Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History
Volume 36, Number 2, Winter 2002


Contents

Articles

    Harcourt, Edward John.
  • The Whipping of Richard Moore: Reading Emotion in Reconstruction America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moore, Richard -- In mass media.
    • African Americans -- Violence against -- Tennessee -- Lincoln County -- History -- 19th century.
    • African Americans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Southern States -- History -- 1865-1877.
    • Lincoln County (Tenn.) -- Race relations -- Political aspects -- History -- 19th century.
    • Social psychology -- Southern States -- History -- 1865-1877.
    Abstract:
      The whipping of Richard Moore, a former slave and Union veteran, in Lincoln County, Tennessee, in July 1868 was an unexceptional event in the context of Reconstruction. But its significance lies in its very ordinariness. This event--described by newspapers in Ohio and Tennessee, and concluding with the testimony of the victim--captures a full measure of the emotional forces that shaped the contours of postwar society in former Confederate states. In this microhistory of Reconstruction, Harcourt situates this event in local, state, and national contexts and uses a social theory of emotions to detail in historical terms the collision of competing interests in events and the narrative frames used by commentators to describe the event. Harcourt argues that the psychological term "hot cognition" explains how the feelings aroused by the whipping framed narratives of the event in fundamentally adversarial terms that further escalated hostilities between competing social groups. The approach taken here suggests that there is much to be gained from viewing incidents of violence not merely as catalogs of political dispute and social discord but as a means of taking the temperature on the emotive forces behind social and political behavior.
    Matt, Susan J. (Susan Jipson), 1967-
  • Children's Envy and the Emergence of the Modern Consumer Ethic, 1890-1930
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    Subject Headings:
    • Consumers -- United States -- Attitudes -- History.
    • Jealousy in children -- Social aspects -- United States -- History.
    • Consumption (Economics) -- United States -- Psychological aspects -- History.
    Abstract:
      Between 1890 and 1930 attitudes towards children's envy changed dramatically. Children growing up during this period were exposed to the temptations of consumer society and often expressed envy. Between 1890 and 1915 children were told to suppress the emotion because it was sinful and to resist the temptations of consumerism. Children must learn to be contented with what they had and accept deprivation and inequality. Beginning in the late 1910s, these emotional prescriptions began to change. While children were still expected to suppress envy, a new rationale and means for doing so emerged. The emotion was to be suppressed not because it was sinful but because it did not fit social and economic needs. Additionally, child experts suggested that rather than being harmful, toys and other consumer goods might actually aid children's character development. They suggested that parents buy their offspring the playthings they desired in order to minimize envy and ensure their social acceptance. The solution to envy was no longer to be found in emotional repression but instead in gaining all that one desired.
    Hudson, Hugh D.
  • Shaping Peasant Political Discourse during the New Economic Policy: The Newspaper Krestianskaia Gazeta and the Case of "Vladimir Ia."
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    Subject Headings:
    • TSK VKP (b) Krestianskaia gazeta.
    • Government and the press -- Soviet Union -- History -- 1917-1936.
    • Kalinin, M. I. (Mikhail Ivanovich), 1875-1946 -- Correspondence.
    • Peasantry -- Soviet Union -- Correspondence -- History -- 1917-1936.
    • Soviet Union -- Economic policy -- 1917-1928.
    Abstract:
      The problem of the character and function of a "peasant" newspaper bedeviled the Bolsheviks. The party determined to create local journalistic/political agents to establish contact with the villages and set the boundaries of discourse, thereby insinuating itself into peasant society by forming the poorest peasants into a force to destroy the remnants of the old order, in effect Russian peasant society. The sel 'kory were to be crusaders, indoctrinated in most cases through their experience in the Red Army, crusading in the name of socialism to bring alien western values to the countryside, values that the Communist party believed would no longer be alien to these particular peasants. In April 1926, however, the question of the boundaries of discourse exploded in a series of angry exchanges between a sel 'kor, "Vladimir Ia.", and Mikhail Kalinin, nominal head of state. The party had desired that the peasants organize around concepts and ideas, but those of the party. Such ideas failed when they hit the traditional Russian peasant social structure. The attempt to break the traditional society through mobilizing the sel'kory, the "outs," to destroy the "ins" of kulaks and kulak-influenced local party and government agents appeared to Kalinin as instead threatening to strengthen the traditional society. Vladimir Ia. had to be unmasked as a counterrevolutionary.
