Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History 36.1, Fall 2002

Articles

    DiGirolamo, Vincent, 1955-
  • Newsboy Funerals: Tales of Sorrow and Solidarity in Urban America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paperboys -- United States -- Death -- History -- 19th century.
    • Paperboys -- United States -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    • City and town life -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Most children in nineteenth-century America were buried as members of a family or a church, not a trade. Yet in cities across the country newsboys publicly laid to rest many of their fallen comrades. An ethnographic reading of these humble rituals, and a reconsideration of the often-sentimental literature and images in which they appear, enable us to see children's grief not solely as a product of personal loss or religious faith, but as expressions of class feeling. Studies of children and death usually focus on middle-class attitudes and domestic practices, but newsboy funerals can broaden our understanding of bereavement to working-class children in the public sphere and illuminate why poor youths feared burial in a potter's field more than death itself. Newsboys took up collections for flowers, caskets, and gravestones for each other; they drafted letters of sympathy and resolutions of condolence, and marched en masse in funeral trains. Some boys dispensed with clergy and conducted the last rites themselves. In so doing, they were not simply aping bourgeois standards of propriety and spirituality, but drawing on a host of cultural influences, both bourgeois and plebeian, religious and commercial, to develop their own masculine codes of affection and rituals of mourning.
    Pollack, Eunice G.
  • The Childhood We Have Lost: When Siblings Were Caregivers, 1900-1970
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    Subject Headings:
    • Caregivers -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Brothers and sisters -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Mother and child -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Child psychology -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      In large numbers of working- and lower-middle-class households, for much of the first two-thirds of the twentieth century, children were generally cared for, not by a doting mother, but a sibling. Indeed, many children in these homes spent much of their youth caring for siblings or being attended by them. The demise of the system of sibling care represented a seismic shift in family arrangements. This essay examines the historical experiences and relationship of the sibling-caregiver and the charge, and traces the short- and long-term effects--often, the psychological scars--of each role. It considers why many of the young had highly ambivalent relations with their mothers in these years and perceived their mothers as unavailable to them. The study also explores why many mothers resisted any change in this family system. It compares the experience and effects of sibling care in the past with contemporary child care arrangements.
    Munson, Elizabeth.
  • Walking on the Periphery: Gender and the Discourse of Modernization
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    Subject Headings:
    • Spain -- Civilization -- 20th century.
    • Women's rights -- Spain -- Public opinion.
    • Public opinion -- Spain.
    • Public spaces -- Spain -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      With the early-twentieth century modernization of Madrid, opportunities and spaces for middle-class women's public practices increased, freeing women from the nineteenth-century prohibition on appearing alone in public. Increasingly women entered public spaces such as streets, cafés and libraries. However, as women entered these spaces, they brought with them expectations of traditional, feminine behaviors. The parameters of women's public behaviors were strictly circumscribed in both covert and overt ways. Official urban markers like street names and monuments reduced the visibility of women, newspaper coverage of traffic accidents involving pedestrians exaggerated women's risks, strolling on the paseo or visiting the horse races was justified for women in terms of heterosexual relationships and fashion display, finally, women's public presence was justified through the language consumer-citizenship. This suggests that women were entering an anomalous space neither purely private nor strictly public, but rather a public space restricted by traditional principles of courtship, sociability and comfort, thereby modifying but not fundamentally disrupting rigid distinctions between public and private, male and female.
    Radcliff, Pamela Beth.
  • Citizens and Housewives: The Problem of Female Citizenship in Spain's Transition to Democracy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Citizenship -- Spain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Married women -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Spain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Sex discrimination against women -- Law and legislation -- Spain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Democratization -- Spain -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      "Citizens and Housewives" explores the contradictions surrounding the emergence of new forms of democratic citizenship for women during Spain's most recent transition to democracy in the 1970s. Most Spaniards probably agreed that the traditionalist image of Francoist womanhood was anachronistic, but creating a new "democratic female citizen" proved to be a conflictive and ultimately unresolved process. In order to explore the dynamic space where female citizenship was being reconstructed, this article examines the role of women's housewife associations in the 1970s, both as protagonists and as discursive subjects. On the one hand, these associations provided an arena in which new citizenship practices could be forged. In particular, their members acted out a new model of the activist housewife citizen who defended consumer rights in the public sphere. However, as a discursive category, the housewife-citizen of these associations could not find a place in the transition. While women's "different" roles as mothers, housewives and neighbors provided an acceptable path into civil society under the Franco regime, the democratic discourse ignored the housewives' associations as relics, not vanguards. For the many Spanish women who were housewives, this discursive paradox offered no path into the new democracy. Instead of a clear entry to a democratic citizenship there were only contradictions and confusing messages.
