Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 36, Number 4, Summer 2003


Contents

Articles

    Howard, Vicki.
  • A "Real Man's Ring": Gender and the Invention of Tradition
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rings -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Marriage customs and rites -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Men -- United States -- Identity -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States -- Social life and customs -- 1918-1945.
    Abstract:
      Unlike many wedding practices that have obscure origins, the American double ring ceremony and the groom's wedding band can be traced to advertising and promotional campaigns by the jewelry industry in the 1940s. The popularization of this invented tradition however, is not merely a story of hapless brides and grooms influenced by advertising, buying new types of consumer goods as soon as they appeared in jeweler's windows. The wedding industry was only able to transform mid-twentieth century practices when the goods and their accompanying rituals fit consumer demand, something shaped not merely by need, but by contemporary gender ideologies. The success of this invented tradition during the World War Two and early postwar context provides a window into a time when a new cult of marriage was working its way into the national discourse. Invented traditions did not always catch on, however, and the reasons for their failure shed light on the complex relation between business and society. This essay compares the rise of the double ring ceremony with the story of the 1920s male engagement ring—an invented tradition that failed— arguing that jewelers were only able to change custom when such practices resonated with their potential audience.
    Hamlin, David.
  • The Structures of Toy Consumption: Bourgeois Domesticity and Demand for Toys in Nineteenth-Century Germany
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    Subject Headings:
    • Toys -- Germany -- History -- 19th century.
    • Consumption (Economics) -- Germany -- History -- 19th century.
    • Germany -- Social life and customs -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Consumption emerges as an extremely complex topic when gift-giving is introduced into analysis. Consumer goods both reflect and construct the complex social relations that give rise to gift-giving. Toys emerged as mass consumer items in the nineteenth century because the responded to the internal antinomies within the ideology of bourgeois domesticity. The family as a privileged site of affection underwriting a healthy individuality often worked at cross-purposes to the family as the site of construction of culturally middle-class citizens. The inevitable tensions between these competing ideals and tasks were resolved through family festivals, especially Christmas. Christmas emphasized the mutual affection of the family members through attention to the immediate desires of other family members. This attention to the desires of children tended to encourage toys as a gift since more than any other gift, particularly books, they were capable of generating immediate excitement and happiness.
    Miller, Stephen S.
  • Absolutism and Class at the End of the Old Regime: The Case of Languedoc
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    Subject Headings:
    • Despotism -- France -- Languedoc -- History -- 18th century.
    • Fiscal policy -- France -- Languedoc -- History -- 18th century.
    • Social conflict -- Economic aspects -- France -- Languedoc -- History -- 18th century.
    • Land tenure -- France -- Languedoc -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      Historians of eighteenth-century France, whether of the classic Marxist tradition or the present-day trend focusing on political culture, have not analyzed the social content of the absolutist state. Peasants and artisans controlled resources of Languedoc through the ownership of land, sharecropping, mid cottage industry. The upper classes therefore depended on political relation to appropriate wealth. The judiciary allowed lords to enforce claims on peasants. Office holders in the fiscal system and the judiciary obtained a share of royal taxes. Loans taken out by the province for the crown were lucrative investments for local-nobles and-bourgeois, and steady flows of funds to the royal treasury. Yet to service mounting provincial debt, the crown had to curtail the right of office holders and lords to levy resources on peasants, for these resources were lost to the financial system. Nobles saw infringements on their privileged relationship with the state as despotic. They orchestrated a broad movement in 1788 and 1789 aimed at rendering the Estates of Languedoc representative of the three estates of the province. Thus, a class analysis of the absolutist state helps explain political developments at the end of the Old regime.
    Gerber, David A., 1944-
  • Disabled Veterans, the State, and the Experience of Disability in Western Societies, 1914-1950
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    Subject Headings:
    • Disabled veterans -- Developed countries -- Societies, etc. -- History -- 20th century.
    • Disabled veterans -- Developed countries -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century.
