Journal of Military History

The Journal of Military History
Volume 69, Number 4, October 2005

CONTENTS

Articles

    Worthing, Peter M.
  • The Road Through Whampoa: The Early Career of He Yingqin
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    Subject Headings:
    • He, Yingqin, 1890-
    • Generals -- China -- Biography.
    • China -- History, Military -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article explores the early career of Chinese Nationalist General He Yingqin, examining his origins and military training in order to understand how he came to the attention of prominent men such as Sun Yat-sen and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) and subsequently was able to gain a position of prominence in the government of Nationalist China. It argues that He Yingqin and Jiang Jieshi developed a working relationship based on common training and military experience, a shared set of personal values, and a bonding experience in combat in the Eastern Expedition of 1925. This relationship paved the way for He Yingqin's rapid rise in the Nationalist military and government.
    Jones, Mark C.
  • Give Credit Where Credit Is Due: The Dutch Role in the Development and Deployment of the Submarine Schnorkel
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    Subject Headings:
    • Snorkels (Naval architecture) -- Design and construction -- History.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Engineering and construction.
    • Netherlands. Koninklijke Marine.
    Abstract:
      The Germans' attempt during World War II to use an air mast (schnorkel) on submerged submarines to reduce their heavy losses is reasonably well known to naval historians. What is not well known, especially to those historians using English-language sources, is how the Germans came to deploy such a novel approach to operating diesel-powered submarines. This article explains the Dutch contribution to the development of the schnorkel. The article discusses the Italian version of the schnorkel, the Dutch invention and use of the schnorkel, the German adaptation of the Dutch technology, and the British experimentation with a schnorkel.
    Mulligan, Timothy.
  • Ship-of-the-Line or Atlantic Raider? Battleship Bismarck Between Design Limitations and Naval Strategy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bismarck (Battleship) -- Design and construction.
    • Germany. Reichsmarine.
    • Germany. Kriegsmarine.
    • Raeder, Erich, 1876-1960.
    • Naval strategy.
    Abstract:
      The recent surge of writings on battleship Bismarck largely ignores the ship's early history, from its initial designs through its planned use in prewar tactical exercises. Focusing on the period between 1932 and 1939, this article examines the genesis of the German battleship in the context of the internal debates and uncertainty within the German Navy High Command as to the desired characteristics and functions of future capital ships. Before war's outbreak, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder determined that battleships dependent on a limited-range propulsion system should be employed on long-range commerce raiding.
    Warren, Mame.
  • Focal Point of the Fleet: U.S. Navy Photographic Activities in World War II
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    Subject Headings:
    • War photography -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Photography.
    • United States. Navy -- Photographers -- History -- World War, 1939-1945.
    Abstract:
      Washington, D.C., was the headquarters of most U.S. Navy photographic activities during World War II. Continuing a distinguished history of naval photography, hundreds of cameramen, including Edward Steichen and his team of professional photographers, fanned out from Washington to document both the European and Pacific theaters. They shot millions of still and motion pictures, and sent them back to various facilities, especially the Naval Photographic Science Laboratory at Anacostia. There, hundreds of men and women worked around the clock to generate images that would inspire both their military commanders and the American people with the prowess of the U.S. Navy in warfare.
    Krebs, Gerhard.
  • Operation Super Sunrise? Japanese-United States Peace Feelers in Switzerland, 1945
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    Subject Headings:
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Diplomatic history.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Peace.
    • Hack, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1887-1949.
    • Dulles, Allen Welsh, 1893-1969.
    • Fujimura, Yoshiro, 1907-1992.
    Abstract:
      In early 1945 Japanese navy circles in Berlin tried to begin peace negotiations with the United States. Using their contacts with the arms trader Friedrich Wilhelm Hack, they sent Commander Fujimura Yoshikazu to Switzerland, where he opened talks with Allen W. Dulles of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services. Though the Japanese navy and Foreign Ministry showed some interest, the peace attempts finally failed since neither side took the initiative to an official level. Fujimura confused his government by claiming that the Americans had made the first step, while the U.S. side waited for proof that the administration in Tokyo was backing the navy officer's initiative.
    Spector, Ronald H., 1943-
  • After Hiroshima: Allied Military Occupations and the Fate of Japan's Empire, 1945-1947
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    Subject Headings:
    • Japan -- History -- Allied occupation, 1945-1952.
    • China -- History -- Civil War, 1945-1949.
    • Southeast Asia -- History -- 1945-
    • Korea -- History -- Allied occupation, 1945-1948.
    • Military occupation.
    Abstract:
      The United States and its allies were almost completely unprepared for the enormous occupation responsibilities they faced in the Far East beginning in 1945. The author reviews Chinese, American, and British occupation decisions in immediate postwar China, Korea, and Southeast Asia and the role of the forces of recently defeated Japan. Allied occupiers came into the area for the nonpolitical task of disarming and removing the Japanese, but they quickly found themselves in the middle of insurgencies or civil wars, because the basic political future of these countries remained undecided. By 1948 all the states of the former Japanese empire were involved in conflicts. The ultimate fate of the occupied nations seemed to depend more on internal forces than on the techniques or plans of the occupiers. Consequently, the lessons of this period for the recent Iraq occupation are ambiguous at best, and they suggest that nation-building with guns will have no more certain outcome.
    Coleman, Bradley Lynn.
  • The Colombian Army in Korea, 1950-1954
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    Subject Headings:
    • Korean War, 1950-1953 -- Colombia.
    • Colombia. Ejército -- History -- Korean War, 1950-1953.
    • Korean War, 1950-1953 -- Participation, Colombian.
    Abstract:
      A diverse multinational coalition fought to defend South Korea between 1950 and 1953. The United Nations (UN) army featured combat divisions from industrialized countries, but also included units from small UN member states such as Colombia. This article examines the multinational campaign in Korea through coverage of the Colombian Army experience. It finds that the successful integration of the Colombia Battalion into the U.S.-led UN Command grew from the republic's larger relationship with the United States.

