Psychosexual disorders in children -- United States -- History.
Masculinity -- United States -- History.
This essay charts the changing definitions and experiences
of sissy boys in early twentieth century America. At this
time the term sissy, which had emerged out of the boy
culture of mid nineteenth century America, evolved to
encompass not only social but familial and clinical
opprobium. In the nineteenth century, sissies might be
castigated by their peers but celebrated by their families.
Little boys were considered to be the province of their
mothers and were not expected to adhere to strict gender
boundaries. By the turn of the century, both little and older
boys were held to a higher gender standard due to major
transformations in child rearing, peer culture, and adult
The behaviors of little boys were closely monitored for
signs of gender nonconformity as the twentieth century
progressed. Even preschoolers were expected to dress in
appropriately boyish clothing, to play with gender-specific
toys, and to display personality traits associated with the
masculine gender. "Real" or normal boys, as defined by
boy culture, were postulated as ideal boys. Increasingly
parents and professionals identified little boys who strayed
from this ideal as in need of parental and professional
intervention. The newly emerging sciences of the human
psyche, which sought to explain the development of gender
identity and sexual orientation, provided professionals
with a framework for assessing and treating sissy boys.
Together, parents, peers, and professionals worked to
ensure that male children become "real boys" and not
Gilfoyle, Timothy J.
Street-Rats and Gutter-Snipes: Child Pickpockets and Street Culture in New York City, 1850-1900 [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Street children -- New York (State) -- New York -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
Pickpockets -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
Juvenile delinquency -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
For over half a century, the street child was an inescapable
fixture of the nineteenth-century industrial city. Lacking
formal education, adult supervision, and sometimes even a
home, such youths were derided as "rats," "gamins,"
"Arabs," "urchins" and "gutter-snipes." In a country
which identified geographic mobility and physical
movement as freedom, the street kid represented the logical
nightmare---the replacement of community, familial and
even spiritual bonds with the rootless individualism of the
nomad. Street children by necessity developed a
confrontational and oppositional subculture relative to
adult authority, while simultaneously adopting certain
entrepreneurial behaviors as a survival strategy. Struggling
to negotiate a terrain between personal autonomy and adult
authority, between self-sufficiency and economic
dependence, child pickpockets thus cultivated their own
conception of freedom and independence.
An Unusable Past: Urban Elites, New York City's Evacuation Day, and the Transformations of Memory Culture [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Evacuation Day, Nov. 25, 1783.
Memorialization -- Social aspects -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
New York (N.Y.) -- Social life and customs.
This article examines the dissolution of tradition through an
analysis of the formation, transmission, demise, and failed
revival of New York City's Evacuation Day. Honoring the
end of Britain's occupation of New York during the
Revolutionary War on November 25, 1783, Evacuation
Day was associated with elites throughout its history. Its
memorialization was initiated by merchants who prized it
for denoting elite rule and social harmony, and it acquired
a public dimension when Federalists used it in their
campaign to ratify the Constitution in 1787. The
anniversary experienced a crisis of generational
transmission in the 1820s and 1830s that gave it new
meanings and stakeholders, becoming used to memorialize
the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 and to assert
the antebellum elite's claims to social exclusivity and civic
leadership. The Civil War's transformation of American
ideas of remembrance and warfare weakened adherence to
the holiday by undermining its purpose and reducing its
audience. Evacuation Day was revived in the early 1880s
by the Sons of the Revolution, a patriotic hereditary
organization and ancestral society that viewed colonial
history as an elite preserve. The Sons of the Revolution
completed the tradition's journey into the unusable past by
privatizing the holiday.
Van Sittert, Lance.
The Supernatural State: Water Divining and the Cape Underground Water Rush, 1891-1910 [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Dowsing -- South Africa -- Cape of Good Hope -- History.
Water-supply, Agricultural -- Social aspects -- South Africa -- Cape of Good Hope -- History.
Agriculture and state -- South Africa -- Cape of Good Hope -- History.