    Leeuwen, Marco H. D. van, 1958-
  • Partner Choice and Homogamy in the Nineteenth Century: Was There a Sexual Revolution in Europe?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mate selection -- Europe -- History -- 1789-1900.
    • Marriage -- Parental consent -- Europe -- History -- 1789-1900.
    • Europe -- Social conditions -- 1789-1900.
    Abstract:
      In this article long-term changes in homogamy during industrialization are studied. According to the `sexual revolution thesis' of Shorter industrialization weakened homogamy mainly by changing the preferences of young people. Others point to the importance of changes in social control by parents and peers and in the opportunities of potential marriage partners to meet. Both ethnographic data on bundling and tables of occupational homogamy in Sweden in the nineteenth century are used to describe changes in homogamy and to shed light on potential causes of these changes. In particular it is tested whether homogamy weakened during industrialization and whether homogamy was weaker when parental control was less, as is the case with one parent families. The second claim was substantiated, the first claim only very partially so. Bundling with its clearly marked stages from communal nightly visits to intercourse as a prelude to marriage declined, but the proportion of men and women marrying outside their class did not rise consistently over time as industrialization progressed. Even after taking changing group sizes into account, there were no signs of decreasing homogamy. Thus the data do not support Shorter's theory of an increase in romantic love.
    Meyer, Steve.
  • Rough Manhood: The Aggressive and Confrontational Shop Culture of U.S. Auto Workers during World War II
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    Subject Headings:
    • Automobile industry workers -- United States -- History -- 1933-1945.
    • Men -- United States -- Identity -- History -- 1933-1945.
    • Masculinity -- United States -- History -- 1933-1945.
    Abstract:
      Recognizing the existence of multiple masculine identities and the distinction between rough manhood and respectable manhood, this article focuses on one dimension of rough manhood--the aggressive and combative behavior among workers and between workers and managers in the American automobile industry. Though many auto workers aspired to the social responsibility and economic security of respectable manhood, in the 1920s and 1930s the dramatic changes of line and mechanized production, work reorganization and degradation, and economic deprivation challenged their ambitions toward respectability and fostered their rough shop-floor demeanor and behavior. The United Automobile Workers' Union grievance records revealed that the auto workers' contentious engagements, ranging from playful mischief to savage fights, sometimes represented a simple defense of personal autonomy and dignity and sometimes directly challenged the symbols or realities of managerial authority.
    Opler, Daniel.
  • Monkey Business in Union Square: A Cultural Analysis of the Klein's-Ohrbach's Strikes of 1934-5
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    Subject Headings:
    • Strikes and lockouts -- Retail trade -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    • Klein's (Firm)
    • Ohrbach's (Firm)
    • Department stores -- Employees -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This study examines the simultaneous strikes at Klein's and Ohrbach's department stores in New York City's Union Square during the Great Depression. It argues that a cultural analysis of strikes can provide for greater understanding of the cultural and social environment in which the strikes take place. In particular, the study suggests that a cultural reading of these two strikes provides information about the label "white-collar worker" as a form of working-class identity, about Union Square as a contested space during the mid-1930s, about downscale stores as contested spaces during this same era, and about communism and communist understandings of female gender roles in the period just before the Popular Front.
    Super, John C., 1944-
  • Food and History
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    Subject Headings:
    • Flandrin, Jean Louis, ed. Food: a culinary history from antiquity to the present.
    • Montanari, Massimo, 1949-, ed.
    • Sonnenfeld, Albert, ed.
    • Botsford, Clarissa, tr.
    • Davidson, Alan, 1924- Oxford companion to food.
    • Kiple, Kenneth F., 1939-, ed. Cambridge world history of food.
    • Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè, ed.
    • Food -- History.
    • Food -- Encyclopedias.
    Abstract:
      This essay deals with three ambitious recent contributions to food history, and with more specialized work. It focuses on the growing range of sources used in this history; the increasing attention to processes of diffusion and to cultural reactions to "other" foods; and the examination of cuisine and manners as part of food history. Findings about nutrition, issues of periodization and the widening range of topics round out the comments on a field that is clearly gaining momentum in social history more generally.

