Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History 34.4, Summer 2001

Articles

    Brooke, Stephen.
  • Gender and Working Class Identity in Britain during the 1950s
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    Subject Headings:
    • Working class women -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Working class families -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    • Sex role -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the relationship between gender and class identity in 1950s Britain, using sociological sources. Through changes in work and sexuality, the period witnessed a growing complexity of femininity, whether seen in the increased number of working women or the spread of family limitation. Contemporary literature on working women promoted the idea that this was helping reshape the public and private spheres of working class life. At the same time, sociologists observed changes in masculinity and in expectations of domesticity and marriage. Such discourses suggested that gender ideology had become more complex within the working classes. This occurred at a moment when it was also assumed that affluence and prosperity were transforming working class identity, breaking down traditional outlooks and loyalties. This article argues that gender was both perceived as a crucial aspect of that transformation and became a principal means of articulating changes in class identity in postwar Britain.
    Buchanan, Thomas C.
  • Rascals on the Antebellum Mississippi: African American Steamboat Workers and The St. Louis Hanging of 1841
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    Subject Headings:
    • Henderson, Madison. Trials and confessions of Madison Henderson, alias Blanchard, Alfred Amos Warrick, James W. Seward, and Charles Brown.
    • African American steamboat workers -- Mississippi River -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    • African American outlaws -- Mississippi River -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      This article uses an 1841 confessional narrative of three free blacks, Amos Warrick, Charles Brown, and James Seward, and one slave, Madison Henderson, to examine how the Mississippi River steamboat culture impacted slave communities in the western region of the American South. It argues that in the Mississippi River economy a multidimensional, rascal form of resistance flourished amongst African American steamboat workers. As slave and free black steamboat hands moved between land and river, between city and country, and between slave and free states, many transformed their identities by living outside the law. By appropriating commodities, helping slaves to escape bondage, and participating in informal economies, they created networks that expanded not only their own status but also the scope and power of the larger African American community. Building on recent work in Atlantic history, and grounded in discussions of slave and working-class resistance, this article conceptualizes intersections between African American history and the history of America's major river system.
    Dyhouse, Carol, 1948-
  • Family Patterns of Social Mobility through Higher Education in England in the 1930s
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    Subject Headings:
    • College students -- England -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Social mobility -- England -- History -- 20th century.
    • Universities and colleges -- England -- Sociological aspects.
    Abstract:
      The paper examines the role of higher education in producing social mobility in England in the 1930s. The data result from large-scale surveys of graduates of a number of non-Oxbridge universities and university colleges in those years, chosen to get a mix of circumstances. A higher proportion of women than men appeared to come from middle class backgrounds, partly because of the exclusion of Oxbridge. Men appeared to have stronger career aspirations than women, targeting professional careers partly as an escape from the conditions of the 1930s Depression. Yet most women saw their university education as linked to a need to earn a living, though teaching was the main prospect. The view of certain sociologists that fathers supported sons and mothers supported daughters has some substance, but mothers were also important support for sons, especially from lower classes. Upward social mobility occurred for virtually all men, but the pay-off to women from university education was more ambiguous, and often rested on the university as a place for meeting their spouse. Probably the main effect for women was a 'snowballing' of encouragement to their offspring to attend university, through successive generations of women.
    Bernstein, Laurie.
  • Communist Custodial Contests: Adoption Rulings in the USSR after the Second World War
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    Subject Headings:
    • Adoption -- Law and legislation -- Soviet Union -- History.
    • Custody of children -- Soviet Union -- History.
    • Soviet Union. Verkhovnyi Sud.
    Abstract:
      This article examines how higher courts in the Soviet Union adjudicated adoption contests after the Second World War. It argues that in the higher organs of the Soviet civil judiciary, justices acted in both the spirit and letter of the law, issuing rulings that were strikingly free of communist imperatives and that sincerely attempted to address the best interests of children. During the period from the end of the war until the fall of Khrushchev, these interests were defined as honoring biological connections whenever feasible, upholding adoptions when biological connections had been legally and justifiably severed, and keeping children in loving families. Not only does this suggest that we can speak of a genuine legal culture in some sectors of the Soviet judiciary, it also evinces the rejection of a revolutionary-era commitment to collectivized child raising.
    Carpenter, K. M. N.
