Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 37, Number 2, Winter 2003


Articles

    Frost, Ginger Suzanne, 1962-
  • "The Black Lamb of the Black Sheep": Illegitimacy in the English Working Class, 1850-1939
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    Subject Headings:
    • Illegitimate children -- Great Britain -- Social conditions.
    • Working class families -- Great Britain -- History.
    • Infanticide -- Social aspects -- Great Britain -- History.
    Abstract:
      Illegitimate children in the respectable working class in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries faced numerous obstacles in their childhoods, including violence, poverty, state intervention, and identity crises. Though most illegitimates were folded into the maternal family, their home lives were complicated by the hostile reaction of some relatives and neighbors to their births, and many such informal "adoptions" were unstable. Children discovered their real parents without preparation, or they felt constrained to keep the family secret without ever quite knowing why. They were also often shuttled between family members and into and out of state care. In addition, social and legal discrimination survived well into the twentieth century, leading to feelings of inferiority. Although some children reported happy childhoods, the majority never felt secure, and tended to blame their illegitimacy for all problems. In particular, their relationships with their mothers suffered, but they could also have difficulties with siblings and extended kin. The experience of these "outsiders" revises several historical interpretations of the working-class family, as well as showing the influence of Victorian sexual attitudes into the mid-twentieth century.
    Wills, Jocelyn.
  • Respectable Mediocrity: The Everyday Life of an Ordinary American Striver, 1876-1890
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Economic conditions -- 1865-1918
    • United States -- Social conditions -- 1865-1918
    • Working class -- United States
    • Mediocrity -- United States
    • Boyle, Michael J.
    • Irish Americans -- Biography.
    Abstract:
      This article explores the everyday life of Michael Boyle, a social climber who failed to ascend the ladder of American success. Although he rose from day labor to white-collar work, Boyle acquired neither an important managerial position nor a business of his own. He never owned a home, and mobility through marriage eluded him. Regardless, at the end of his life, he did not regard himself a failure, because he had re-imagined himself as a successful bachelor, consumer, and salaried employee. Historians have produced a voluminous literature on economic elites and the working class, and America's "managerial class" has received considerable attention over the past decade, but fewer scholars have examined the rank-and-file office workers and economic strivers who bolstered capitalist expansion by eschewing working-class politics despite their failure to achieve mobility through entrepreneurship, property ownership, marriage, or the emerging professions associated with the rise of big business. Boyle's surviving diaries (1876—90) thus provide a rare opportunity to glimpse the world of ordinary Americans who adjusted to, rather than challenged, their descent into respectable mediocrity. They also suggest that we need to know much more about the complexities of salaried life, and the spending (rather than investment) mentality that energized expansion and fueled demands for credit and more affordable goods during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
    Hames, Gina.
  • Maize-Beer, Gossip, and Slander: Female Tavern Proprietors and Urban, Ethnic Cultural Elaboration in Bolivia, 1870-1930
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    Subject Headings:
    • Taverns (Inns) -- Bolivia -- Sucre -- History.
    • Women-owned business enterprises -- Bolivia -- Sucre -- History.
    • Indians of South America -- Bolivia -- Sucre -- Economic conditions.
    • Sucre (Bolivia) -- Ethnic relations -- Economic aspects -- History.
    Abstract:
      This article analyzes the ways in which chicheras, or sellers of maize beer, integrated themselves into urban chola (mixed ethnic identity) neighborhoods in Sucre, Bolivia in the years 1870—1930, the years in which Bolivia urbanized, modernized, and formed a national identity. The article utilizes one of the only sources available where one can find the actual words of early twentieth-century cholas and chicheras, slander suits. Chicheras, more than any other cholas, became involved in the numerous slander suits that took place in the local courts in Sucre. Chiceras' ambivalent social positions put them into the court system more often than any other group of cholas. In the legal cases it became particularly evident that chiceras controlled important social aspects of the neighborhoods because of the kinds of vocabulary that they used in their interactions not only with other cholas, but with elites as well. They were the people most frequently involved in legal suits because in their roles as proprietors of chicherías they were central to neighborhood gossip and politics and they wielded that centrality into a kind of power that integrated them into the neighborhoods and cemented their positions as leaders. Their story provides one of the best examples of cultural miscegenation available for the national period in Bolivian history.
