Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 37, Number 1, Fall 2003
Special Issue: The Futures of Social History


Contents

Part I: Introducing the Issues

    Stearns, Peter N.
  • Social History Present and Future
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social history -- 1970-
    • Social sciences -- Methodology.
    Abstract:
      This article reviews the reasons for a status report on social history, including an apparent pause in the "cultural turn" and an imminent shift in scholarly leadership. It reviews the current state of some of the classical issues in social history, such as the relationship to political history, periodization and the role in teaching and public presentation. Continued expansion of the topical range of social history includes growing collaboration with focused social science inquiry, in areas like crime or drinking, as the excitement of the field persists. Sociohistorical work in various areas of the world provides a springboard for new comparative and regional analysis, one of the clear challenges for the future.
    Kocka, Jürgen.
  • Losses, Gains and Opportunities: Social History Today
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    Subject Headings:
    • Germany -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Social sciences -- Germany -- Methodology.
    Abstract:
      Both as a subdiscipline and as an approach to general history social history has deeply changed in the last thirty years. Losses and gains, defeats and victories were intrinsically intertwined. The article reconstructs this mélange from a German point of view. Presently the quest for new trans-national approaches offers new challenges and opportunities. A new "social turn" may be imminent.
    Kaelble, Hartmut.
  • Social History in Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • Europe -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
    • Social sciences -- Europe -- Methodology.
    Abstract:
      This article deals with the recent changes, the past challenges and the future topics of social history in Europe. It describes first major changes of social history in the recent past such as the change of topics and methods, the change of nation as unit of analysis, and of the co-operation with other disciplines. These changes are explained by recent challenges for social history writing such as the shifts of European societies away from the classical topics of social history, the trend of internationalization, the cultural turn and the upheaval of 1989/90. The end of the article presents what might be future topics of social history: the return to the history of burning social questions, the social history of politics, the cultural enlargement of social history and the social history of Europe as a whole.

Part II: The Cultural Turn and Beyond

    Fass, Paula S.
  • Cultural History/Social History: Some Reflections on a Continuing Dialogue
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social history -- 1970-
    • Social sciences -- Methodology.
    Abstract:
      Beginning in the late 1970s, social history was criticized for its tendency to privilege "normal" behavior, its overdependence on static structures, and on categorizing individuals in preset groups. In replacing social history as the dominant new prospective on the past, cultural historians tried to address some of the serious questions raised about the methods of social historians while they adopted the new subjects that social historians had brought into the field. In their revised strategies, cultural historians brought back into awareness issues relating to the contingent, the personal, and the eccentric. At the same time, in swinging away from the vigorous research methods and forms of disciplined inquiry that had become the hallmarks of social historians, cultural historians frequently fell into a variety of problems that have now become quite visible in the field. By urging that the close alliance between cultural and social history be refreshed, Paula Fass suggests ways in which contemporary cultural historians can strengthen their research and writing by learning from the methods and strategies of social history.
    Parthasarathi, Prasannan.
  • The State of Indian Social History
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    Subject Headings:
    • India -- Social conditions.
    • India -- Economic conditions.
    • India -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      Indian social history appears to be in decline. Although fine work has been published in recent years, the cutting edge of scholarship on the Indian past has moved elsewhere, particularly into the domains of cultural and intellectual life. As a consequence, the economic and material questions that were integral to social history have come to be neglected in many recent historical works. Such a neglect of the material, however, misinterprets the theoretical efforts of major thinkers, in particular Michel Foucault, who are cited in support of the shift to culture and intellectual history. For Foucault, economic conditions and material institutions were not irrelevant, but absolutely central for his analysis of modern forms of power. A one-sided reading of Foucault has meant that historians of India are ignoring economic questions precisely at the moment when economic relations throughout the world are being radically restructured. The task at hand is to bring back the exploration of the economy to the study of the Indian past. This will reinvigorate history writing and also place historians of South Asia squarely at the center of major debates and political conflicts taking place today around globalization and neo-liberalism.

Part III: Central Issues

    Charle, Christophe, 1951-
  • Contemporary French Social History: Crisis or Hidden Renewal?
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    Subject Headings:
    • France -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    • France -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Social sciences -- France -- Methodology.
    Abstract:
      Since the eighties, social history in France, as in many other countries, slipped from a macro-social to a micro-social viewpoint. Today, questions about the evolution of social history are becoming more radical still: the reduction of the objects has often led to the disappearance of their social dimension. The definition of social history as such has lost its coherence, whether because French social history has opted for prospects borrowed from other national historiographies (for example social history of politics, social history of the State, gender history), or because social history has been contested by other types of history which denied the primary role of social factors: history of representations, cultural history, anthropological history.

