elaborate ruses to ensure that their whoring could remain undetected. These forms of opposition to the societies underscore the success of the moralists in infiltrating wealthier men's sex lives. The arrests of these men expose a key period in the history of sexuality: the transition from seeing prostitutes as sexual predators to perceiving them as victims, and the growing expectations of the middling sort for chastity in men as well as women.
    Thale, Christopher.
  • Assigned to Patrol: Neighborhoods, Police, and Changing Deployment Practices in New York City before 1930
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    Subject Headings:
    • Police patrol -- Social aspects -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    • Police-community relations -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    • Police administration -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Police are widely assumed to have lost close links to neighborhood as a result of the demise of foot patrol and reformism which cut off police from local information and concerns. But as this study of New York's police shows, police-community ties were always limited, and department policy was not neighborhood-friendly after the 1860s. A patrol officer could not possibly know every one of thousands of people on post, and the instability of urban residence made contact and knowledge more difficult. So did officers' growing propensity to live far from where they worked, a propensity encouraged by official policies. Police ties to the locality were weakened further by bureaucratic factors such as shift rotations and non-patrol assignments. Aided by call boxes and other technologies, police management increasingly regarded patrolmen as interchangeable parts in a large policing machine. These changes in official policies, rooted both in managerialism and reformism, were effective earlier than has been thought, and are visible in the 1880s, decades before the automobile began to be important in the NYPD and well before Progressive reform.