Reviews

    Rosenzweig, Roy.
  • It's Getting Better All the Time: 100 Greatest Trends of the Last 100 Years (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moore, Stephen, 1960- It's getting better all the time: 100 greatest trends of the last 100 years.
    • Simon, Julian Lincoln, 1932-
    • United States -- Social conditions -- Statistics.
    Matt, Susan J. (Susan Jipson), 1967-
  • Sowing the American Dream: How Consumer Culture Took Root in the Rural Midwest (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Blanke, David, 1961- Sowing the American dream: how consumer culture took root in the rural Midwest.
    • Consumption (Economics) -- Middle West -- History.
    Soluri, John.
  • Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McNeill, John Robert. Something new under the sun: an environmental history of the twentieth-century world.
    • Human ecology -- History -- 20th century.
    Orenic, Liesl.
  • Murder in New York City (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Monkkonen, Eric H., 1942- Murder in New York City.
    • Murder -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
    Wu, Judy Tzu-Chun.
  • Chinese San Francisco, 1850-1943: A Trans-Pacific Community (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chen, Yong, 1960- Chinese San Francisco, 1850-1943: a trans-Pacific community.
    • Chinese Americans -- California -- San Francisco -- History.
    McCartin, Joseph Anthony.
  • Constant Turmoil: The Politics of Industrial Life in Nineteenth-Century New England (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Blewett, Mary H. Constant turmoil: the politics of industrial life in nineteenth-century New England.
    • Textile industry -- New England -- History.
    Merithew, Caroline Waldron.
  • From Paesani to White Ethnics: The Italian Experience in Philadelphia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Luconi, Stefano. From paesani to white ethnics: the Italian experience in Philadelphia.
    • Italian Americans -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Ethnic identity.
    Hoffman, Steven J.
  • The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Melosi, Martin V., 1947- Sanitary city: urban infrastructure in America from colonial times to the present.
    • Municipal water supply -- United States -- History.
    Bailey, Peter, 1937-
  • Victorian Babylon: People, Streets and Images in Nineteenth Century London (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nead, Lynda. Victorian Babylon: people, streets and images in nineteenth century London.
    • London (England) -- History -- 1800-1950.
    Blum, Ann Shelby, 1950-
  • Containing the Poor: The Mexico City Poor House, 1774-1871 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Arrom, Silvia Marina, 1949- Containing the poor: the Mexico City Poor House, 1774-1871.
    • Almshouses -- Mexico -- Mexico City -- History.
    Harison, Casey.
  • Massacre at the Champ de Mars: Popular Dissent and Political Culture in the French Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Andress, David, 1969- Massacre at the Champ de Mars: popular dissent and political culture in the French Revolution.
    • France -- History -- 1789-1793 -- Atrocities.
    McBride, Theresa M.
  • The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice, and: The Rise of the Professional Woman in France: Gender and Public Administration Since 1830 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Bonnie G., 1940- Gender of history: men, women, and historical practice.
    • Clark, Linda L., 1942- Rise of the professional woman in France: gender and public administration since 1830.
    • Historiography.
    • Women in the civil service -- France -- History.
    Eustace, Nicole.
  • Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cott, Nancy F. Public vows: a history of marriage and the nation.
    • Marriage -- United States -- History.
    Rosenzweig, Linda W.
  • Hearts of Wisdom: American Women Caring for Kin 1850-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Abel, Emily K. Hearts of wisdom: American women caring for kin 1850-1940.
    • Caregivers -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Bell, Rudolph M.
  • Measuring Mamma's Milk: Fascism and the Medicalization of Maternity in Italy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Whitaker, Elizabeth Dixon, 1962- Measuring mamma's milk: fascism and the medicalization of maternity in Italy.
    • Breast feeding -- Italy.
    Cohn, Samuel Kline.
  • Women and Men in Renaissance Venice: Twelve Essays on Patrician Society (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chojnacki, Stanley. Women and men in Renaissance Venice: twelve essays on patrician society.
    • Marriage -- Italy -- Venice -- History.
    McBride, Theresa M.
  • Domestic Service and Gender, 1660-1750: Life and Work in the London Household, and: Domestiques et servante: Des vies sous condition: Essai sur le travail domestique en Belgique au 19e siècle (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Meldrum, Tim. Domestic service and gender, 1660-1750: life and work in the London household.
    • Piette, Valérie. Domestiques et servante: des vies sous condition: essai sur le travail domestique en Belgique au 19e siècle.