The revisionist scholarship on colonial science assumes its
inherent rationality. The example of water divining in
southern Africa, however, suggests that the irrational was
as much a feature of western as indigenous knowledge
systems. The state-led opening of an underground water
frontier in the arid (Karoo) interior of the Cape Colony in
the two decades after 1890 brought this issue into sharp
focus. State water boring was guided by a combination of
geological and engineering science, but encountered
sustained resistance from settler farmers who preferred the
word of their water diviners over the official experts in
deciding where to bore. After failing to suppress the
practice, the colonial state belatedly promoted and adopted
it after water-boring was privatized in the mid-1900s. A
detailed analysis of the wealth of correspondence on the
subject in the department of agriculture journal after 1905
reveals both a sustained attempt by supporters to
rationalize divining and a reticence on the part of skeptics
to submit to a definitive empirical test. The debate over
water divining suggests that colonial ideologies of
agricultural improvement were more eclectic and irrational
than crude dichotomies opposing western rationality to
native superstition allow. In short, the other was within as
well as without.
Hilton, Marjorie L.
Retailing the Revolution: The State Department Store (GUM) and Soviet Society in the 1920s [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
GUM (Department store : Moscow, Russia)
Retail trade -- Political aspects -- Russia (Federation) -- Moscow -- History -- 20th century.
Consumption (Economics) -- Social aspects -- Russia (Federation) -- Moscow -- History -- 20th century.
Soviet Union -- Social conditions -- 1917-1945.
Socialism and society -- History -- 20th century.
This article examines the role of mass marketing and
retailing in the recreation of Soviet society in the NEP
period (1921--28). In 1921, the state established the State
Department Store (GUM), a model retail enterprise that
operated stores throughout Russia and targeted consumers
across class, gender, and ethnic lines. GUM's stores served
as instruments of the Bolsheviks' goals of conquering
private enterprise and rebuilding it along socialist lines
and of democratizing consumption for workers and
peasants nationwide. GUM also served as an agent of
publicity. Its advertising and promotional campaigns
communicated to the population the goals of the regime and
attempted to inculcate new attitudes and behaviors. In its
efforts to create a socialist consumer culture, GUM recast
the functions and meanings associated with the everyday
activities of buying and selling, turning them into
politically charged acts that could either contribute to or
delay the transformation of the economy and society.
Ultimately, however, GUM's efforts to build communism
through consumerism were unsuccessful and only
succeeded in alienating consumers from state stores and
instituting a culture of complaint and entitlement.
Randall, Amy E. (Amy Elise) 1967-
Legitimizing Soviet Trade: Gender and the Feminization of the Retail Workforce in the Soviet 1930s [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Retail trade -- Soviet Union -- Employees -- History -- 20th century.
Women -- Employment -- Soviet Union -- History -- 20th century.
Women -- Soviet Union -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
In the 1930s the Soviet retail workforce was increasingly
feminized. At the same time, Communist leaders launched a
campaign to establish "Soviet trade"---what they hoped
would be a distinctly non-capitalist state-organized system
of "socialist" retail trade. This article explores the
feminization of the retail workforce as a window on the
Soviet regime's efforts to mobilize retail trade and women
in new ways in the 1930s. It argues that the feminization of
the retail workforce resulted in more than an influx of
women workers; it turned out to be critical to attempts to
remake retail trade. As the trade campaign got under way
and the female workforce grew, authorities rationalized
women's employment by constructing a new woman retail
worker who carried out "revolutionary Bolshevik work."
They identified "feminine" qualities with excellence in
retailing. Highly valued attributes of the idealized new
system of socialist trade that reportedly distinguished it
from capitalist retailing and the already existing
state-controlled system became coded as feminine. As a
result, this article argues, the feminization of the retail
workforce contributed to the legitimization and gendering
of Soviet trade. Moreover, because feminization was
accompanied by a new discourse about women that
involved a positive reimagining of the feminine and the
domestic, it also buttressed a larger transformation in
official understandings of women's roles and womanly
characteristics in the building of Soviet socialism.
The Mysterious Power of Words: Language, Law, and Culture in Ottoman Damascus (17th-18th centuries) [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Justice, Administration of -- Syria -- Damascus -- History.
Islamic law -- Syria -- Damascus -- History.
Turkish language -- Syria -- Damascus-- Psychological aspects -- History.
Language and culture -- Syria -- Damascus -- History.