    Taillon, Paul Michel.
  • "What We Want Is Good, Sober Men:" Masculinity, Respectability, and Temperance in the Railroad Brotherhoods, c. 1870-1910
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    Subject Headings:
    • Railroads -- Employees -- Alcohol use -- United States -- History -- 1865-1921.
    • Masculinity -- United States -- History -- 1865-1921.
    • Temperance -- United States -- History -- 1865-1921.
    • Railroads -- Employees -- Labor unions -- United States -- History -- 1865-1921.
    Abstract:
      Focusing on the men who operated the trains and the unions that represented them, the "Big Four" railroad brotherhoods, in the decades marking the end of nineteenth- and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, this essay examines masculinity in connection with working men's drinking as well as the uses of manhood in working-class efforts to stamp out that practice. Whereas drinking figured as part of a workplace culture that fostered a "rough" style of masculinity, the railroad brotherhoods and their women's auxiliaries deployed a "respectable" style of manhood in their efforts to win train workers over to a temperate lifestyle. Both styles of manhood, however, obscured a more complex reality. Interrogating manhood in connection with alcohol consumption and temperance provides a window onto that reality and reveals the tensions inherent in that gender construction. It also reveals how matters of culture and gender were important to the workings of political and economic institutions like trade unions and illustrates how masculinity and manhood were central to the activism and collective subjectivity of organized workingmen.
    Herman, Ellen.
  • The Paradoxical Rationalization of Modern Adoption
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    Subject Headings:
    • Adoption -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Kinship -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States. Children's Bureau -- History -- 20th century.
    • Child Welfare League of America -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article explores the campaign, during the first half of the twentieth century, to reform adoption law and rationalize adoption practice in the United States through a trinity of professional management, scientific validation, and expanded public bureaucracy. Making adoption modern entailed establishing a new paradigm, kinship by design, and then distancing that paradigm from modes of family formation that relied on commerce, sentiment, intuition, accident, or simply common sense. Advocates of this new paradigm were social welfare, human science, and public policy professionals located in the U.S. Children's Bureau, the Child Welfare League of America, and elsewhere. They faced stubborn resistance from the public and succeeded only partially in subjecting adoption to new forms of practical authority, such as agency regulation and legal standardization. Yet their moral vision of family-making--an operation so systematic and saturated in knowledge that risks would be minimized and outcomes improved--helped to move childhood and kinship into the public sphere, pry a significant measure of power away from parents, and transfer decisions previously considered beyond the legitimate reach of state power to representatives of government and allied helping professions. Kinship by design also popularized child adoption and increased its cultural visibility.
    Maguire, Moira J.
  • Foreign Adoptions and the Evolution of Irish Adoption Policy, 1945-52
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    Subject Headings:
    • Intercountry adoption -- Government policy -- Ireland -- History -- 20th century.
    • Adoption -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Children -- Ireland -- Social conditions -- 1922-1973.
    Abstract:
      In recent years it has become increasingly common for childless couples from the U.S. and Western Europe to look overseas--to Eastern Europe and Asia--to adopt the "unwanted" children that are no longer so readily available for adoption at home. In Ireland at the turn of the twenty-first century the fact that Irish couples are enthusiastic participants in this "trade" has been juxtaposed with the stark and unpalatable reality that, as late as the 1960s, thousands of healthy Irish children were sent to the United States for adoption because they were illegitimate and thus "unwanted" at home. Until the 1952 Adoption Act provided for the legal transfer of parental rights from biological to adoptive parents, the only alternative to an institutional existence or an insecure boarding-out arrangement for these unwanted children was adoption by foreign, primarily American, families. From the early 1940s to the mid-1960s thousands of Irish children were sent abroad under an informal (and probably illegal and unconstitutional) adoption scheme. This article examines the story of Ireland's overseas adoption scheme, and the evolution of Ireland's adoption policy in the 1940s and 1950s, and is part of a twentieth-century Irish social history that has for the most part been neglected by historians.
