Journal of Modern Greek Studies 17.2, October 1999
Sfikas, Thanasis D.
Toward a Regional Study of the Origins of the Cold War in Southeastern Europe: British and Soviet Policies in the Balkans, 1945-1949
- Balkan Peninsula -- Foreign relations -- 20th century.
- Great Britain -- Foreign relations -- 1945-
- Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
What is missing from the literature on the origins of the Cold
War is a synthesis discussing the interaction between the Balkan policies
of the Big Three and regional developments in the Balkan Peninsula. A
useful starting point for such a discussion is the examination of the
policies of two historic rivals in the region, Britain and the Soviet
Union. Moscow's Balkan policy was motivated by considerations of national
security and was aimed at the shaping of spheres of influence that
would correspond with Stalin's overall European objectives. British
interests stemmed from traditional considerations of imperial defense and
the need to pursue a great-power policy in the era of superpowers. As the
Balkans continued to be a battleground for the clash between British and
Soviet imperialisms, the period 1945-1949 witnessed a new imperial
division of the Peninsula--a division that was seen with contentment by
its architects, despite their high-minded protestations.
Frazier, Robert, 1922-
Acheson and the Formulation of the Truman Doctrine
- Acheson, Dean, 1893-1971.
- United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
- Balkan Peninsula -- Politics and government -- 1945-1989.
The Truman Doctrine speech marked a major change in American
foreign policy. Literally it was only a request to the Congress for funds
in peacetime to defend two Near Eastern countries from pro-communist
and Soviet pressure. The American administration justified this
request by emphasizing the danger of totalitarianism as opposed to
democracy rather than playing on fears of Soviet aggression or invoking
the specter of communism. Dean Acheson was almost completely responsible
for this approach, but his motives can only be suggested. Nevertheless
the Congress and the American people recognized the real issues and
supported the request.
Holland, R. F. (Robert F.)
Nationalism, Ethnicity and the Concert of Europe: the Case of the High Commissionership of Prince George of Greece in Crete, 1898-1906
- Crete (Greece) -- History.
- World politics -- 1900-1918.
- Crete (Greece) -- Ethnic relations.
Crete provides a classic nineteenth-century case of the
interaction between international politics and ethnic struggle. This
article is concerned with the transitional regime under Prince George of
Greece following the departure of Turkish troops in November 1898. The
ambiguous politico-constitutional situation, including elements of
continuing Ottoman suzerainty, did not at first cause problems,
as the island was recovering from recent depredations. Beginning in
1902-1903, however, conflicting views regarding Crete's
destiny led to polarization between the prince and the Great Powers,
Christians and Muslims, and among Christian factions. This story shows
how Eleutherios Venizelos first insinuated himself into the exploding
gap between Hellenic aspirations and Western power. The narrative covers
the 1905 insurrection and Prince George's controversial departure in
September 1906. The conclusion of the analysis has a contemporary Balkan
echo: a frozen and unresolved status quo may suit external actors but
is usually disastrous for local societies.
Small Rural Ownership, Subsistence Agriculture, and Peasant Protest in Interwar Greece: the Agrarian Question Recast
- Peasantry -- Greece -- History -- 20th century.
- Greece -- History -- 1917-1944.
- Greece -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1974.
In 1928, 67% of the Greek population resided in villages and small
provin-cial towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants, while 53.2% of the
economically active were employed in agriculture and animal husbandry. It
is not surprising, then, that the "agrarian question" should constitute
the cornerstone of modern Greek historiography and social science. Despite
all the attention Greek agriculture has attracted, however, the exact
nature of the adversities faced by the peasant smallholder still escapes
us. Indeed, in recent years, earlier schematic accounts portraying Greek
peasants as invariably tyrannized at the hands of "feudal landlords"
have been replaced by what can be construed as the "rosy image of the
countryside." Both approaches, however, are misleading. Contrary to a
widespread view, the Greek countryside was far from peaceful. Rural
contention involved occupations of Church lands, hunger marches,
and, above all, the full-fledged rebellion of the Peloponnesian
currant growers in 1934-1935. In an attempt to trace the roots
of peasant unrest to prevailing material conditions, the argument is
advanced that the interwar agrarian reform was not equitable; nor did it
guarantee the majority of smallholders a minimum of purchasing power. The
article includes an appendix listing rural mobilizations in the period
1919-1936 and a quantifi-cation of peasant militancy.
Close, David (David H.)