    • Disabled veterans -- Developed countries -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Social scientists and historians seeking to conceptualize the processes of identity and group formation among disabled veterans of military service in Western societies usually attribute the rise and development of disabled veterans as a social group to a relationship to the modem welfare state, which has been generous in distributing resources and recognitions to those injured or becoming chronically ill while serving in armed force. In this understanding, disabled veterans attain social identities and form organizations through their efforts to influence state policies and to attain enhanced benefits. The essay argues this perspective is limited by a failure to understand the larger context of the lives of disabled veterans. Through examination of the collective experience of adjustment of adult men to life-transforming impairments, the essay offers an alternative perspective that emphasizes the disabled veterans' agency in seeking to define their own needs in pursuit of a normalized existence. While acknowledging the need for state assistance, disabled veterans have frequently been wary of excessive dependence on the state as limiting the attainment of normalization.
    Witwer, David Scott.
  • The Scandal of George Scalise: A Case Study in the Rise of Labor Racketeering in the 1930s
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scalise, George.
    • Building Service Employees' International Union -- History -- 20th century.
    • Labor unions -- Corrupt practices -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      In 1940, the newspaper columnist Westbrook Pegler exposed the criminal past and organized crime connections of George Scalise, the president of the Building Service Employees International Union. Later that same year, Scalise was indicted and then convicted of criminal charges. This widely reported scandal tarnished the labor movement and served to vindicate conservative critics of organized labor, who cited such corruption to support efforts to rein in union power. Scalise's career demonstrates how organized crime came to control certain unions in the 1930s and the various ways corrupt officials used the labor movement for private gain. This scandal also highlights the biased reporting on union corruption, which depicted employers simply as victims, when many of them played a much more complicit role. The real victims were workers, who found themselves forced to join a union organization that did nothing but levy a tax on their employment. For many of these workers this experience left them deeply disillusioned with the labor movement.
    Bachin, Robin Faith.
  • At the Nexus of Labor and Leisure: Baseball, Nativism, and the 1919 Black Sox Scandal
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baseball -- Social aspects -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History -- 20th century.
    • Chicago White Sox (Baseball team) -- History -- 20th century.
    • World Series (Baseball) (1919)
    • Industrial relations -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History -- 20th century.
    • Chicago (Ill.) -- Race relations -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article analyzes the 1919 baseball scandal in relation to broader issues including labor, "outsiders," and Americanism following World War I. I argue that the scandal muted concerns about labor relations raised by players, and instead focused on supposed threats by "outsiders" and "foreigners" who, through their connections to the sporting underworld, sullied the American institution of baseball. I juxtapose the Black Sox scandal with the nationwide steel strike of 1919 to highlight how the rhetoric used to discuss both events, by industrial leaders, social commentators, and the popular press, reflected rising nativist attitudes and ideas that ultimately fueled the Red Scare and the Palmer Raids. Discussions of both the steel strike and the Black Sox scandal were subsumed under the banner of Americanism, and illustrated how the meaning of Americanism was constricted following the war. Sites such as the shopfloor and the baseball field became arenas in which these narrowing definitions of Americanism were constructed and negotiated.
    Fass, Paula S.
  • Children and Globalization
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    Subject Headings:
    • Globalization -- Social aspects.
    • Children -- Social conditions.
    Abstract:
      Globalization is affecting children in many areas of the world and images of child exploitation have become powerful media representations. But, children have rarely been part of the discussion of globalization. In an effort to bring the consideration of children into the center of our discussions, American historian Paula S. Fass suggests that the American experience of immigration may provide important ways to begin this discussion. She focuses on three areas—work, play, and sexuality—and argues that our understanding of how globalization is likely to affect the world's children and how their various cultures are likely to react can be glimpsed by examining the negotiations and contentions over these issues in the American past. Since we today look at the world from the vantage point and the sensibilities that came only through difficult conflicts about children and the meaning of childhood, unpacking those experiences will help us to better understand how other cultures are likely to react as their children become part of the forces altering the world everywhere today.
    Scardaville, Michael C.