      It is too easy to interpret these evolutions as a "crisis" or a critical turning point. In fact a critical evaluation of recent works shows more a great fecondity of new approaches and new themes: portraits of groups forgotten by standard works (professions, outsiders, aristocracies, and so on), investigations on social relations until now neglected (gender, generations, private life), cross-fertilization of social history with ethnological, cultural, political, linguistic approaches. Competing paradigms borrowed from different social sciences or dividing sociology lead to an impossibility of synthesis as dreamed by Labrousse or Braudel. Nevertheless, it is possible to imagine new ways of cumulating all this analytical new stuff as different inquiries show on mobilities, polemics on gender history in France, proposals of a cultural history of society (R. Chartier), of a socio-history (G. Noiriel), or of a comparative social history (C. Charle). The main issue is to forget the unquestioned framework of traditional periodization or national scale to invent new prospects adapted to the specificity of the chosen theme organizing this global synthesis. The enduring reflection over the crises of nation and phenomena of memories, dominant in French recent scholarship—which has emulated similar researches in neighboring countries—might be also used as a preliminary travail du deuil, to challenge disciplinary borders and the national unconscious which are the eternal and principal brakes on historical imagination, today and yesterday.

    Linden, Marcel van der, 1952-
  • Gaining Ground
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social history -- Historiography.
    • History -- Philosophy.
    Abstract:
      A paradox characterizes social historiography: simultaneous accumulation and fragmentation of knowledge. We understand social structures and processes in the past much better than we did a few decades ago. At the same time, much that once appeared to be solid has melted into thin air. Our discipline has splintered and there is a serious risk that connections between different historic processes become obscured. We should not accept this paradox as permanent, but solve it with a new paradox: further extension of the field (by "globalizing" the discipline and by including the non-modern) and integration through multiple and intersecting Partial Grand Narratives.
    Eustace, Nicole.
  • When Fish Walk on Land: Social History in a Postmodern World
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Study and teaching.
    • United States -- Civilization -- 1970-
    Abstract:
      When the "new social history" movement developed in early American studies around 1970—with the near simultaneous publication of path-breaking work by John Demos, Philip Greven, Jr., Kenneth Lockridge, and Michael Zuckerman—critics hailed the arrival of a new more inclusive kind of bottom-up history, one that focused on the daily life of the "average man." But almost as quickly, they also began to worry about the problem of fragmentation and the related decline of narrative forms of historical writing. Now, more than thirty years later, scholars of early America are finding creative ways to reinvent the very idea of synthesis, offering new narratives that draw on postmodern theories of identity and power in order to integrate disparate elements of the historical record in fresh and exciting ways.
    Thane, Pat.
  • Social Histories of Old Age and Aging
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    Subject Headings:
    • Aged -- Social conditions.
    • Aged -- Economic conditions.
    Abstract:
      Social historians have become increasingly aware of the multiple forms of social diversity within all societies, including age diversity. But less attention has been paid to older rather than younger ages. This article examines the history and social meanings of aging and old age, mainly in the 'western' cultures of Europe, North America and Australasia, and mainly concerning their White inhabitants due to the very limited availability of historical work on other cultures which it should be part of our future agenda to repair. Even across these 'western' countries, it is difficult to make systematic comparisons, due to the different preoccupations of, and uneven volume of work by historians of different countries. Nevertheless, existing work makes us aware of the significant presence of older people, especially of older women, in most past societies and of the subjectivity and highly variable experiences of aging and old age across place and time; and it cautions against negative narratives of declining experience over time. This is a field in which social history has much to contribute to present-day debates, and fears, about the aging of societies, and it is one in which there is much exciting work still to be done.
    Johnson, Walter, 1967
  • On Agency
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    Subject Headings:
    • Slavery -- United States -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      This article provides a critical evaluation of the trope of "agency" in the New Social History scholarship on slavery. It argues that the idea of a non-variagated slave "agency" smuggles a liberal notion of subjectivity into the heart of the scholarship of slavery, which has led many scholars to confuse the categories of slaves' humanity, (liberal) agency, and resistance to slavery. It suggests more attention to the material and cultural determinations of slaves' lives, to the condition of enslaved humanity and to the everyday processes of political action among the enslaved as alternative approaches. Finally, it argues that the injunction to "give the slaves back their agency" was a scholarly call to arms which was meaningful at the moment in which the New Social History emerged, but which has now lost its political salience and suggests that if historians are to continue to frame their scholarship as an act of historical redress, they should do so in terms more suited to the current circumstances.
    Tabili, Laura.
  • Race is a Relationship, and not a Thing
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    Subject Headings:
    • Great Britain -- Race relations -- History.
    Abstract:
      The methods of class analysis remain vital for understanding and explaining racial processes. Social historians' exposure and exploration of the contingency, relationality, and contextuality of all historical processes remains unsurpassed and indispensable in understanding race, gender, sexuality, and imperialism, among the multiple historical formations "the cultural turn" rendered newly visible. Struggles to integrate analyses of race, gender, and other social dynamics into historical and theoretical accounts of class formation have deepened our understanding that all social formations have been fissured on multiple axes of power and the resources power commands. Racialized people were neither the sole nor necessarily the most visible "others" in these multiply stratified societies.