    Jensen, Richard J.
  • "No Irish Need Apply": A Myth of Victimization
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    Subject Headings:
    • Irish Americans -- Social conditions.
    • Race discrimination -- United States -- History.
    • United States -- Race relations -- History.
    Abstract:
      Irish Catholics in America have a vibrant memory of humiliating job discrimination, which featured omnipresent signs proclaiming "Help Wanted--No Irish Need Apply!" No one has ever seen one of these NINA signs because they were extremely rare or nonexistent. The market for female household workers occasionally specified religion or nationality. Newspaper ads for women sometimes did include NINA, but Irish women nevertheless dominated the market for domestics because they provided a reliable supply of an essential service. Newspaper ads for men with NINA were exceedingly rare. The slogan was commonplace in upper class London by 1820; in 1862 in London there was a song, "No Irish Need Apply," purportedly by a maid looking for work. The song reached America and was modified to depict a man recently arrived in America who sees a NINA ad and confronts and beats up the culprit. The song was an immediate hit, and is the source of the myth. Evidence from the job market shows no significant discrimination against the Irish--on the contrary, employers eagerly sought them out. Some Americans feared the Irish because of their religion, their use of violence, and their threat to democratic elections. By the Civil War these fears had subsided and there were no efforts to exclude Irish immigrants. The Irish worked in gangs in job sites they could control by force. The NINA slogan told them they had to stick together against the Protestant Enemy, in terms of jobs and politics. The NINA myth justified physical assaults, and persisted because it aided ethnic solidarity. After 1940 the solidarity faded away, yet NINA remained as a memory.
    Fraser, Lyndon.
  • To Tara via Holyhead: The Emergence of Irish Catholic Ethnicity in Nineteenth-Century Christchurch, New Zealand
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    Subject Headings:
    • Irish -- New Zealand -- Christchurch -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    • Ethnicity -- New Zealand -- Christchurch -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This paper explores the historical processes of becoming in the everyday social lives of Irish Catholic immigrants in nineteenth-century Christchurch, New Zealand. My central argument is that newcomers effected a transition to colonial life by creating and sustaining durable social networks based on ethnic ties which transcended pre-existing affiliations and represented a powerful means to domesticate a new environment. The formation of ethnic consciousness was a complex phenomenon shaped by the constantly evolving interaction of Old World forms, cultures and expressive symbols with colonial social settings. In Christchurch, ethnic identification turned upon a number of critical factors, including local opportunity structures, patterns of migration, external discrimination and intra-group conflict. Notwithstanding the diversity of outlooks and interests among the immigrants, religious identification offered a useful resolution of ethnic tensions and traditions, while ensuring the continuing vitality of a separate spiritual, educational and social life alongside the dominant local system. In this sense, "the shortest way to Tara was via Holyhead" because it led to the development of a shared identity that fused the potent elements of "Irishness" and "Catholicity."

Review Essay

    Hopler, Jay.
  • Watching the Detectives: Reading Dime Novels and Hard-Boiled Detectives Stories in Context
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jakubowski, Maxim, ed. Mammoth book of pulp fiction.
    • Smith, Erin A. (Erin Ann), 1970- Hard-boiled: working class readers and pulp magazines.
    • Thomas, Ronald R., 1949- Detective fiction and the rise of forensic science.
    • Denning, Michael. Mechanic accents: dime novels and working-class culture in America.
    • Detective and mystery stories, American.
    • Detective and mystery stories, American -- History and criticism.
    Abstract:
      This paper is an essay-length review of four books: The Mammoth Book of Pulp Fiction, Edited by Maxim Jakubowski, Hard-boiled: Working-Class Readers and Pulp Magazines, by Erin A. Smith, Detective Fiction and the Rise of Forensic Science, by Ronald R. Thomas and Mechanic Accents: Dime Novels and Working-Class Culture in America (Revised Edition), by Michael Denning. Moreover, in the process of subjecting these four books to critical analysis, this paper asserts that pulp fiction, perhaps more than any other kind of literature, is inextricably linked to a specific time and place and argues, therefore, that a proper understanding and appreciation of dime novels and hard-boiled detective stories is contingent upon their cultural (re)contextualization.