  • Justice by Paperwork: A Day in the Life of a Court Scribe in Bourbon Mexico City
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    Subject Headings:
    • Criminal justice, Administration of -- Mexico -- Mexico City -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      This essay describes a typical day for a court scribe in Bourbon Mexico City in order to evaluate the prevailing scholarly view of criminal Judicial administration in the viceregal capital and the nature of the late colonial state. Historians and nineteenth century critics have asserted that the Bourbon state embraced oppressive criminal legal practices in Mexico City as a means of controlling popular groups and upholding public order. Based on an analysis of over 7,000 criminal cases, this study demonstrates that in spite of expanding poverty, a burgeoning caseload, and growing fear crime in the rapidly-growing city, the colonial legal system routinely adhered to standards of due process, and the courts systematically extended procedural safeguards to all of the accused, regardless of their social position. The daily operation of the criminal justice system, as demonstrated in the procedural work of the scribe and in the flexibility and moderation of the relatively autonomous magistrates, shaped popular notions of the state and thereby became one of the means through which public authority was sustained in late colonial Mexico City. Ultimately, this study questions the claim that the so-called absolutist Bourbon colonial state exercised judicial power in an arbitrary or capricious manner.
    Foroughi, Andrea R.
  • Vine and Oak: Wives and Husbands Cope with the Finanacial Panic of 1857
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    Subject Headings:
    • Domestic relations -- Economic aspects -- Minnesota -- Nininger -- History -- 19th century.
    • Financial crises -- Minnesota -- Nininger -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Exploring Washington Irving's vine and oak metaphor regarding gendered responses to financial failure, this case study analyzes couples' strategies to cope with the financial panic of 1857 in Nininger City, Minnesota, a boom-town that went bust. Just as Irving's fictional couple in "The Wife" dealt with the husband's financial failure in culturally defined, gender appropriate ways, Nininger families attempted to withstand business failures and mortgage foreclosures even as they strove to display a middle-class lifestyle. Evidence from letters, diaries, court records, and census data demonstrates that some husbands left Nininger seeking new opportunities to preserve their property and support their families, while wives attempted to represent the family's financial stability by staying in the town and keeping up appearances. Women did this through their insistence on a comfortable house to protect the family not only from harsh winters but also from those judging the family's precarious financial circumstances. In some marriages, gendered responses were transgressed by wives adopting husband's strategies temporarily, as in the case of Katherine and Ignatius Donnelly, or by divorce proceedings resulting from husbands' improper use of wives' property; the latter in particular challenged the mutual dependence of the husband/oak and wife/vine in weathering the financial crisis.
    Moon, Penelope Adams.
  • 'Peace on Earth--Peace in Vietnam': The Catholic Peace Fellowship and Antiwar Witness, 1964-1976
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    Subject Headings:
    • Catholic Peace Fellowship -- History -- 20th century.
    • Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Protest movements -- United States.
    • Peace -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church.
    Abstract:
      Founded in 1964, the Catholic Peace Fellowship (CPF) was central to American Catholic peacemaking during the Vietnam war and offers students of the era deeper insight into the complexity of the antiwar movement. CPF protest reflected growing disdain for American Activities in Vietnam among American Catholics, as well as growing interest in Catholic peacemaking following the reforms of the second Vatican Council. CPF members provided American Catholics with a forum in which they could protest the war in a religious context, even as they worked to maintain a religious voice in the larger secular antiwar movement. Unlike much secular protest activity, CPF protest sprang from religious roots and CPF members consciously constructed arguments against the war and developed protest tactics that reflected the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the Church's hidden history of nonviolence. Moreover, the primarily lay character of CPF challenged traditional relationships in the American Catholic Church. Rather than defer to clerical leadership, lay catholics in the CPF took the lead protesting the Vietnam War, a fact that prepared them to participate more fully in the mission of the church and in constructing the American Catholic Church's Post-Vatican II agenda.

Reviews

    Eustace, Nicole.
  • A Centre of Wonders: The Body in Early America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lindman, Janet Moore, ed. Centre of wonders: the body in early America.
    • Tarter, Michele Lise, 1960-, ed.
    • Body, Human -- Social aspects -- United States -- History.
    Ponce de Leon, Charles L. (Charles Leonard)
  • The Arts of Deception: Playing with Fraud in the Age of Barnum (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cook, James W., 1966- Arts of deception: playing with fraud in the age of Barnum.