      Denouncing metropolitan populations as uniformly racist and imperialistic, thus implicitly white, may concede, participate in and reproduce racialized and colonized people's exclusion from these societies. Applying class analyses to racial processes instead exposes their contingent, protean and relational nature. Understanding racial formation as an historical process rather than a static, naturalized "category," as "a relationship, and not a thing" can rescue racial difference, racism, and the history of racialized people from the margins and ghettos of historical scholarship, placing them instead at the intersection of the multiple social processes shaping our history.

Part IV: Social History and Standard Topics

    Holt, Mack P.
  • The Social History of the Reformation: Recent Trends and Future Agendas
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    Subject Headings:
    • Reformation -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      Over the last forty years, social historians have transformed the study of the Reformation in a variety of ways. New historical methods as well as a new interest in the laity and how religion was practiced and perceived rather than just how it was taught by clerical elites have challenged older narratives of the Reformation. These narratives often depicted Lutheranism and Calvinism as more modern and more progressive forms of religion, which replaced a decaying and outmoded medieval Catholicism. Because of their interest in religious practices, social historians have been more focused on the similar goals and aims of reformed Protestantism and reformed Catholicism, such as the goal of both to instill greater social and moral discipline in an effort to remake the kingdom of Christ on earth, than in the obvious doctrinal disputes that divided them. These contributions are most noticeable in several key areas—lay piety, rituals, gender and marriage, confessionalization and social discipline, and transmission of ideas through print, images, and education—and the greatest potential for future research lies in these same areas.
    Censer, Jack Richard.
  • Amalgamating the Social in the French Revolution
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    Subject Headings:
    • France -- History -- Revolution, 1789-1799 -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      The French Revolution has long depended on social factors to explain its causes, course, and consequences. In particular, Marxist explanations held sway throughout the first three-quarters of the twentieth century. In the last twenty years or so, linguistically driven works pushed the social aside and became the leading viewpoint. However, a current wave of scholarship suggests a differing approach in which the social returns but significantly altered. First, it arrives linked to cultural or ideational factors. Second, bourgeois class consciousness emerges from commercial links, not from the precise social position of individual entrepreneurs.
    Shapiro, Gilbert.
  • Recent Developments in Social History
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    Subject Headings:
    • France -- History -- Revolution, 1789-1799 -- Historiography.
    • Social sciences -- France -- Methodology.
    Abstract:
      Recent trends in social history are assessed. The meaning, and the limitations of "revisionism" in the study of the French Revolution, and the distinction between "social" and "cultural" history are examined. The shift of the use of social science methods and theoretical ideas in historical study from a controversial proposal to their normal and routine incorporation in works of history is judged to be the most important change of the last few decades.