    Slavishak, Edward Steven.
  • Artificial Limbs and Industrial Workers' Bodies in Turn-of-the-Century Pittsburgh
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    Subject Headings:
    • Orthopedic apparatus industry -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh -- History -- 20th century.
    • Amputees -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh -- Psychology -- History -- 20th century.
    • Blue collar workers -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article examines artificial limb manufacturers' strategies for marketing their products to Pittsburgh industrial workers at the turn of the twentieth century. Pittsburgh was home to some of the nation's most mechanized and dangerous workplaces by 1900, leading to medical and economic problems for its workers and a public image dilemma for city leaders. Prostheses promised to solve these crises by reconstructing the diligent, untiring worker's body for the glory of both the individual and the Steel City. Limb-makers' advertising materials, especially mail-order product catalogues, suggested four ways in which the injured worker should think of his rehabilitated body: as an illusion that made him "normal" once again; as a sophisticated whole that allowed him to enjoy a new social milieu; as a machine that represented American technological perfection; and as a tool that gamed him reentry into the workplace. Together, these appeals presented a vision of the working body that depended upon equal measures of utility and consumerism. The results of these prosthetic campaigns were mixed, offering workers renewed physical capabilities even as they failed to address the stark inequities and daily hazards of modern industrial work.
    Jew, Victor.
  • 'Chinese Demons': The Violent Articulation of Chinese Otherness and Interracial Sexuality in the U.S. Midwest, 1885-1889
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    Subject Headings:
    • Riots -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee -- History -- 19th century.
    • Chinese Americans -- Violence against -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee -- History -- 19th century.
    • Chinese Americans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee -- History -- 19th century.
    • Milwaukee (Wis.) -- Race relations -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      The 1880's witnessed the worst of the 19th century waves of anti-chinese violence in the United States. While most of these incidents occurred in the West, there were a few outbreaks east of the Mississippi River. Possibly the largest occurred in the Midwest—in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In March of 1889, that city saw four days of protest and one day of rioting against its Chinese laundrymen. Sparking this city-wide disturbance were allegations of sexual misconduct between two Chinese and a number of underaged white females. Recovering this forgotten episode gives historians an analytic frame by which to trace the intersection of anti-Chinese violence, interracial sexuality, and the formation of urban girl cultures in the late nineteenth century. This essay argues that the scandal and riot exposed new social aspects of two marginal populations: Chinese residents and white females in 1880's Milwaukee. The resulting unease was assuaged by the direct disciplining of the city's Chinese and the indirect disciplining of its school-aged white females.
    Carrigan, William D.
    Webb, Clive, 1970-
  • The Lynching of Persons of Mexican Origin or Descent in the United States, 1848 to 1928
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lynching -- United States -- History.
    • Mexican Americans -- Violence against -- History.
    • United States -- Race relations -- History.
    Abstract:
      The lynching of persons of Mexican origin or descent has been largely overlooked by historians of American mob violence. This essay offers the first attempt to construct a systematic set of data on the subject. The authors contend that between 1848 and 1928, mobs lynched at least 597 Mexicans. Traditional interpretations of western violence cannot account for this phenomenon. The actual causes of mob violence against Mexicans were several-fold: race and the legacy of Anglo American expansion, economic competition, and diplomatic tensions between Mexico and the United States. Throughout this era, Mexicans formulated numerous means of resistance against Anglo mobs. These included armed self-defense, public protest, the establishment of mutual defense organizations, and appeals for aid to the Mexican government. The central aim of this essay is to broaden the scholarly discourse on lynching by moving beyond the traditional limitations of the black/white paradigm. Placing the experience of Mexicans into the history of lynching expands our understanding of the causes of mob violence and the ways in which individuals and groups sought to resist lynching and vigilantism. The essay is based on numerous archival sources in both Spanish and English. These include diaries, letters, memoirs, folk culture, newspapers, government documents, and diplomatic correspondence.
    Ventresca, Robert.