Environmental Crisis in Greece and Recent Challenges to Centralized State Authority
- Environmentalism -- Greece.
- Environmentalism -- Political aspects -- Greece.
- Greece -- Politics and government -- 1974-
Environmental problems have become acute in Greece. They have
led to criti-cism of the arbitrary behavior and administrative incapacity
of national gov-ernments, which have been vulnerable because their power
is extraordinarily centralized. Consequently, environmental problems have
stimulated diverse protests against governments by voluntary associations,
often working in alliance with various bodies that have become more
independent and critical of the government: elected local governments,
the broadcast media, professional experts, and the judiciary. The same
bodies--sometimes forming new types of partnership--have also tried
to remedy government neglect by various initiatives for environmental
protection. All these activities have made the central government readier
to anticipate public objections and seek external assistance. These
developments have tended to make the political system more pluralistic
and decentralized, and have strengthened civil society as conventionally
Pappas, Nicholas G.
Concepts of Greekness: The Recorded Music of Anatolian Greeks after 1922
- Greeks -- Turkey -- Ethnic identity.
- Refugees -- Greece -- History -- 20th century.
- Music -- Greece -- History -- 20th century.
It is well attested that Asia Minor Greeks faced
considerable hostility upon their arrival in Greece after 1922. Among the
manifestations of this intolerance were claims that they displayed too
many Levantine characteristics to be gnÆsioi ÄEllhnew. Considerable pressure was brought to bear on these refugees to conform,
which in turn raised concerns among the refugees about the maintenance
of their cultural distinctiveness. This paper suggests that, through
the recorded performances of the refugee community in Athens after
1924, historians may begin to appreciate the identity crisis which
the Mikrasiãtew experienced. The refugees found in their
own highly developed music an avenue for the unchallenged expression
of their own concept of Greek identity. Ironically, their own musical
idiom, which provided them with a measure of commercial success and a
temporary means of identity preservation, was to be ultimately subsumed
within the broader, locally developed rebétiko genre that it had
unwittingly encouraged. Relegated in rebétiko scholarship to the
level of a mere catalyst for the musical revolution of the buzúki
that followed, the recorded performances of the refugees preserve for us
some of the dilemmas of mass relocation and identity among the displaced
of Asia Minor.
Whitman and Elytis: Workings of Minor Literature
- Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892 -- Criticism and interpretation.
- Elytes, Odysseas, 1911- -- Criticism and interpretation.
Gilles Deleuze's and Felix Guattari's postmodern theory
enables us to view Walt Whitman and Odysseus Elytis as major poets
who, by deterritorializing and reterritorializing the English and
Greek languages, respectively, become suitable for American and Greek
realities and models. Ultimately, however, this contributes to the two
poets' minority status. Their unique adaptation of language to American
and Greek realities qualifies their writings as minor literature.
Thematic Collections and Generation of Meaning in Cavafy's Poetry
- Cavafy, Constantine, 1863-1933 -- Criticism and interpretation.
The thematic order in which Cavafy arranged his published poems can
yield additional meaning for them that may not emerge, or be so obvious,
in the poems' chronological arrangement. The study of five poems of
the collection G 10 (no. 3, "But the Wise Perceive Things about
to Happen"; no. 4, "The Ides of March"; no. 5, "Things Ended"; no. 6,
"The God Abandons Antony"; no. 7, "Theodotos") shows important thematic
and semantic interaction not only among the texts themselves but also,
quite significantly, among titles (quotations), proper names, and
Gallant, Thomas W.
Greek Society in the Making, 1863-1913: Realities, Symbols, and Visions (review)
- Carabott, Philip, ed. Greek society in the making, 1863-1913: realities, symbols, and visions.
- Greece -- History -- George I, 1863-1913 -- Congresses.
Markides, Kyriacos C.
- Mavratsas, Caesar V., 1963-. Opseis tou ellenikou ethnikismou sten Kypro: ideologikes antiparatheseis kai e koinonike kataskeue tes ellenokypriakes tautotetas 1974-1996.
- Greeks -- Cyprus -- Ethnic identity.
Deep Blue, Almost Black (review)
- Valtinos, Thanases. Deep blue, almost black.
- Assimakopoulos, Jane, tr.
- Deligiorgis, Stavros, 1933-, tr.
- Valtinos, Thanases -- Translations into English.
Journal of an Unseen April (review)
- Elytes, Odysseas, 1911-. Journal of an unseen April.
- Connolly, David, professor, tr.
- Elytes, Odysseas, 1911- -- Translations into English.