Reviews

    Breckman, Warren, 1963-
  • Empire of Ecstasy: Nudity and Movement in German Body Culture, 1910-1935 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Toepfer, Karl Eric, 1948- Empire of ecstasy: nudity and movement in German body culture, 1910-1935.
    • Physical education and training -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Lu, Hanchao.
  • Prostitution and Sexuality in Shanghai: A Social History, 1849-1949 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Henriot, Christian. Prostitution and sexuality in Shanghai: a social history, 1849-1949.
    • Castelino, Noel, tr.
    • Prostitution -- China -- Shanghai -- History.
    Stowe, Steven M., 1946-
  • All Our Relations: Blood Ties and Emotional Bonds among the Early South Carolina Gentry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Glover, Lorri, 1967- All our relations: blood ties and emotional bonds among the early South Carolina gentry.
    • Family -- South Carolina -- History.
    Isenberg, Nancy.
  • Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City and a Government (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Allgor, Catherine, 1958- Parlor politics: in which the ladies of Washington help build a city and a government.
    • Women in politics -- Washington (D.C.) -- History -- 19th century.
    Sheehan, James J.
  • Public Spheres, Public Mores, and Democracy: Hamburg and Stockholm, 1870-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hurd, Madeleine, 1957- Public spheres, public mores, and democracy: Hamburg and Stockholm, 1870-1914.
    • Social classes -- Germany -- Hamburg -- History -- 19th century.
    Aaslestad, Katherine B.
  • Europe in 1848, Revolution and Reform (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dowe, Dieter, ed. Europe in 1848, revolution and reform.
    • Europe -- History -- 1848-1849.
    Wood, J. Carter.
  • Violence in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1800 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ruff, Julius R. (Julius Ralph) Violence in early modern Europe, 1500-1800.
    • Violence -- Europe -- History.
    Morel, Marie-France.
  • Les thérapeutiques: savoirs et usages (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Faure, Olivier. Thérapeutiques: savoirs et usages.
    • Therapeutics -- France -- History.
    Shoemaker, Nancy, 1958-
  • Medicine That Walks: Disease, Medicine, and Canadian Plains Native People, 1880-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lux, Maureen K. (Maureen Katherine), 1956- Medicine that walks: disease, medicine, and Canadian Plains native people, 1880-1940.
    • Indians of North America -- Health and hygiene -- Prairie Provinces -- History.
    Hacker, Jacob S.
  • The Price of Citizenship: Redefining the American Welfare State (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Katz, Michael B., 1939- Price of citizenship: redefining the American welfare state.
    • Public welfare -- United States -- History.
    Etulain, Richard W.
  • Storied Land: Community and Memory in Monterey (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walton, John, 1937- Storied land: community and memory in Monterey.
    • Monterey (Calif.) -- History.
    Van Young, Eric.
  • Indians, Merchants, and Markets: A Reinterpretation of the Repartimiento and Spanish-Indian Economic Relations in Colonial Oaxaca, 1750-1821 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baskes, Jeremy, 1961- Indians, merchants, and markets: a reinterpretation of the Repartimiento and Spanish-Indian economic relations in colonial Oaxaca, 1750-1821.
    • Indians of Mexico -- Agriculture -- Mexico -- Oaxaca.
    Borchert, James, 1941-
  • Domesticating the Street: The Reform of Public Space in Hartford, 1850-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baldwin, Peter C., 1962- Domesticating the street: the reform of public space in Hartford, 1850-1930.
    • City planning -- Connecticut -- Hartford -- History.
    Crais, Clifton C.
  • Speaking with Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • White, Luise. Speaking with vampires: rumor and history in colonial Africa.
    • Vampires -- Africa, East.
    Benz, Ernest, 1954-
  • Die demographische Zeitenwende: Der Bevölkerungsrückgang in Deutschland und Europa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Birg, Herwig. Demographische Zeitenwende: der Bevölkerungsrückgang in Deutschland und Europa.