  • The Virgin and the Bear: Religion, Society and the Cold War in Italy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Italy. Parlamento -- Elections, 1948.
    • Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint -- Apparitions and miracles -- Italy -- History -- 20th century.
    • Catholic Church -- Italy -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
    • Social psychology -- Italy -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the wave of Marian apparitions that spread across Italy in the weeks leading up to the national election of April 1948, held to elect the first parliament of Italy's post-Fascist Republic. By widening the conventional notion of what is 'political,' the article weaves together the broad political narrative of 1948 with social and psychological dimensions, in order to understand how such factors as popular piety conditioned the conduct of the campaign, as well as its outcome. The 1948 apparitions reflected an individual and collective search for meaning, order and protection on the part of ordinary Italians who worried about the implications for the faith and for the country of a Communist win at the ballot box. This was evidence of the extent to which the cult of the Virgin Mary had moved from fighting secularization, to fighting the spread of Soviet Communism. That hundreds of people flocked to the sight of an alleged apparition in an age that knew the radio, air travel and the atom bomb suggests that the traditional division between the 'modern' and 'pre-modern' era—the former rational, secular, scientific, the latter irrational, confessional, superstitious—may not hold.
    Purdy, Sean.
  • "It was tough on everybody": Low-Income Families and Housing Hardship in Post-World War II Toronto
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    Subject Headings:
    • Public housing -- Ontario -- Toronto -- History -- 20th century.
    • Poor families -- Ontario -- Toronto -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article explores the question of housing need in post-war Toronto by looking at the diverse reasons why families applied to the few public housing projects that were constructed after the war. It identifies a number of often overlapping causes for the housing dilemmas of low income families, including outright inability to pay, landlord intransigence to families with children and evictions, illness, overcrowding, deprived housing conditions, racism and social factors within the family. It aims to make a contribution to a growing body of work that complicates accepted notions of post-war prosperity and the benefits of the welfare state for low-income earners in advanced capitalist countries. The first section is based on adaptations of various statistical indicators of housing hardship generated by researchers for Toronto's public housing administration as well as analyses by social agencies, contemporary observers and recent scholarly research. It briefly looks at pre-World War II developments and then chronicles housing need from the 1940s to the 1990s. Various methods and databases were used in these studies and rarely did they originally attempt to chart processes over time. Nevertheless, we can make a reasonable assumption that this information offers us sound indications, if not exact measures, of the housing difficulties faced by low-income families. The second section of the article elucidates the informative if partial statistical record of housing need by considering various qualitative sources such as oral testimony, tenant correspondence and other documentary voices of low-income families. My interests in exploring this subject emanated from a larger study of Regent Park (RP) in Toronto, Canada's first and largest rent-geared-to-income housing project. The archival records, which contain numerous letters from prospective tenants and rare resident case files, and the interviews I conducted with former tenants of RP, speak directly to the question of housing need. I use the evidence both of families that secured places in RP and of prospective tenants who expressed a need for state assistance. By no means does this exhaust the low-income housing experience in Toronto but it provides readily accessible qualitative evidence to explore the question of housing hardship in the post-war era. The article thus highlights individual accounts of housing hardship, allowing us to put a much-needed human face on those left out of the much-vaunted, post-war "age of prosperity."
    Klein, Herbert S.
    Schiffner, Daniel C.
  • The Current Debate about the Origins of the Paleoindians of America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paleo-Indians -- Origin.
    • Human population genetics -- America.
    Abstract:
      In recent years, contributions from the fields of archeology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and genetics have revolutionized the study of the origins, timing and process of human settlement in America. This re-thinking of the origins of mankind in America question has been based on a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject. This essay provides the reader with a brief guide to this literature and the current state of this debate. It gives special attention to the recent genetics input on this subject which has provided new sources of information and older dating for the origins and timing of human migrations to the Western Hemisphere.
    Smithers, Gregory D. B.
  • Reassuring "White Australia": A Review of The Fabrication of Aboriginal History: Volume One, Van Diemen's Land 1803-1847
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    Subject Headings:
    • Windschuttle, Keith, 1942- Fabrication of Aboriginal history.
    • Aboriginal Australians -- History.