Like other aspects of social life, speech and conversation
have their own rich and intricate history. But even in fairly
recent scholarship, they remain subjects which have
gone largely unexplored, mostly due to the limitations in
sources which face all researchers and grow ever more
intractable as one travels further back in time. This
article takes a fresh look at these problems by examining
literary and legal materials from Ottoman Damascus in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It reconstructs
patterns of speech and manners, and links them with
different sets of ideals and social norms that
prevailed throughout urban society in the early modern
Middle East. Of particular interest are habits of cursing
and swearing, which have left residual traces even in
written sources. One critical issue is the relationship
between language and law, which turns up most vividly in
the use of oaths, which were very much a part of everyday
speech. They demonstrate how townspeople treated words
virtually as deeds, regarding them with a degree of
literalism which may not have been present in other
cultures such as Western Europe, where their use had
become more restricted.
Policing Male Heterosexuality: The Reformation of Manners Societies' Campaign Against the Brothels in Westminster, 1690-1720 [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Sex crimes -- England -- London -- History.
Prostitution -- Law and legislation -- England -- London -- History.
Social problems -- England -- London -- History.
Westminster (London, England) -- Social conditions.
The societies for the reformation of manners, driven by
volunteers' desires to eradicate immorality, operated in
cities across England from the 1690s to the 1730s.
This article uses a previously ignored source: the
recognizance, to show that prostitutes' clients were
targeted in their campaigns. Although the thousands of
female prostitutes arrested have rightly absorbed
historians' attention until now, their male clients also
deserve notice. London's recognizances reveal that
hundreds of elite and middling men were arrested for
consorting with lewd women. This contradicts previous
theories that the reformation of manners movement was an
episode in policing the poor, and was concerned only with
female sexuality. The evidence shows that prostitutes'
clients were greatly disturbed by the campaigns, violently
resisting arrest, attempting to bribe officials to spare them,
or indulging in elaborate ruses to ensure that their whoring
could remain undetected. These forms of opposition to the
societies underscore the success of the moralists in
infiltrating wealthier men's sex lives. The arrests of these
men expose a key period in the history of sexuality: the
transition from seeing prostitutes as sexual predators to
perceiving them as victims, and the growing expectations
of the middling sort for chastity in men as well as women.
Assigned to Patrol: Neighborhoods, Police, and Changing Deployment Practices in New York City before 1930 [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Police patrol -- Social aspects -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
Police-community relations -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
Police administration -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
Police are widely assumed to have lost close links to
neighborhood as a result of the demise of foot patrol and
reformism which cut off police from local information and
concerns. But as this study of New York's police shows,
police-community ties were always limited, and
department policy was not neighborhood-friendly after the
1860s. A patrol officer could not possibly know every one
of thousands of people on post, and the instability of urban
residence made contact and knowledge more difficult. So
did officers' growing propensity to live far from where
they worked, a propensity encouraged by official policies.
Police ties to the locality were weakened further by
bureaucratic factors such as shift rotations and non-patrol
assignments. Aided by call boxes and other technologies,
police management increasingly regarded patrolmen as
interchangeable parts in a large policing machine. These
changes in official policies, rooted both in managerialism
and reformism, were effective earlier than has been
thought, and are visible in the 1880s, decades before the
automobile began to be important in the NYPD and well
before Progressive reform.
Gooptu, Nandini. Politics of the urban poor in early twentieth-century India.
Urban poor -- India.
Sánchez Román, José Antonio.
The Landowners of the Argentine Pampas: A Social and Political History, 1860-1945 (review) [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Hora, Roy. Landowners of the Argentine Pampas: a social and political history, 1860-1945.
Landowners -- Argentina -- Pampas -- History.
Howell, Martha C.
English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550: Marriage and Family, Property and Careers (review) [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Harris, Barbara J. (Barbara Jean), 1942- English aristocratic women, 1450-1550: marriage and family, property and careers.
Women -- England -- History -- Renaissance, 1450-1600.
Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
Defiance and Deference in Mexico's Colonial North: Indians under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya, and: The Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau 1582-1799 (review) [Access article in HTML] Subject Headings:
Deeds, Susan M. Defiance and deference in Mexico's colonial north: Indians under Spanish rule in Nueva Vizcaya.
Wade, Maria de Fátima, 1948- Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau 1582-1799.
Indians of Mexico -- Mexico -- Chihuahua (State) -- History.
Indians of North America -- Texas -- Edwards Plateau -- History.