Book Reviews

    Sigel, Lisa Z., 1965-
  • Masturbation: The History of the Great Terror (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stengers, Jean. Masturbation: the history of the great terror.
    • Neck, Anne van, d. 1982.
    • Masturbation -- History.
    Walton, John K.
  • Music for the People: Popular Music and Dance in Interwar Britain (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nott, James J. Music for the people: popular music and dance in interwar Britain.
    • Popular music -- Great Britain -- 1921-1930.
    Fairchilds, Cissie C.
  • Elephant Slaves and Pampered Parrots: Exotic Animals in Eighteenth-Century Paris (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Robbins, Louise E. Elephant slaves and pampered parrots: exotic animals in eighteenth-century Paris.
    • Wild animals as pets -- France -- Paris -- History -- 18th century.
    Matt, Susan J. (Susan Jipson), 1967-
  • Refined Tastes: Sugar, Confectionery, and Consumers in Nineteenth-Century America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Woloson, Wendy A., 1964- Refined tastes: sugar, confectionery, and consumers in nineteenth-century America.
    • Confectionery -- History.
    Martin, Scott C., 1959-
  • First Resorts: Pursuing Pleasure at Saratoga Springs, Newport & Coney Island (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sterngass, Jon. First resorts: pursuing pleasure at Saratoga Springs, Newport & Coney Island.
    • United States -- Social life and customs -- 19th century.
    Fabian, Ann.
  • Business of the Heart: Religion and Emotion in the Nineteenth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Corrigan, John, 1952- Business of the heart: religion and emotion in the nineteenth century.
    • Revivals -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- History -- 19th century.
    Smith, Mark M. (Mark Michael), 1968-
  • Tell the Court I Love My Wife: Race, Marriage, and Law--An American History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wallenstein, Peter. Tell the court I love my wife: race, marriage, and law--an American history.
    • Interracial marriage -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History.
    Herman, Ellen.
  • Adoption in America: Historical Perspectives (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Carp, E. Wayne, 1946-, ed. Adoption in America: historical perspectives.
    • Adoption -- United States -- History.
    Comacchio, Cynthia R., 1957-
  • Giving Birth in Canada, 1900-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mitchinson, Wendy. Giving birth in Canada, 1900-1950.
    • Childbirth -- Canada -- History -- 20th century.
    Brooke, Stephen.
  • Knowledge of Evil: Child Prostitution and Child Sexual Abuse in Twentieth Century England (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Brown, Alyson. Knowledge of evil: child prostitution and child sexual abuse in twentieth century England.
    • Barrett, David, 1952-
    • Child prostitution -- England -- History -- 20th century.
    Monkkonen, Eric H., 1942-
  • The Challenge of Crime: Rethinking our Response (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ruth, Henry S. Challenge of crime: rethinking our response.
    • Reitz, Kevin R.
    • Criminal justice, Administration of -- United States.
    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • Law, Crime and English Society 1660-1830 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Landau, Norma, ed. Law, crime and English society 1660-1830.
    • Law -- Great Britain -- History.
    Johnson, Lyman L.
  • City of Suspects: Crime in Mexico City, 1900-1931 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Piccato, Pablo. City of suspects: crime in Mexico City, 1900-1931.
    • Crime -- Mexico -- Mexico City.
    Graebner, William.
  • The Progressive Housewife: Community Activism in Suburban Queens, 1945-1965 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Murray, Sylvie. Progressive housewife: community activism in suburban Queens, 1945-1965.
    • Women in community organization -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    Strocchia, Sharon T., 1951-
  • A Convent Tale: A Century of Sisterhood in Spanish Milan (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baernstein, P. Renee. Convent tale: a century of sisterhood in Spanish Milan.
    • San Paolo Converso (Milan, Italy) -- History -- 16th century.
    Simons, Walter.
  • Working Women of Early Modern Venice (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chojnacka, Monica. Working women of early modern Venice.
    • Women -- Employment -- Italy -- Venice -- History.
    Amdur, Kathryn E. (Kathryn Ellen), 1947-
  • Workers' Participation in Post-Liberation France (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Steinhouse, Adam, 1963- Workers' participation in post-liberation France.
    • Management -- Employee participation -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    Beaudoin, Steven M. (Steven Maurice), 1965-
  • Childhood in the Promised Land: Working-Class Movements and the Colonies de Vacances in France, 1880-1960 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Downs, Laura Lee, 1955- Childhood in the promised land: working-class movements and the colonies de vacances in France, 1880-1960.
    • Vacation schools -- France -- History.
    Parthasarathi, Prasannan.
  • The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth-Century India (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gooptu, Nandini. Politics of the urban poor in early twentieth-century India.
    • Urban poor -- India.
    Sánchez Román, José Antonio.
  • The Landowners of the Argentine Pampas: A Social and Political History, 1860-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hora, Roy. Landowners of the Argentine Pampas: a social and political history, 1860-1945.
    • Landowners -- Argentina -- Pampas -- History.
    Howell, Martha C.
  • English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550: Marriage and Family, Property and Careers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harris, Barbara J. (Barbara Jean), 1942- English aristocratic women, 1450-1550: marriage and family, property and careers.
    • Women -- England -- History -- Renaissance, 1450-1600.
    Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
  • Defiance and Deference in Mexico's Colonial North: Indians under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya, and: The Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau 1582-1799 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Deeds, Susan M. Defiance and deference in Mexico's colonial north: Indians under Spanish rule in Nueva Vizcaya.
    • Wade, Maria de Fátima, 1948- Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau 1582-1799.
    • Indians of Mexico -- Mexico -- Chihuahua (State) -- History.
    • Indians of North America -- Texas -- Edwards Plateau -- History.
    Kamerling, Henry.
  • Black Identity & Black Protest in the Antebellum North (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rael, Patrick. Black identity & Black protest in the antebellum North.
    • African Americans -- Race identity -- Northeastern States.
    Chabot, Bruce.
  • Freemasonry on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Essays Concerning the Craft in the British Isles, Europe, the United States, and Mexico (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weisberger, Richard William, ed. Freemasonry on both sides of the Atlantic: essays concerning the craft in the British Isles, Europe, the United States, and Mexico.
    • McLeod, Wallace, 1931-, ed.
    • Morris, S. Brent, ed.
    • Freemasonry -- Europe -- History.
    Censer, Jack Richard.
  • The Night the Old Regime Ended: August 4, 1789, and the French Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fitzsimmons, Michael P., 1949- Night the Old Regime ended: August 4, 1789, and the French Revolution.
    • France -- History -- Revolution, 1789-1799.
    Berlanstein, Lenard R.
  • Barricades: The War of the Streets in Revolutionary Paris, 1830-1848 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harsin, Jill, 1951- Barricades: the war of the streets in revolutionary Paris, 1830-1848.
    • Paris (France) -- History -- 1830-1848.
    DePillis, Mario S.
  • History's Memory: Writing America's Past, 1880-1980 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fitzpatrick, Ellen F. (Ellen Frances) History's memory: writing America's past, 1880-1980.
    • United States -- Historiography.
    White, Kevin, 1959-
  • Governing Pleasures: Pornography & Social Change in England, 1851-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sigel, Lisa Z., 1965- Governing pleasures: pornography & social change in England, 1851-1914.
    • Pornography -- England -- History -- 19th century.
    Neiberg, Michael S.
  • Which People's War? National Identity and Citizenship in Wartime Britain, 1939-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rose, Sonya O. Which people's war? national identity and citizenship in wartime Britain, 1939-1945.
    • Great Britain -- History -- George VI, 1936-1952.

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