Part V: New Topics and Historians

    Gassan, Richard.
  • Social History for Beginners: A "Young Scholar" Looks at His New Profession
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social history -- Study and teaching -- United States.
    • Social historians -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Our nearly youthful protagonist entered graduate school in the mid-1990s to pursue a Ph.D. in history. Wide-eyed and nearly entirely unprepared for the tides and vicissitudes of the scholarly debates that had, unknown to him, swirled through the profession for decades, our hero discovers that he is part of a cusp generation of historians, standing between the roar of the 1960s and the unknown that lies beyond. He can only perceive that whatever the operative paradigm is, it has been profoundly shaped by the successes of the agenda of the social historians of the 1960s. But as that generation begins to pass, the outlines of whatever is to follow are still unclear; all he knows is that, having completed his degree in May of 2002, his search for a job had already begun.
    Smith, Mark M. (Mark Michael), 1968-
  • Making Sense of Social History
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hobsbawm, E. J. (Eric J.), 1917- From social history to the history of society.
    • Social history -- Historiography.
    • History -- Philosophy.
    Abstract:
      Drawing on Eric Hobsbawm's thinking on the meaning and nature of social history, this essay explores how the field has influenced recent work on the history of the senses, particularly work on historical aurality. By reviewing work on sensory history, the essay argues that social history seems to have been important to historical work on sound, noise, hearing, listening, and olfaction especially. It points to how social history's emphasis on the depth, breadth, and braided nature of historical experience has helped inform writing on the senses and considers some of the methodological and conceptual questions and concerns arising from histories of the senses. The essay concludes by suggesting the probable importance of social and sensory history for historical writing generally.
    Allina-Pisano, Eric.
  • Resistance and the Social History of Africa
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    Subject Headings:
    • Africa -- Social conditions.
    • Africa -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      This article examines an episode of worker flight in colonial Mozambique and urges a rethinking of resistance in African social history. Worker flight has often been cast as a form of resistance to colonial rule and wage labor but the case considered here rests awkwardly within the paradigm. The social history of resistance in Africa has occupied a central place in the historiography since the 1960s. Such work has contributed greatly to the writing of African history, especially of the colonial era. The article suggests that it may be time, historiographically and methodologically, to look beyond resistance. Moving beyond resistance may permit examinations of African politics that do not fit neatly into the category of resistance or the related ones of collaboration and domination. The resistance paradigm often clothes historical actors in the guise of oppressed and oppressor, when they frequently possessed multiple and overlapping identities. The now orthodox use of oral testimony makes it possible to explore these identities, defined as much by societies as by the demands of the state.
    Carton, Benedict.
  • The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa
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    Subject Headings:
    • HIV infections -- South Africa -- Historiography.
    • AIDS (Disease) -- Transmission -- South Africa -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      A decade after South Africa's transition from apartheid to democracy, HIV/AIDS has superseded freedom struggles as the urgent matter of the day. With one of the highest national rates of HIV infection in the world, South Africa faces a bleak demographic future. The principal mode of HIV transmission, unprotected intercourse, and the stigma that surrounds this issue have recently spurred historians to probe patterns of sexual and etiological socialization. But an equally important and related theme, perceptions of mortality, has yet to receive this level of recognition. Indeed, comprehensive studies of death seldom feature in the social history of South Africa. This exploratory article traces the intellectual and topical currents propelling social historians to broaden their understanding of sexuality and health, two phenomena determining views of mortality in the age of AIDS. It reasserts a forte of the "new" social history—the study of the "ways of death"—to offer insights to researchers seeking to integrate analyses of sexuality, disease, and mortality. Finally, by examining three epidemics in South Africa, this article explores penitential mourning as both a medium of power (through which people command deference, assign blame, or challenge authority) and a ritual of coping with the "pollution" of death and sexual transgression.
    Cronin, James E.
  • Memoir, Social History and Commitment: Eric Hobsbawm's Interesting Times
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hobsbawm, E. J. (Eric J.), 1917- Interesting times: a twentieth-century life.
    • Social historians -- Great Britain -- History.
    • History, Modern -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The publications of Eric Hobsbawm's autobiography, Interesting Times, provides an opportunity to revisit and reassess his work as an historian. Doing so makes it clear that Hobsbawm's politics, registered most clearly in his long-time membership in the British Communist Party, was central to his achievements as a historian. His politics shaped his views and his choice of topics and provided him with unusual access to worlds most historians have rarely glimpsed. Inevitably, however, Hobsbawm's political loyalties also constrained and limited his treatment of phenomena or processes that conflicted with, or argued against, those commitments.

