Journal of Social History

Journal of Social History 34.2, Winter 2000

Articles

    Clark, Anna.
  • The New Poor Law and the Breadwinner Wage: Contrasting Assumptions
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    Subject Headings:
    • Poor laws -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    • Wages -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    • Public welfare -- Law and legislation -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      It has often been assumed that the nineteenth-century English New Poor Law enshrined women's dependence on men and upheld the breadwinner wage. However, three very distinct understandings of the breadwinner wage shaped poor law policy from 1834--1908, each with different implications for women's work. First, inspired by Malthus, the promulgators of the 1834 New Poor Law believed that if a man could not support his family, he should not marry, and if a woman could not find a husband who earned enough, she must support herself and her children by earning wages. Second, by the 1870s, poor law officials and social reformers understood the breadwinner wage as a reward ordinary working men should be able to earn by proving their respectability. Charities aided respectable wives of ill breadwinners so they would not have to go out to work, but they still expected "unrespectable" wives, and all single women and widows, to work to support themselves. The notion that working men had a right to earn a breadwinner wage and to keep their wives at home only became enshrined in the welfare system by 1908, and derived not from poor law traditions, but from trade union agitation, Liberal policies, and eugenic concerns.
    Parsons, Elaine Frantz.
  • Risky Business: The Uncertain Boundaries of Manhood in the Midwestern Saloon
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bars (Drinking establishments) -- Social aspects -- Middle West -- History -- 19th century.
    • Masculinity -- Middle West -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      The midwestern saloon in the late Nineteenth Century worked both to confirm and challenge the manhood of its customers. While it offered them a homosocial space to indulge in activities coded "male," men who frequented it risked both becoming intoxicated and losing authority at home. Saloongoers considered "minding one's own business" to be one of the central tenets of manhood, and talked about it endlessly. In their understanding, both intoxication and lost authority at home directly challenged their mastery of their own "business," and consequently undermined their male status. Their concern about their challenged manhood may explain their failure to make sufficiently energetic defenses of their saloongoing when confronted in courtrooms or by prohibitionists. Rather, they frequently attempted to distance themselves from or deny participation in saloon culture.
    Martin, Scott C., 1959-
  • Violence, Gender, and Intemperance in Early National Connecticut
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lung, Peter, d. 1816 -- Trials, litigation, etc.
    • Lung, Lucy, d. 1815 -- Alcohol use.
    • Trials (Murder) -- Connecticut -- Middletown -- History -- 19th century.
    • Alcoholism -- Social aspects -- Connecticut -- Middletown -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      In 1815, Middletown, Connecticut resident Peter Lung beat his wife Lucy to death after both engaged in a two-day bout of drinking. In succeeding trials, Lung was sentenced to death, and eventually executed in 1816. Publicity surrounding the case reveals much about changing notions of violence, gender, and intemperance. In particular, the varying ways in which the interested parties depicted Lucy Lung and her drinking illustrates a trend toward viewing woman as innately moral beings who were often victimized by male violence. Lung's defense of his actions emphasized his wife's drunkenness as a cause of her death, and harked back to colonial conceptions of woman as carnal and sinful. The legal and clerical establishment downplayed Lucy's intemperance, employing images of woman victimized by male drunkenness that would become dominant in the antebellum temperance movement.
    Crubaugh, Anthony, 1962-
  • Local Justice and Rural Society in the French Revolution
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    Subject Headings:
    • Justice, Administration of -- France -- Charente-Inférieure -- History -- 18th century.
    • Justices of the peace -- France -- Charente-Inférieure -- History -- 18th century.
    • Manorial courts -- France -- Charente-Inférieure -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      This study examines the transition from seigneurial justice prior to 1789 to the revolutionary institution of the justice of the peace in order to assess the impact of the French Revolution on rural society. It argues that seigneurial justice was slow, costly, and largely inaccessible to rural denizens of Aunis and Saintonge. Hence, peasants often resorted to violence in the resolution of their quarrels. After 1789 rural dwellers had the opportunity to submit their disputes to trusted, elected justices of the peace who adjudicated cases quickly and inexpensively. Because of revolutionary reforms, above all, people in rural French society experienced the reality of equality before the law and came to accept the primacy of the state in the resolution of disputes. This study of an important institution, hitherto neglected by historians, illuminates the process by which the state penetrated rural areas just as it sheds light on the meaning of modern citizenship. Above all it challenges recent revisionist historiography by suggesting that the revolution did indeed have important social repercussions.
    Bevir, Mark.