    • Popular culture -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Martin, Scott C., 1959-
  • See America First: Tourism and National Identity, 1880-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shaffer, Marguerite S. See America first: tourism and national identity, 1880-1940.
    • Heritage tourism -- United States -- Marketing -- History.
    Macleod, David I.
  • On My Honor: Boy Scouts and the Making of American Youth (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mechling, Jay, 1945- On my honor: Boy Scouts and the making of American youth.
    • Boy Scouts of America.
    Brooks, Jeffrey, 1942-
  • Beyond the Limits: The Concept of Space in Russian History and Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Jeremy, 1964-, ed. Beyond the limits: the concept of space in Russian history and culture.
    • Space perception -- Russia.
    Sperber, Jonathan, 1952-
  • Kaspar Hauser: Europe's Child (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kitchen, Martin. Kaspar Hauser: Europe's child.
    • Hauser, Kaspar, 1812-1833.
    Ruggiero, Guido, 1944-
  • Daily Life in Renaissance Italy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cohen, Elizabeth Storr, 1946- Daily life in Renaissance Italy.
    • Cohen, Thomas V. (Thomas Vance), 1942-
    • Italy -- Social life and customs -- To 1500.
    Walther, Daniel Joseph, 1965-
  • German Women for Empire, 1894-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wildenthal, Lora, 1965- German women for empire, 1894-1945.
    • Women -- Germany -- History -- 19th century.
    Clark, Linda L., 1942-
  • The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hesse, Carla Alison. Other Enlightenment: how French women became modern.
    • France -- Intellectual life -- 19th century.
    Frierson, Cathy A.
  • Celebrating Women: Gender, Festival Culture, and Bolshevik Ideology, 1910-1939 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chatterjee, Choi. Celebrating women: gender, festival culture, and Bolshevik ideology, 1910-1939.
    • Women -- Soviet Union -- Social conditions.
    Miller, Montserrat.
  • The Virtuous Marketplace: Women and Men, Money and Politics in Paris, 1830-1870 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thompson, Victoria Elizabeth. Virtuous marketplace: women and men, money and politics in Paris, 1830-1870.
    • Women -- France -- Paris -- Economic conditions -- 19th century.
    Sigel, Lisa Z., 1965-
  • Prostitution: Prevention and Reform in England, 1860-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bartley, Paula. Prostitution: prevention and reform in England, 1860-1914.
    • Prostitution -- England -- History -- 19th century.
    Fields, Jill.
  • Bound to Please: A History of the Victorian Corset (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Summers, Leigh. Bound to please: a history of the Victorian corset.
    • Corsets.
    Kelly, Timothy.
  • Beloved Strangers: Interfaith Families in Nineteenth Century America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rose, Anne C., 1950- Beloved strangers: interfaith families in nineteenth century America.
    • Interfaith marriage -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Chojnacki, Stanley.
  • Aspiring Saints: Pretense of Holiness, Inquisition, and Gender in the Republic of Venice, 1618-1750 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schutte, Anne Jacobson. Aspiring saints: pretense of holiness, Inquisition, and gender in the Republic of Venice, 1618-1750.
    • Inquisition -- Italy -- Venice.
    Merrick, Jeffrey.
  • Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia: The Regulation of Sexual and Gender Dissent (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Healey, Dan. Homosexual desire in Revolutionary Russia: the regulation of sexual and gender dissent.
    • Gays -- Soviet Union -- Social conditions.
    Wiesner, Merry E., 1952-
  • Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crowston, Clare Haru, 1968- Fabricating women: the seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791.
    • Women tailors -- France -- History.
    Conley, Carolyn, 1953-
  • An Irish Working Class: Explorations in Political Economy and Hegemony, 1800-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Silverman, M. (Marilyn), 1945- Irish working class: explorations in political economy and hegemony, 1800-1950.
    • Working class -- Ireland -- Thomastown (Kilkenny) -- History -- 19th century.