    Abstract:
      "Reassuring 'White Australia': A Review of The Fabrication of Aboriginal History: Volume One, Van Diemen's Land 1803—1847 by Keith Windschuttle (Sydney: Macleay Press, 2002) is a review essay that assesses Keith Windschuttle's latest book in light of historical scholarship of Australian Aborigines over the last thirty years. The essay critiques both Windschuttle's methodology and his historical analysis, concluding that Windschuttle's book conforms to the prejudices of those on the right in Australian politics. In addition, an effort is made to place Australian Aboriginal history in a broader context, incorporating analyses of the impact of (settler) colonialism on Aboriginal people. In this way, the essay may have value to students and scholars of various other colonial contexts wishing to draw comparisons with their own field of expertise.

Reviews

    Walton, John K.
  • Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination 1830-1867, and: 'More than Mere Amusement': Working-class Women's Leisure in England, 1750-1914, and: The Eternal Slum: Housing and Social Policy in Victorian London (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hall, Catherine. Civilising subjects: metropole and colony in the English imagination 1830-1867.
    • Parratt, Catriona M., 1956- 'More than mere amusement': working-class women's leisure in England, 1750-1914.
    • Wohl, Anthony S. Eternal slum: housing and social policy in Victorian London.
    • Great Britain -- Colonies -- History -- 19th century.
    • Working class women -- England -- Recreation -- History.
    Michael, Bryane.
  • Masters of Illusion: The World Bank and the Poverty of Nations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Caufield, Catherine. Masters of illusion: the World Bank and the poverty of nations.
    • Economic assistance -- Developing countries.
    Cross, Gary S.
  • Histories of Leisure (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Koshar, Rudy, ed. Histories of leisure.
    • Leisure -- Social aspects -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
    Green, James Naylor, 1951-
  • Consumption Intensified: The Politics of Middle-Class Daily Life in Brazil (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • O'Dougherty, Maureen, 1956- Consumption intensified: the politics of middle-class daily life in Brazil.
    • Middle class -- Brazil -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
    Petrick, Gabriella M.
  • Food, Drink and Identity: Cooking, Eating and Drinking in Europe Since the Middle Ages (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scholliers, Peter, ed. Food, drink and identity: cooking, eating and drinking in Europe since the Middle Ages.
    • Food habits -- Europe -- History.
    Wickberg, Daniel, 1960-
  • Humor in Dutch Culture of the Golden Age (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dekker, Rudolf. Humor in Dutch culture of the Golden Age.
    • Dutch wit and humor -- History and criticism.
    Khoury, Dina Rizk.
  • The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity, State, Faith, and Community in the Late Ottoman State (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Karpat, Kemal H. Politicization of Islam: reconstructing identity, state, faith, and community in the late Ottoman state.
    • Turkey -- History -- 1878-1909.
    Donson, Andrew.
  • Fatherlands: State-Building and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Green, Abigail. Fatherlands: state-building and nationalism in nineteenth-century Germany.
    • Nationalism -- Germany -- History -- 19th century.
    Fairchilds, Cissie C.
  • Family Life in Early Modern Times 1500-1789 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kertzer, David I., 1948-, ed. Family life in early modern times 1500-1789.
    • Barbagli, Marzio, 1938-, ed.
    • Family -- Europe -- History.
    Carpenter, K. M. N.
  • Familie, Frau und Gesellschaft: Studien zur Strukturgeschichte der Familie in Westdeutschland 1945-1960 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Niehuss, Merith, 1954- Familie, Frau und Gesellschaft: Studien zur Strukturgeschichte der Familie in Westdeutschland 1945-1960.
    • Family -- Germany (West) -- History.
    Dorr, Lisa Lindquist.
  • To Raise Up the South: Sunday Schools in Black and White Churches, 1865-1915 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McMillen, Sally Gregory, 1944- To raise up the South: Sunday schools in Black and white churches, 1865-1915.
    • Sunday schools -- Southern States -- History -- 19th century.
    Waalkes, Mary.
  • Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the Civil War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baptist, Edward E. Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's plantation frontier before the Civil War.
    • Florida -- History -- 1821-1865.
    Vandal, Gilles.