  • "For Mothers Only": Mothers' Convalescent Homes and Modernizing Maternal Ideology in 1950s West Germany
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mothers -- Germany -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Hospitals, Convalescent -- Germany -- History -- 1945-
    Abstract:
      This article examines how the Müttergenesungswerk (mothers' convalescent homes) played a role in eroding traditional gender formulations in 1950s West Germany. Initially created to treat women physically and mentally disabled by the war and its aftermath, the organization gradually recreated itself to meet the changing challenges of women's social realities. Throughout the decade, reigning social and political ideologies stressed that women were first and foremost mothers, who had maternal obligations to serve their families. By the end of the 1950s, the Müttergenesungswerk began to challenge this view by stressing that mothers had needs that went beyond maternal duties. Administrators reconstructed cures to focus on women's employment, an issue that had come to the forefront of West Germany's gender debates. By this time, the Werk had positioned itself as an organization dedicated to improving mothers' health. In this way, cure homes were able to respond to contemporary concerns and contribute to the "rebuilding of the ' Frauenbild ' (picture of women) of the day" to make it more reflective of the "modern world" in which women lived. By examining how the Werk restructured its mission, this analysis of the convalescent homes also illustrates how institutions maintain viability by responding to leading social concerns.
    Sunderland, Willard.
  • Peasant Pioneering: Russian Peasant Settlers Describe Colonization and the Eastern Frontier, 1880s-1910s
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peasantry -- Russia -- History -- 1801-1917.
    • Migration, Internal -- Russia -- History -- 1801-1917.
    • Land settlement -- Asiatic Russia.
    Abstract:
      Peasant colonization in the eastern and southern borderlands of the Russian empire was a mass phenomenon in the last decades of the tsarist period yet historians, for a variety of reasons, still know little of what peasant settlers knew or thought about it. This article focuses on this question, approaching it in two ways. Since resettlement represented a major intersection between the worlds of educated and peasant Russia in the late imperial period, the first part of the article examines how the mingling of peasant and non-peasant ways of knowing created a diverse culture of information about resettlement and the frontier in the countryside. The second part of the article then examines settler writings--in particular, letters and longer settlement narratives--in order to identify the principal ways in which colonists represented their migrations and their encounters with borderland peoples and geographies. As the article argues, these experiences were diverse and so too were settler representations, but there was a language of local, practical concerns that was broadly shared by all migrants. Because they tended to describe and interpret their experiences in these terms, the article suggests that peasant settlers are perhaps best described as un-imperial imperialists, colonists whose colonization helped to advance and consolidate Russian imperialism in Russia's eastern territories yet who themselves identified much more clearly with local concerns than with imperial ones.
    Paton, Diana, 1969-
  • Punishment, Crime, and the Bodies of Slaves in Eighteenth-Century Jamaica
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    Subject Headings:
    • Criminal justice, Administration of -- Jamaica -- History -- 18th century.
    • Slaves -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Jamaica -- History -- 18th century.
    • Punishment -- Jamaica -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      Previous analyses of the punishment of slaves in the British colonies have concentrated on the period after 1780. This article uses the mid-eighteenth-century records of the slave court of the parish of St. Andrew, Jamaica, to analyze the crimes for which slaves were prosecuted and the judicial punishments they received. Prosecutions concentrated heavily on a few offences, especially theft and running away. Punishments were severe and were largely concerned with the slave's body; they included death, flogging, transportation, and bodily mutilation. Some punishments made use of the cotton tree, which figured significantly in Afro-Jamaican cosmology, suggesting that the authorities were trying to harness or combat the power of obeah. The article compares the Jamaican slave court's practice to that of British courts in the same period, as well as to the experience of slaves under other jurisdictions. The slave court enacted rituals that both dramatized and sustained power relations, but rather than representing the supposed common discipline of all to a single rule of law, as did the contemporary British spectacle of trial and punishment, the Jamaican court's practice emphasized the difference between enslaved and free, valorizing the private penal power of the master under slavery.
    Watts, S. J. (Sheldon J.)
  • Yellow Fever Immunities in West Africa and the Americas in the Age of Slavery and Beyond: A Reappraisal
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kiple, Kenneth F., 1939- -- Views on yellow fever.
    • Blacks -- Health and hygiene -- Africa, West.
    • Blacks -- Health and hygiene -- America.
