Journal of Modern Greek Studies

Journal of Modern Greek Studies 17.2, October 1999



    Sfikas, Thanasis D.
  • Toward a Regional Study of the Origins of the Cold War in Southeastern Europe: British and Soviet Policies in the Balkans, 1945-1949
    Subject Headings:
    • Balkan Peninsula -- Foreign relations -- 20th century.
    • Great Britain -- Foreign relations -- 1945-
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
      What is missing from the literature on the origins of the Cold War is a synthesis discussing the interaction between the Balkan policies of the Big Three and regional developments in the Balkan Peninsula. A useful starting point for such a discussion is the examination of the policies of two historic rivals in the region, Britain and the Soviet Union. Moscow's Balkan policy was motivated by considerations of national security and was aimed at the shaping of spheres of influence that would correspond with Stalin's overall European objectives. British interests stemmed from traditional considerations of imperial defense and the need to pursue a great-power policy in the era of superpowers. As the Balkans continued to be a battleground for the clash between British and Soviet imperialisms, the period 1945-1949 witnessed a new imperial division of the Peninsula--a division that was seen with contentment by its architects, despite their high-minded protestations.
    Frazier, Robert, 1922-
  • Acheson and the Formulation of the Truman Doctrine
    Subject Headings:
    • Acheson, Dean, 1893-1971.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Balkan Peninsula -- Politics and government -- 1945-1989.
      The Truman Doctrine speech marked a major change in American foreign policy. Literally it was only a request to the Congress for funds in peacetime to defend two Near Eastern countries from pro-communist and Soviet pressure. The American administration justified this request by emphasizing the danger of totalitarianism as opposed to democracy rather than playing on fears of Soviet aggression or invoking the specter of communism. Dean Acheson was almost completely responsible for this approach, but his motives can only be suggested. Nevertheless the Congress and the American people recognized the real issues and supported the request.
    Holland, R. F. (Robert F.)
  • Nationalism, Ethnicity and the Concert of Europe: the Case of the High Commissionership of Prince George of Greece in Crete, 1898-1906
    Subject Headings:
    • Crete (Greece) -- History.
    • World politics -- 1900-1918.
    • Crete (Greece) -- Ethnic relations.
      Crete provides a classic nineteenth-century case of the interaction between international politics and ethnic struggle. This article is concerned with the transitional regime under Prince George of Greece following the departure of Turkish troops in November 1898. The ambiguous politico-constitutional situation, including elements of continuing Ottoman suzerainty, did not at first cause problems, as the island was recovering from recent depredations. Beginning in 1902-1903, however, conflicting views regarding Crete's destiny led to polarization between the prince and the Great Powers, Christians and Muslims, and among Christian factions. This story shows how Eleutherios Venizelos first insinuated himself into the exploding gap between Hellenic aspirations and Western power. The narrative covers the 1905 insurrection and Prince George's controversial departure in September 1906. The conclusion of the analysis has a contemporary Balkan echo: a frozen and unresolved status quo may suit external actors but is usually disastrous for local societies.
    Seferiades, Seraphim.
  • Small Rural Ownership, Subsistence Agriculture, and Peasant Protest in Interwar Greece: the Agrarian Question Recast
    Subject Headings:
    • Peasantry -- Greece -- History -- 20th century.
    • Greece -- History -- 1917-1944.
    • Greece -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1974.
      In 1928, 67% of the Greek population resided in villages and small provin-cial towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants, while 53.2% of the economically active were employed in agriculture and animal husbandry. It is not surprising, then, that the "agrarian question" should constitute the cornerstone of modern Greek historiography and social science. Despite all the attention Greek agriculture has attracted, however, the exact nature of the adversities faced by the peasant smallholder still escapes us. Indeed, in recent years, earlier schematic accounts portraying Greek peasants as invariably tyrannized at the hands of "feudal landlords" have been replaced by what can be construed as the "rosy image of the countryside." Both approaches, however, are misleading. Contrary to a widespread view, the Greek countryside was far from peaceful. Rural contention involved occupations of Church lands, hunger marches, and, above all, the full-fledged rebellion of the Peloponnesian currant growers in 1934-1935. In an attempt to trace the roots of peasant unrest to prevailing material conditions, the argument is advanced that the interwar agrarian reform was not equitable; nor did it guarantee the majority of smallholders a minimum of purchasing power. The article includes an appendix listing rural mobilizations in the period 1919-1936 and a quantifi-cation of peasant militancy.