  • A Different Day: African American Struggles for Justice in Rural Louisiana, 1900-1970 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • De Jong, Greta. Different day: African American struggles for justice in rural Louisiana, 1900-1970.
    • African Americans -- Civil rights -- Louisiana -- History -- 20th century.
    Fuente, Alejandro de la, 1963-
  • More than Black: Afro-Cubans in Tampa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Greenbaum, Susan D. More than Black: Afro-Cubans in Tampa.
    • Cuban Americans -- Florida -- Tampa -- Social conditions.
    Paquette, Robert L., 1951-
  • The Mighty Experiment: Free Labor versus Slavery in British Emancipation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Drescher, Seymour. Mighty experiment: free labor versus slavery in British emancipation.
    • Antislavery movements -- Great Britain.
    Clark, Linda L., 1942-
  • Daughters of Eve: A Cultural History of French Theater Women from the Old Regime to the Fin de Siècle (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Berlanstein, Lenard R. Daughters of Eve: a cultural history of French theater women from the Old Regime to the fin de siècle.
    • Women in the theater -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    Fields, Jill.
  • Fashion and its Social Agendas: Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crane, Diana, 1933- Fashion and its social agendas: class, gender, and identity in clothing.
    • Costume -- Social aspects.
    Bouchard, Constance Brittain.
  • Cities of Ladies: Beguine Communities in the Medieval Low Countries, 1200-1565 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Simons, Walter. Cities of ladies: Beguine communities in the medieval low countries, 1200-1565.
    • Beguines -- Benelux countries -- History.
    Smith, Jason Scott.
  • Days of Discontent: American Women and Right-Wing Politics, 1933-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Benowitz, June Melby. Days of discontent: American women and right-wing politics, 1933-1945.
    • Women in politics -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Pruitt, Bernadette.
  • The Punished Self: Surviving Slavery in the Colonial South (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bontemps, Alex, 1945- Punished self: surviving slavery in the colonial South.
    • Slaves -- Southern States -- Psychology.
    Carson, Carolyn Leonard.
  • Nursing, Physician Control, and the Medical Monopoly: Historical Perspectives on Gendered Inequality in Roles, Rights and Range of Practice (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Group, Thetis M. Nursing, physician control, and the medical monopoly: historical perspectives on gendered inequality in roles, rights and range of practice.
    • Roberts, Joan I.
    • Nurse and physician -- History.
    Lindemann, Mary.
  • Der zerstückte Cörper: Zur Sozialgeschichte der anatomischen Sektionen in der frühen Neuzeit (1650-1800) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stukenbrock, Karin. Zerstückte Cörper: zur Sozialgeschichte der anatomischen Sektionen in der frühen Neuzeit (1650-1800)
    • Dissection -- History.
    Reznick, Jeffrey S. (Jeffrey Stephen)
  • The War Come Home: Disabled Veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cohen, Deborah, 1968- War come home: disabled veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939.
    • Disabled veterans -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • Facing the Ocean: The Atlantic and Its Peoples 8000 BC-AD 1500 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cunliffe, Barry W. Facing the ocean: the Atlantic and its peoples 8000 BC-AD 1500.
    • Europe -- Civilization.
    Riddle, John M.
  • The Measure of Multitude: Population in Medieval Thought (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Biller, Peter. Measure of multitude: population in medieval thought.
    • Population -- History.
    McCleskey, Turk.
  • From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kulikoff, Allan. From British peasants to colonial American farmers.
    • United States -- Economic conditions -- To 1865.
    Kassow, Samuel D.
  • Builders and Deserters: Students, State and Community in Leningrad, 1917-1941 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Konecny, Peter, 1963- Builders and deserters: students, state and community in Leningrad, 1917-1941.
    • Education, Higher -- Political aspects -- Russia (Federation) -- Saint Petersburg.
    Beaudoin, Steven M. (Steven Maurice), 1965-
  • A Social Laboratory for Modern France: The Musée Social and the Rise of the Welfare State (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Horne, Janet R. (Janet Regina) Social laboratory for modern France: the Musée social and the rise of the welfare state.
    • France -- Social policy.



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