    Abstract:
      This article is a case study in applied objectivity as understood by mainstream historians. It addresses the problem of disease determinism exemplified by late nineteenth and twentieth century interpretations of the role played by yellow fever in "determining;SPMquot; the ethnic composition of the Caribbean Islands, the American South and the Atlantic coastal zones of Central and South America. In its extreme form yellow fever determinism held that the Christian God created Africans immune to yellow fever, with the intention that they should serve white plantation owners in the New World as slaves. The author--a cultural and medical historian long resident in the Non West--hones in on the disease determinism detected in several works written by Kenneth Kiple and systematically deconstructs Kiple's arguments.
    Kiple, Kenneth F., 1939-
  • Response to Sheldon Watts, "Yellow Fever Immunites in West Africa and the Americas in the Age of Slavery and Beyond: A Reappraisal"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Watts, S. J. (Sheldon J.) Yellow fever immunities in West Africa and the Americas in the age of slavery and beyond: a reappraisal.
    • Natural immunity.
    • Yellow fever.
    Abstract:
      Yellow fever immunities are generally acquired, but individuals whose roots lie in areas of endemic yellow fever may also have been equipped with some sort of innate resistance as indicated by historical data from seventeenth-century Cuba, and Antigua and the United States during the nineteenth-century. Those that seem to have possessed this ability were of African descent but born in the New World where, for a variety of reasons, they would not have had any more opportunity than white counterparts to acquire immunity to yellow fever. Nonetheless, they fared much better with the disease. Professor Watts professes to spy racism in this, as yet, inexplicable differential resistance to yellow fever. Although a student of epidemics, he does not seem to understand that different peoples have historically reacted differently to disease exposure because of the physical environments that forged them.
    Watts, S. J. (Sheldon J.)
  • Response to Kenneth Kiple
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kiple, Kenneth F., 1939- Response to Sheldon Watts, Yellow fever immunites in West Africa and the Americas in the age of slavery and beyond: a reappraisal.
    • Yellow fever.

Reviews

    Williams, Rhonda Y.
  • Working With Class: Social Workers and the Politics of Middle-Class Identity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walkowitz, Daniel J. Working with class: social workers and the politics of middle-class identity.
    • Middle class -- United States.
    Achenbaum, W. Andrew.
  • Facing the "King of Terrors": Death and Society in an American Community, 1750-1990 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wells, Robert V., 1943- Facing the "King of Terrors": death and society in an American community, 1750-1990.
    • Death -- Social aspects -- New York (State) -- Schenectady -- History.
    Lasch-Quinn, Elisabeth.
  • Battleground of Desire: The Struggle for Self-Control in Modern America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stearns, Peter N. Battleground of desire: the struggle for self-control in modern America.
    • United States -- Social life and customs -- 20th century.
    Holt, Mack P.
  • The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dooley, Brendan Maurice, 1953- Social history of skepticism: experience and doubt in early modern culture.
    • Journalism -- History.
    Gabaccia, Donna R., 1949-
  • Food : A Culinary History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Flandrin, Jean Louis, ed. Food: a culinary history.
    • Montanari, Massimo, 1949-, ed.
    • Food -- History.
    Aaslestad, Katherine B.
  • Consumers and Luxury: Consumer Culture in Europe 1650-1850 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Berg, Maxine, 1950-, ed. Consumers and luxury: consumer culture in Europe 1650-1850.
    • Clifford, Helen, ed.
    • Consumer goods -- Europe -- History.
    Kamphoefner, Walter D.
  • Mobility and Modernity: Migration in Germany, 1820-1989 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hochstadt, Steve, 1948- Mobility and modernity: migration in Germany, 1820-1989.
    • Migration, Internal -- Germany -- History.
    Constant, Edward W.
  • Narratives and Spaces: Technology and the Construction of American Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nye, David E., 1946- Narratives and spaces: technology and the construction of American culture.
    • United States -- Civilization -- 19th century.
    Bailey, Peter, 1937-
  • Railways and the Victorian Imagination (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Freeman, Michael J., 1950- Railways and the Victorian imagination.
    • Railroads -- History.
    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • The Great Exhibition of 1851: A Nation on Display, and: The Great Exhibition, and: The Great Stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Auerbach, Jeffrey A., 1965- Great Exhibition of 1851: a nation on display.
    • Davis, John R., 1965- Great Exhibition.
    • Halliday, Stephen. Great stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the cleansing of the Victorian metropolis.
    • Great Exhibition (1851 : London, England)
    • Bazalgette, Joseph William, Sir, 1819-1891.
    Sahlins, Peter.