  • Republicanism, Socialism, and Democracy in Britain: The Origins of the Radical Left
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social Democratic Federation -- History.
    • Republicanism -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    • Radicalism -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century.
    Abstract:
      Recent scholarship emphasizes the persistence of radical republicanism in Chartism and beyond. This republicanism focused on political ills not social ones and sought to elevate the people not the working-class. To recognize its persistence is, however, to raise a transition problem: how did the socialism of the twentieth century emerge out of, or even supplant, the republican tradition? We can answer this question by looking at the Social Democratic Federation (SDF). In the 1880s, the members of the SDF, including Tory radicals such as Hyndman, popular radicals such as the Murray brothers, and positivists such as Bax, typically moved from a radical republicanism to a form of Anglo-Marxism. Although they broke with republicanism, its legacy can be found their commitment to a strong democratic program, which has since characterized much of the radical left. The later history of the SDF finds them defending this program against the forms of socialism--rooted in romanticism and liberal radicalism rather than republicanism--found in the Socialist League, the Fabian Society, and eventually the Labour Party.
    Bakker, Nelleke.
  • The Meaning of Fear, Emotional Standards for Children in the Netherlands, 1850-1950: Was there a Western Transformation?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fear in children -- Netherlands -- History.
    • Parenting -- Netherlands -- History.
    • Child rearing -- Netherlands -- History.
    Abstract:
      This essay considers the changes in standards for children's fear and for ways of handling it in Dutch parental guidance literature between 1850 and 1950. Stearns and Haggerty's hypothesis about a Western transformation of fear from an avoidable and relatively unimportant emotion to fear as a normal aspect of a child's mental life, inspired by the American case, is put to the test of comparison. First, an outline of Dutch social history is given, focusing on those processes that are supposed to have acted as determinants of the transition: urbanization, secularization, and a smaller family size. Next, the essay discusses fear as subject of the Dutch parental guidance literature. As in the United States since the 1920s fear changed from a relatively unimportant to a major topic in child-rearing literature. It turned into a fully normal and accepted childhood emotion, which deserved parental respect and compassion. However, unlike in the United States, the same social processes cannot have caused this transition, as they did not occur or did not occur nationwide in the Netherlands at the time. The author draws the conclusion that the cultural shock brought about by World War l and its intellectual aftermath has caused the transition.
    Burch, Susan.
  • Transcending Revolutions: The Tsars, The Soviets and Deaf Culture
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    Subject Headings:
    • Deaf -- Russia -- History.
    • Deaf -- Education -- Russia -- History.
    Abstract:
      Revisionist scholarship has redirected our interpretations of race, class, and gender, but has yet to fully address a fundamental component in our historical identity: physical ability and its underlying concept of normality. Studies in Deaf history offer one approach to this issue by assessing the community through a cultural lens rather than a medical or pathological interpretation. Many scholars in Deaf history have focused primarily on Western Europe and the United States in their work, inadvertently creating an image of a monolithic Deaf culture. This study, which compares experiences in late Imperial and early Soviet Russia, also challenges the narrow medical model of Deafness. By revealing a significantly different discourse between government and Deaf people, and unique interactions within the Deaf community, this paper also raises important questions about the factors which inform Deaf cultural identities. Russia's unique social and economic structures produced a divergent Deaf identity, as well as alternative subversive activity in order to preserve their community. The differences between the development of cultural Deaf history in the West versus Russia point out further ways in which historians can investigate the history of minorities, as well as disabilities.
    Harison, Casey.
  • The Rise and Decline of a Revolutionary Space: Paris' Place de Grève and the Stonemasons of Creuse, 1750-1900
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    Subject Headings:
    • Place de l'Hôtel-de-ville (Paris, France) -- History.
    • Stonemasons -- France -- Creuse -- History.
    • Plazas -- Social aspects -- France -- Paris -- History.
    • Employee selection -- France -- Paris -- History.
    Abstract:
      A meaningful historical relationship existed between the Place de Grève, the open square fronting Paris' cityhall, and the migrant stonemasons who used it as a hiring fair in the nineteenth century. This spatial and social combination contributed to a "contentious repertoire" that helped make Paris the century's "capital of revolution." This article explores the conjuncture of historical trends and contentious repertoire at the Place to explain how the stonemasons suffered repression disproportionately during rebellions. The conjuncture broke down with the rebuilding of Paris under Prefect Haussmann. As workers moved to the suburbs and developed new ways to find jobs, and as migrants assimilated and police lost interest in the Place, apprehensions about the setting faded.