Reviews

    Frost, Jennifer, 1961-
  • Race Experts: How Racial Etiquette, Sensitivity Training, and New Age Therapy Hijacked the Civil Rights Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lasch-Quinn, Elisabeth. Race experts: how racial etiquette, sensitivity training, and new age therapy hijacked the civil rights revolution.
    • African Americans -- Civil rights -- History -- 20th century.
    Sigel, Lisa Z., 1965-
  • Blasphemy: Impious Speech in the West from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cabantous, Alain. Blasphemy: impious speech in the West from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.
    • Rauth, Eric, tr.
    • Blasphemy -- History.
    Newman, Kathy M., 1966-
  • Listening to Nineteenth-Century America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Mark M. (Mark Michael), 1968- Listening to nineteenth-century America.
    • United States -- Social life and customs -- 19th century.
    Eustace, Nicole.
  • Teach Me Dreams: The Search for Self in the Revolutionary Era (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sobel, Mechal. Teach me dreams: the search for self in the revolutionary era.
    • United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 -- Social aspects -- Sources.
    Wood, J. Carter.
  • Experiencing Dominion: Culture, Identity and Power in the British Mediterranean (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gallant, Thomas W. Experiencing dominion: culture, identity and power in the British Mediterranean.
    • Ionian Islands (Greece) -- Cultural policy -- History -- 19th century.
    Smith, Jay M., 1961-
  • The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680-1800 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bell, David Avrom. Cult of the nation in France: inventing nationalism, 1680-1800.
    • Nationalism -- France -- History.
    Clark, Christopher, 1953-
  • Farm, Shop, Landing: The Rise of a Market Society in the Hudson Valley, 1780-1860 (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Bruegel, Martin, 1960- Farm, shop, landing: the rise of a market society in the Hudson Valley, 1780-1860.
    • Columbia County (N.Y.) -- Economic conditions -- 18th century.
    Bergad, Laird W., 1948-
  • The Social Transformation of Eighteenth-Century Cuba (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Johnson, Sherry, 1949- Social transformation of eighteenth-century Cuba.
    • Cuba -- Social conditions -- 18th century.
    Davis, Rick.
  • Reflecting the Audience: London Theatregoing, 1840-1880 (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Davis, Jim, 1949- Reflecting the audience: London theatregoing, 1840-1880.
    • Emeljanow, Victor.
    • Theater -- England -- London -- History -- 19th century.
    Kelly, Timothy.
  • Communion of Immigrants: A History of Catholics in America (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Fisher, James Terence. Communion of immigrants: a history of Catholics in America.
    • Catholic Church -- United States -- History.
    Swiencicki, Mark A.
  • Playboys in Paradise: Masculinity, Youth and Leisure-style in Modern America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Osgerby, Bill. Playboys in paradise: masculinity, youth and leisure-style in modern America.
    • Young men -- Recreation -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Whitney, Susan B.
  • Enfants Terribles: Youth & Femininity in the Mass Media in France, 1945-1968 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weiner, Susan, 1964- Enfants terribles: youth & femininity in the mass media in France, 1945-1968.
    • Mass media and youth -- France.
    Balzer, Harley D.
  • An Improper Profession: Women, Gender, and Journalism in Late Imperial Russia (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Gheith, Jehanne M., ed. Improper profession: women, gender, and journalism in late Imperial Russia.
    • Norton, Barbara T., 1948-, ed.
    • Women in journalism -- Russia -- History -- 19th century.
    Bristol, Joan.
  • The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle for Independence, 1810-1821 (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Van Young, Eric. Other rebellion: popular violence, ideology, and the Mexican struggle for independence, 1810-1821.
    • Mexico -- History -- Wars of Independence, 1810-1821.
    Cross, Gary S.
  • Time and Work in England 1750-1830 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Voth, Hans-Joachim. Time and work in England 1750-1830.
    • Hours of labor -- England -- History -- 18th century.
    Nash, Gary B.
  • The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gallay, Alan. Indian slave trade: the rise of the English empire in the American South, 1670-1717.
    • Slave trade -- Great Britain -- History -- 17th century.
    Ffolliott, Sheila.
  • Blue: The History of a Color (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pastoureau, Michel, 1947- Blue: the history of a color.
    • Blue.
    Martin, James Kirby, 1943-
  • Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82 (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Fenn, Elizabeth A. (Elizabeth Anne), 1959- Pox Americana: the great smallpox epidemic of 1775-82.
    • Smallpox -- United States -- History -- 18th century.
    O'Donovan, Susan E.
  • Working Cures: Healing, Health, and Power on Southern Slave Plantations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fett, Sharla M. Working cures: healing, health, and power on southern slave plantations.
    • Healing -- Southern States -- History.
    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • Creating Paradise: The Building of the English Country House, 1660-1880 (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Wilson, Richard, 1938- Creating paradise: the building of the English country house, 1660-1880.
    • Mackley, Alan.
    • Manors -- England -- History.
    Furlough, Ellen, 1953-
  • Marketing Michelin: Advertising and Cultural Identity in Twentieth-Century France (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Harp, Stephen L. Marketing Michelin: advertising and cultural identity in twentieth-century France.
    • Advertising -- Tires -- France -- History.
    Self, Robert O., 1968-
  • Strikebreaking and Intimidation: Mercenaries and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century America (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Norwood, Stephen H. (Stephen Harlan), 1951- Strikebreaking and intimidation: mercenaries and masculinity in twentieth-century America.
    • Strikebreakers -- United States -- History -- 20th century.



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