    • Germany -- Population.
    Troyansky, David G.
  • Old Age in English History: Past Experiences, Present Issues (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thane, Pat. Old age in English history: past experiences, present issues.
    • Aged -- Great Britain -- History.
    Barber, David.
  • Fugitive Days: A Memoir (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ayers, William, 1944- Fugitive days: a memoir.
    • Ayers, William, 1944-
    Kamerling, Henry.
  • Before Jim Crow: The Politics of Race in Postemancipation Virginia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dailey, Jane Elizabeth, 1963- Before Jim Crow: the politics of race in postemancipation Virginia.
    • Virginia -- Race relations -- Political aspects -- History -- 19th century.
    Paton, Diana, 1969-
  • The Virgin, the King, and the Royal Slaves of El Cobre: Negotiating Freedom in Colonial Cuba, 1670-1780 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Díaz, María Elena, 1955- Virgin, the king, and the royal slaves of El Cobre: negotiating freedom in colonial Cuba, 1670-1780.
    • Slavery -- Cuba -- El Cobre -- History.
    Neiberg, Michael.
  • War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Goldstein, Joshua S., 1952- War and gender: how gender shapes the war system and vice versa.
    • Women and war.
    Anderson, Margo J., 1945-
  • Women in 1900: Gateway to the Political Economy of the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bose, Christine E. Women in 1900: gateway to the political economy of the twentieth century.
    • Women -- United States -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
    Power, Margaret, 1953-
  • Gendered Compromises: Political Culture and the State in Chile, 1920-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rosemblatt, Karin Alejandra. Gendered compromises: political culture and the state in Chile, 1920-1950.
    • Sex role -- Political aspects -- Chile -- History -- 20th century.
    Grew, Raymond.
  • Readers and Society in Nineteenth-Century France: Workers, Women, Peasants (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lyons, Martyn. Readers and society in nineteenth-century France: workers, women, peasants.
    • Books and reading -- Political aspects -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    Sunderland, Willard.
  • Classroom and Empire: The Politics of Schooling Russia's Eastern Nationalities, 1860-1917 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dowler, Wayne, 1945- Classroom and empire: the politics of schooling Russia's Eastern nationalities, 1860-1917.
    • Education -- Asiatic Russia -- History -- 19th century.
    Moya, Jose C., 1952-
  • Doña María's Story: Life History, Memory, and Political Identity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • James, Daniel, 1948- Doña Mariá's story: life history, memory, and political identity.
    • Roldán, Doña Mariá.
    Lynn, Kimberly.
  • Mad for God: Bartolomé Sánchez, the Secret Messiah of Cardenete (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nalle, Sara Tilghman. Mad for God: Bartolomé Sánchez, the secret Messiah of Cardenete.
    • Sánchez, Bartolomé, b. ca. 1501.
    Nordstrom, Justin.
  • Making Americans: Immigration, Race, and the Origins of the Diverse Democracy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • King, Desmond S. Making Americans: immigration, race, and the origins of the diverse democracy.
    • United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy -- History.
    Bushnell, John, 1945-
  • Bolsheviks and the Bottle: Drink and Worker Culture in St. Petersburg, 1900-1929 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Phillips, Laura L., 1959- Bolsheviks and the bottle: drink and worker culture in St. Petersburg, 1900-1929.
    • Drinking of alcoholic beverages -- Russia (Federation) -- Saint Petersburg -- History -- 20th century.
    Chatterjee, Choi.
  • Life Has Become More Joyous, Comrades: Celebrations in the Time of Stalin (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Petrone, Karen. Life has become more joyous, comrades: celebrations in the time of Stalin.
    • Holidays -- Soviet Union -- History.
    Decker, Hannah S.
  • Medicine and the German Jews: A History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Efron, John M. Medicine and the German Jews: a history.
    • Jewish physicians -- Germany -- History.
    Censer, Jack Richard.
  • Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McMahon, Darrin M. Enemies of the Enlightenment: the French counter-Enlightenment and the making of modernity.
    • Enlightenment.



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