  • Revolution and Environment in Southern France: Peasants, Lords, and Murder in the Corbières 1780-1830 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McPhee, Peter, 1948- Revolution and environment in southern France: peasants, lords, and murder in the Corbières 1780-1830.
    • Corbières Mountains (France) -- History.
    Brooks, Jeffrey, 1942-
    Zhuk, S. I. (Sergei Ivanovich)
  • The Russian Peasantry, 1600-1930: The World the Peasants Made (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moon, David, 1959- Russian peasantry, 1600-1930: the world the peasants made.
    • Peasantry -- Russia.
    Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
  • Peasants on Plantations: Subaltern Strategies of Labor and Resistance in the Pisco Valley of Peru (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peloso, Vincent C. Peasants on plantations: subaltern strategies of labor and resistance in the Pisco Valley of Peru.
    • Cotton plantation workers -- Peru -- Pisco River Valley -- History.
    Miller, Dean A.
  • Slavery in Early Mediaeval England (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pelteret, David Anthony Edgell, 1944- Slavery in early Mediaeval England.
    • Slavery -- England -- History.
    Martin, James Kirby, 1943-
  • Domesticating Drink: Women, Men, and Alcohol in America, 1870-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Murdock, Catherine Gilbert. Domesticating drink: women, men, and alcohol in America, 1870-1940.
    • Drinking of alcoholic beverages -- United States -- History.
    Keene, Jennifer D., 1962-
  • Women's Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France During the First World War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grayzel, Susan R. Women's identities at war: gender, motherhood, and politics in Britain and France during the First World War.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Women -- Great Britain.
    Frost, Jennifer, 1961-
  • Making Do: Women, Family and Home in Montreal during the Great Depression (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baillargeon, Denyse, 1954- Making do: women, family and home in Montreal during the Great Depression.
    • Housewives -- Québec (Province) -- History.
    Scully, Sally A.
  • Reading Witchcraft: Stories of Early English Witches (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gibson, Marion, 1970- Reading witchcraft: stories of early English witches.
    • Witchcraft -- England -- History -- 16th century.
    Matrician, Marian.
  • The Crimes of Women in Early Modern Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rublack, Ulinka. Crimes of women in early modern Germany.
    • Female offenders -- Germany -- History.
    Dias, Maria Odila Leite da Silva.
  • Women and Urban Change in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1820-1868 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Matos Rodríguez, Félix V., 1962- Women and urban change in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1820-1868.
    • Women -- Puerto Rico -- San Juan -- History.
    Palmer, Colin A., 1942-
  • Crossing Boundaries: Comparative History of Black People in Diaspora (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. Crossing boundaries: comparative history of Black people in diaspora.
    • McLeod, Jacqueline, ed.
    • Blacks -- America -- History.
    Pascoe, Peggy.
  • Asian/American: Historical Crossings of a Racial Frontier (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Palumbo-Liu, David. Asian/American: historical crossings of a racial frontier.
    • Asian Americans -- History.
    Bu, Liping.
  • New York before Chinatown: Orientalism and the Shaping of American Culture, 1776-1882 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tchen, John Kuo Wei. New York before Chinatown: Orientalism and the shaping of American culture, 1776-1882.
    • China -- Foreign public opinion, American -- History -- 18th century.
    Blackmar, Elizabeth, 1950-
  • Urban Castles: Tenement Housing and Landlord Activism in New York City, 1890-1943 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Day, Jared N., 1963- Urban castles: tenement housing and landlord activism in New York City, 1890-1943.
    • Tenement houses -- New York (State) -- New York -- History.
    Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
  • Patriotism, Politics, and Popular Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Mexico: Juan Francisco Lucas and the Puebla Sierra (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thomson, Guy P. C., 1949- Patriotism, politics, and popular liberalism in nineteenth-century Mexico: Juan Francisco Lucas and the Puebla Sierra.
    • LaFrance, David G. (David Gerald), 1948-
    • Lucas, Juan Francisco.
    Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
  • Propriety and Permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Viqueira Albán, Juan Pedro. Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico.
    • Lipsett-Rivera, Sonya, 1961-, tr.
    • Rivera Ayala, Sergio, 1961-, tr.
    • Mexico City (Mexico) -- Social life and customs.
    Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell.
  • Restoring the Balance: Women Physicians and the Profession of Medicine, 1850-1995 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • More, Ellen Singer, 1946- Restoring the balance: women physicians and the profession of medicine, 1850-1995.
    • Women physicians -- United States -- History -- 19th century.



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