      The Place de Grève was an epicenter for unrest in nineteenth-century Paris, the site and the stonemasons sharing a parallel role in that history. The Revolution of 1789 was pivotal in this development because of the many transformations it provoked. This analysis suggests that contentious repertoires have a spatial aspect worth considering. It remains difficult to say why rebellion was so frequent in Paris, though this may have been the result of a (perhaps unique) conjuncture of historical trends.

    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • London, Hub of the Industrial Revolution: A Revisionary History, 1775-1825, and: A History of London, and: Restoration London: From Poverty to Pets, From Medicine to Magic, From Slang to Sex, From Wallpaper to Women's Rights, and: London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barnett, David (David C.) London, hub of the industrial revolution: a revisionary history, 1775-1825.
    • Inwood, Stephen, 1947- History of London.
    • Picard, Liza, 1927- Restoration London: from poverty to pets, from medicine to magic, from slang to sex, from wallpaper to women's rights.
    • Schneer, Jonathan. London 1900: the imperial metropolis.
    • London (England) -- History.
    Abstract:
      That four Londons are reviewed in this essay calls attention to the popularity of the topic, yet they represent only a few of the most recent publications. Each work touches variously on the city, as its title suggests. Inwoods's, a well-documented narrative, is a general up-date in accord with the latest scholarship. Barnett reinterprets the city's role during the Industrial Revolution, emphasizing that the metropolis did not play second-fiddle to the great Midlands' cities. Schneer captures the aura of imperial London at the dawn of a new century, exactly a hundred years ago. Finally, Picard's is a delightful vignette of Restoration life with lots of delicious anecdotes. That London history today is enjoying a renaissance speaks well for the city's continued resilience as well as its mystique. Each work reviewed here makes its special contribution to both.