    Waller, Altina L. (Altina Laura), 1940-
  • Grasping at Independence: Debt, Male Authority, and Mineral Rights in Appalachian Kentucky, 1850-1915 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Weise, Robert S. Grasping at independence: debt, male authority, and mineral rights in Appalachian Kentucky, 1850-1915.
    • Floyd County (Ky.) -- Economic conditions.
    Modell, John.
  • Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How It Can Succeed Again (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Flyvbjerg, Bent. Making social science matter: why social inquiry fails and how it can succeed again.
    • Social sciences -- Philosophy.
    Bailey, Peter, 1937-
  • For Home, Country, and Race: Constructing Gender, Class, and Englishness in the Elementary School, 1880-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Heathorn, Stephen J., 1965- For home, country, and race: constructing gender, class, and Englishness in the elementary school, 1880-1914.
    • Nationalism and education -- England -- History.
    Clark, Linda L., 1942-
  • Schools and Work: Technical and Vocational Education in France since the Third Republic (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Day, Charles R. Schools and work: technical and vocational education in France since the Third Republic.
    • Technical education -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
  • Mexican Americans & the U.S. Economy: Quest for Buenos Días, and: Moving from the Margins: A Chicana Voice on Public Policy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • González, Arturo. Mexican Americans & the U.S. economy: quest for buenos días.
    • Torre, Adela de la. Moving from the margins: a Chicana voice on public policy.
    • Mexican Americans -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
    • Mexican Americans -- California -- Politics and government.
    O'Connor, Alice, 1958-
  • Fighting Poverty with Virtue: Moral Reform and America's Urban Poor, 1825-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schwartz, Joel, 1950- Fighting poverty with virtue: moral reform and America's urban poor, 1825-2000.
    • Urban poor -- United States -- History.
    Clark, Anna.
  • The Old Poor Law in Scotland: The Experience of Poverty, 1574-1845 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mitchison, Rosalind. Old Poor Law in Scotland: the experience of poverty, 1574-1845.
    • Poor laws -- Scotland -- History.
    Grob, Gerald N., 1931-
  • Mental Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum, 1847-1901 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wright, David, 1965- Mental disability in Victorian England: the Earlswood Asylum, 1847-1901.
    • Earlswood Asylum -- History.
    Frey, Dennis A.
  • Bacchus and Civic Order: The Culture of Drink in Early Modern Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tlusty, B. Ann, 1954- Bacchus and civic order: the culture of drink in early modern Germany.
    • Drinking customs -- Germany -- Augsburg -- History.
    Romeo, Danilo.
  • Una Famiglia che Mangia Insieme: Cibo ed Etnicità Nella Comunità Italoamericana di New York, 1920-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cinotto, Simone. Famiglia che mangia insieme: cibo ed etnicità nella comunità italoamericana di New York, 1920-1940.
    • Italian Americans -- New York (State) -- New York -- Food.
    Eiss, Paul K.
  • Cárdenas Compromised: The Failure of Reform in Postrevolutionary Yucatán (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fallaw, Ben, 1966- Cárdenas compromised: the failure of reform in postrevolutionary Yucatán.
    • Cárdenas, Lázaro, 1895-1970.
    Bristol, Joan.
  • Crime and Punishment in Latin America: Law and Society since Late Colonial Times (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Salvatore, Ricardo Donato, ed. Crime and punishment in Latin America: law and society since late colonial times.
    • Aguirre, Carlos, 1958-, ed.
    • Joseph, G. M. (Gilbert Michael), 1947-, ed.
    • Crime -- Latin America -- History.
    Orenic, Liesl M.
  • Labor in Retreat: Class and Community Among Men's Clothing Workers of Chicago, 1871-1929 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bae, Youngsoo. Labor in retreat: class and community among men's clothing workers of Chicago, 1871-1929.
    • Men's clothing industry -- Illinois -- Chicago -- Employees -- History.
    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • An Economic History of London, 1800-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ball, Michael. Economic history of London, 1800-1914.
    • Sunderland, David, 1958-
    • London (England) -- Economic conditions.
    Censer, Jack Richard.
  • The Making of Revolutionary Paris (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Garrioch, David. Making of revolutionary Paris.
    • Paris (France) -- History -- 1715-1789.



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