    Close, David (David H.)
  • Environmental Crisis in Greece and Recent Challenges to Centralized State Authority
    Subject Headings:
    • Environmentalism -- Greece.
    • Environmentalism -- Political aspects -- Greece.
    • Greece -- Politics and government -- 1974-
      Environmental problems have become acute in Greece. They have led to criti-cism of the arbitrary behavior and administrative incapacity of national gov-ernments, which have been vulnerable because their power is extraordinarily centralized. Consequently, environmental problems have stimulated diverse protests against governments by voluntary associations, often working in alliance with various bodies that have become more independent and critical of the government: elected local governments, the broadcast media, professional experts, and the judiciary. The same bodies--sometimes forming new types of partnership--have also tried to remedy government neglect by various initiatives for environmental protection. All these activities have made the central government readier to anticipate public objections and seek external assistance. These developments have tended to make the political system more pluralistic and decentralized, and have strengthened civil society as conventionally defined.
    Pappas, Nicholas G.
  • Concepts of Greekness: The Recorded Music of Anatolian Greeks after 1922
    Subject Headings:
    • Greeks -- Turkey -- Ethnic identity.
    • Refugees -- Greece -- History -- 20th century.
    • Music -- Greece -- History -- 20th century.
      It is well attested that Asia Minor Greeks faced considerable hostility upon their arrival in Greece after 1922. Among the manifestations of this intolerance were claims that they displayed too many Levantine characteristics to be gnÆsioi ÄEllhnew. Considerable pressure was brought to bear on these refugees to conform, which in turn raised concerns among the refugees about the maintenance of their cultural distinctiveness. This paper suggests that, through the recorded performances of the refugee community in Athens after 1924, historians may begin to appreciate the identity crisis which the Mikrasiãtew experienced. The refugees found in their own highly developed music an avenue for the unchallenged expression of their own concept of Greek identity. Ironically, their own musical idiom, which provided them with a measure of commercial success and a temporary means of identity preservation, was to be ultimately subsumed within the broader, locally developed rebétiko genre that it had unwittingly encouraged. Relegated in rebétiko scholarship to the level of a mere catalyst for the musical revolution of the buzúki that followed, the recorded performances of the refugees preserve for us some of the dilemmas of mass relocation and identity among the displaced of Asia Minor.
    Andriotis-Baitinger, Katerina.
  • Whitman and Elytis: Workings of Minor Literature
    Subject Headings:
    • Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892 -- Criticism and interpretation.
    • Elytes, Odysseas, 1911- -- Criticism and interpretation.
      Gilles Deleuze's and Felix Guattari's postmodern theory enables us to view Walt Whitman and Odysseus Elytis as major poets who, by deterritorializing and reterritorializing the English and Greek languages, respectively, become suitable for American and Greek realities and models. Ultimately, however, this contributes to the two poets' minority status. Their unique adaptation of language to American and Greek realities qualifies their writings as minor literature.
    Paschalis, Mihalis.
  • Thematic Collections and Generation of Meaning in Cavafy's Poetry
    Subject Headings:
    • Cavafy, Constantine, 1863-1933 -- Criticism and interpretation.
      The thematic order in which Cavafy arranged his published poems can yield additional meaning for them that may not emerge, or be so obvious, in the poems' chronological arrangement. The study of five poems of the collection G 10 (no. 3, "But the Wise Perceive Things about to Happen"; no. 4, "The Ides of March"; no. 5, "Things Ended"; no. 6, "The God Abandons Antony"; no. 7, "Theodotos") shows important thematic and semantic interaction not only among the texts themselves but also, quite significantly, among titles (quotations), proper names, and Plutarch's text.

Essay Review

Book Reviews

    Markides, Kyriacos C.
  • (review)
    Subject Headings:
    • Mavratsas, Caesar V., 1963-. Opseis tou ellenikou ethnikismou sten Kypro: ideologikes antiparatheseis kai e koinonike kataskeue tes ellenokypriakes tautotetas 1974-1996.
    • Greeks -- Cyprus -- Ethnic identity.
    Roilos, Panagiotis.
  • Deep Blue, Almost Black (review)
    Subject Headings:
    • Valtinos, Thanases. Deep blue, almost black.
    • Assimakopoulos, Jane, tr.
    • Deligiorgis, Stavros, 1933-, tr.
    • Valtinos, Thanases -- Translations into English.
    Bien, Peter.
  • Journal of an Unseen April (review)
    Subject Headings:
    • Elytes, Odysseas, 1911-. Journal of an unseen April.
    • Connolly, David, professor, tr.
    • Elytes, Odysseas, 1911- -- Translations into English.

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