Reviews

    Censer, Jack Richard.
  • Revolutionary Demands: A Content Analysis of the Cahiers de Doléances of 1789 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shapiro, Gilbert. Revolutionary demands: a content analysis of the Cahiers de doléances of 1789.
    • Markoff, John, 1942-
    • France -- History -- Revolution, 1789-1799 -- Sources.
    Constant, Edward W.
  • Instituting Science: The Cultural Production of Scientific Disciplines (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lenoir, Timothy, 1948- Instituting science: the cultural production of scientific disciplines.
    • Science -- Social aspects -- History -- 19th century.
    Ruggiero, Guido, 1944-
  • How To Do It: Guides to Good Living for Renaissance Italians (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bell, Rudolph M. How to do it: guides to good living for Renaissance Italians.
    • Family -- Italy -- History -- 16th century.
    Soluri, John.
  • True Gardens of the Gods: Californian-Australian Environmental Reform, 1860-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tyrrell, Ian R. True gardens of the gods: Californian-Australian environmental reform, 1860-1930.
    • Plant introduction -- California -- History.
    Comer, Jim.
  • Keep Your Head to the Sky: Interpreting African American Home Ground (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gundaker, Grey, ed. Keep your head to the sky: interpreting African American home ground.
    • Cowan, Tynes, ed.
    • Afro-Americans -- Social life and customs.
    Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
  • The World of Túpac Amaru: Conflict, Community, and Identity in Colonial Peru (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stavig, Ward. World of Túpac Amaru: conflict, community, and identity in colonial Peru.
    • Indians of South America -- Peru -- Quispicanchis -- History -- Sources.
    Hanawalt, Barbara.
  • Images of the Medieval Peasant (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Freedman, Paul H., 1949- Images of the medieval peasant.
    • Literature, Medieval -- History and criticism.
    Dallas, Gregor.
  • Fraternity among the French Peasantry: Sociability and Voluntary Associations in the Loire Valley, 1815-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baker, Alan R. H. Fraternity among the French peasantry: sociability and voluntary associations in the Loire valley, 1815-1914.
    • Friendly societies -- France -- Loir-et-Cher -- History -- 19th century.
    Horn, Margo.
  • Children's Interests/Mothers' Rights: The Shaping of America's Child Care Policy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Michel, Sonya, 1942- Children's interests/mothers' rights: the shaping of America's child care policy.
    • Child care -- Government policy -- United States -- History.
    Ladd-Taylor, Molly, 1955-
  • A Mother's Job: The History of Day Care, 1890-1960 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rose, Elizabeth R. Mother's job: the history of day care, 1890-1960.
    • Day care centers -- United States -- History.
    Bari, Barbara.
  • What Difference Does a Husband Make?: Women and Marital Status in Nazi and Postwar Germany (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Heineman, Elizabeth D., 1962- What difference does a husband make?: women and marital status in Nazi and postwar Germany.
    • Single women -- Germany -- Social conditions -- History.
    Martin, Scott C., 1959-
  • The Second Greatest Disappointment: Honeymooning and Tourism at Niagara Falls (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dubinsky, Karen. Second greatest disappointment: honeymooning and tourism at Niagara Falls.
    • Niagara Falls (N.Y. and Ont.) -- Social life and customs.
    Carson, Carolyn Leonard.
  • What a Blessing She Had Chloroform: The Medical and Social Response to the Pain of Childbirth from 1800 to the Present (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Caton, Donald, 1937- What a blessing she had chloroform: the medical and social response to the pain of childbirth from 1800 to the present.
    • Anesthesia in obstetrics -- History.
    Schmidt, Albert J.
  • Women Waging Law in Elizabethan England (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stretton, Tim, 1963- Women waging law in Elizabethan England.
    • Women -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- England -- History -- 16th century.
    Dodge, L. Mara.
  • Tales of Wayward Girls and Immoral Women: Case Records and the Professionalization of Social Work (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tice, Karen Whitney, 1955- Tales of wayward girls and immoral women: case records and the professionalization of social work.
    • Social case work -- United States -- History.
    Lewis, Judith Schneid, 1950-
  • Girls in Trouble: Sexuality and Social Control in Rural Scotland 1660-1780 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mitchison, Rosalind. Girls in trouble: sexuality and social control in rural Scotland 1660-1780.
    • Illegitimacy -- Scotland -- History.
    Shorter, Edward.
  • Sex, Religion, and the Making of Modern Madness: The Eberbach Asylum and German Society, 1815-1849 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Goldberg, Ann. Sex, religion, and the making of modern madness: the Eberbach Asylum and German society, 1815-1849.
    • Psychiatry -- Germany -- History -- 19th century.
    Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo.
  • Montpelier, Jamaica: A Plantation Community in Slavery and Freedom, 1739-1912 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Higman, B. W., 1943- Montpelier, Jamaica: a plantation community in slavery and freedom, 1739-1912.
    • Plantations -- Jamaica.
    Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard)
  • Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walker, Charles, 1959- Smoldering ashes: Cuzco and the creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840.
    • Cuzco (Peru : Dept.) -- History.
    Popkin, Jeremy D., 1948-
  • L'identité politique de Lyon: entre violences collectives et mémoire des élites, 1786-1905 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Benoît, Bruno. Identité politique de Lyon: entre violences collectives et mémoire des élites, 1786-1905.
    • Lyon (France) -- Politics and government -- 19th century.
    Levine, David, 1946-
  • Urbane and Rustic England: Cultural Ties and Social Spheres in the Provinces, 1660-1780 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Estabrook, Carl B. Urbane and rustic England: cultural ties and social spheres in the provinces, 1660-1780.
    • England -- Social conditions -- 18th century.
    Wolf, Jacqueline H.
  • Childhood's Deadly Scourge: The Campaign to Control Diphtheria in New York City, 1880-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hammonds, Evelynn Maxine. Childhood's deadly scourge: the campaign to control diphtheria in New York City, 1880-1930.
    • Diphtheria -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century.
    White, Kevin, 1959-
  • An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Terry, Jennifer, Ph. D. American obsession: science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society.
    • Homosexuality -- United States -- History.
    Baynton, Douglas C.
  • Illusions of Equality: Deaf Americans in School and Factory, 1850-1950 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Buchanan, Robert (Robert M.) Illusions of equality: deaf Americans in school and factory, 1850-1950.
    • Deaf -- Education -- United States -- History.
    Marty, Martin E., 1928-
  • Fits, Trances, & Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Taves, Ann, 1952- Fits, trances, & visions: experiencing religion and explaining experience from Wesley to James.
    • Experience (Religion) -- History -- 18th century.
    Valenze, Deborah M., 1953-
  • Sex and the Gender Revolution. Volume 1. Heterosexuality and the Third Gender in Enlightenment London (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Trumbach, Randolph. Sex and the gender revolution.
    • Sex customs -- England -- London -- History -- 18th century.
    Rubenstein, Anne.
  • Refried Elvis: The Rise of the Mexican Counterculture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Zolov, Eric. Refried Elvis: the rise of the Mexican counterculture.
    • Mexico -- Civilization -- 20th century.
    White, Kevin, 1959-
  • Twentieth-Century Sexuality: A History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McLaren, Angus. Twentieth-century sexuality: a history.
    • Sex customs -- History -- 20th century.
    Borchert, James, 1941-
  • Leading the Race: The Transformation of the Black Elite in the Nation's Capital, 1880-1920 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moore, Jacqueline M., 1965- Leading the race: the transformation of the Black elite in the nation's capital, 1880-1920.
    • Afro-Americans -- Washington (D.C.) -- Social conditions -- 19th century.



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