    • Domestics -- England -- London -- History -- 17th century.
    • Women domestics -- Belgium -- History.
    Wineburg, Samuel S.
  • Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Davis, Natalie Zemon, 1928- Slaves on screen: film and historical vision.
    • Slavery in motion pictures.
    De Jong, Greta.
  • Slave Patrols: Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hadden, Sally E. Slave patrols: law and violence in Virginia and the Carolinas.
    • Slaves -- Government policy -- Southern States -- History.
    Brooks, Jeffrey, 1942-
  • Youth in Revolutionary Russia: Enthusiasts, Bohemians, Delinquents (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gorsuch, Anne E. Youth in revolutionary Russia: enthusiasts, bohemians, delinquents.
    • Socialism and youth -- Soviet Union.
    Hunt, Tamara L.
  • Musical Women in England, 1870-1914: "Encroaching on All Man's Privileges", and: Women Performing Music: The Emergence of American Women as Instrumentalists and Conductors (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gillett, Paula, 1934- Musical women in England, 1870-1914: "encroaching on all man's privileges".
    • Macleod, Beth Abelson, 1945- Women performing music: the emergence of American women as instrumentalists and conductors.
    • Women musicians -- England.
    • Women musicians -- United States.
    Heathorn, Stephen J., 1965-
  • Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Race, Gender and the Reform Act of 1867 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hall, Catherine. Defining the Victorian nation: class, race, gender and the Reform Act of 1867.
    • McClelland, Keith.
    • Rendall, Jane, 1945-
    • Suffrage -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    Perkin, Harold James.
  • The Professions in Early Modern England, 1450-1800: Servants of the Commonweal (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • O'Day, Rosemary. Professions in early modern England, 1450-1800: servants of the commonweal.
    • Professions -- England -- History.
    Perry, Joseph B.
  • Merry Christmas!: Celebrating America's Greatest Holiday (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Marling, Karal Ann. Merry Christmas!: celebrating America's greatest holiday.
    • Christmas -- United States -- History.
    Cross, Gary.
  • Holy Day, Holiday: The American Sunday (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McCrossen, Alexis. Holy day, holiday: the American Sunday.
    • Sunday -- History of doctrines -- 19th century.
    Huggins, Mike.
  • The British Seaside: Holidays and Resorts in the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walton, John K. British seaside: holidays and resorts in the twentieth century.
    • Seaside resorts -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    Cross, Gary.
  • Naissance d'une industrie touristique: Les Anglais et la Suisse au XIX siècle (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tissot, Laurent. Naissance d'une industrie touristique: les Anglais et la Suisse au XIX siècle.
    • Tourism -- Europe -- History -- 19th century.
    Achenbaum W. Andrew.
  • Bold Relief: Institutional Politics and the Origins of Modern American Social Policy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Amenta, Edwin, 1957- Bold relief: institutional politics and the origins of modern American social policy.
    • United States -- Social policy.
    Kaelble, Harmut.
  • Social Mobility and Modernization: A Journal of Interdisciplinary History Reader (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rotberg, Robert I., ed. Social mobility and modernization: a Journal of interdisciplinary history reader.
    • Social mobility -- History.
    Lindemann, Mary.
  • Tortured Subjects: Pain, Truth, and the Body in Early Modern France (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Silverman, Lisa. Tortured subjects: pain, truth, and the body in early modern France.
    • Torture -- France -- History.
    Munro, Doug.
  • In Defence of History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Evans, Richard J. In defence of history.
    • History -- Philosophy.
    Carton, Benedict.
  • Men at Work: Labour, Masculinities, Development (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, Cecile, ed. Men at work: labour, masculinities, development.
    • Men -- Developing countries -- Identity.
    Klyza, Christopher McGrory.
  • Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England 1790-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cumbler, John T. Reasonable use: the people, the environment, and the state, New England 1790-1930.
    • Nature -- Effect of human beings on -- Connecticut River Valley.
    Berkowitz, Edward D.
  • The New Disability History: American Perspectives (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Longmore, Paul K., ed. New disability history: American perspectives.
    • Umansky, Lauri, 1959-, ed.
    • People with disabilities -- United States -- History.
    Boyer, Paul.
  • One Nation Underground: The Fallout Shelter in American Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rose, Kenneth D. (Kenneth David), 1946- One nation underground: the fallout shelter in American culture.
    • Fallout shelters -- Social aspects -- United States.



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