Review Essay

    Sumida, Jon Tetsuro, 1949-
  • Gunnery, Procurement, and Strategy in the Dreadnought Era
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    Subject Headings:
    • Brooks, John, 1942- Dreadnought gunnery and the Battle of Jutland: the question of fire control.
    • Fire control (Naval gunnery) -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The author of the book being reviewed challenges what he incorrectly believes is the existing consensus on the character of British capital ship fire control and attempts to reinterpret aspects of the Battle of Jutland. This essay seeks to provide a guide to the book's most important analytical shortcomings for those either unfamiliar with the large body of relevant sources or who lack the technical knowledge to evaluate the engineering aspects of long-range

Book Reviews

    Trefry, Richard G. (Richard Greenleaf), 1924-
  • Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Singer, P. W. (Peter Warren) Corporate warriors: the rise of the privatized military industry.
    • Defense industries.
    Carter, James M.
  • Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Singer, P. W. (Peter Warren) Corporate warriors: the rise of the privatized military industry.
    • Defense industries.
    Southern, Pat, 1948-
  • Rome at War: Farms, Families, and Death in the Middle Republic (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rosenstein, Nathan Stewart. Rome at war: farms, families, and death in the Middle Republic.
    • Agriculture, Ancient -- Rome.
    Solon, Paul.
  • The Road to Crécy: The English Invasion of France, 1346 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Livingstone, Marilyn. Road to Crécy: the English invasion of France, 1346.
    • Witzel, Morgen.
    • Crécy, Battle of, Crécy-en-Ponthieu, France, 1346.
    Farr, David, 1969 Jan. 22-
  • A Military History of the English Civil War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wanklyn, Malcolm. Military history of the English Civil War.
    • Jones, Frank.
    • Great Britain -- History -- Civil War, 1642-1649.
    Dreyer, Edward L.
  • China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Perdue, Peter C., 1949- China marches west: the Qing conquest of Central Eurasia.
    • China -- History -- Qing dynasty, 1644-1912.
    Pritchard, James S., 1939-
  • The French Navy and the Seven Years' War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dull, Jonathan R., 1942- French Navy and the Seven Years' War.
    • France. Marine -- History -- 18th century.
    Starkey, Armstrong.
  • Henry Lloyd and the Military Enlightenment of Eighteenth-Century Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Speelman, Patrick J. Henry Lloyd and the military enlightenment of eighteenth-century Europe.
    • Lloyd, Henry, ca. 1720-1783.
    Barker, Thomas Mack.
  • Hanauer Journale und Briefe aus dem Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg 1776-1783 der Offiziere Wilhelm Rudolph von Gall, Friedrich Wilhelm von Geismar, dessen Burschen (anonym), Jakob Heerwagen, Georg Paeusch sowie anderer Beteiligter (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gall, Manfred von. Hanauer Journale und Briefe aus dem Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg 1776-1783 der Offiziere Wilhelm Rudolph von Gall, Friedrich Wilhelm von Geismar, dessen Burschen (anonym), Jakob Heerwagen, Georg Paeusch sowie anderer Beteiligter.
    • United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 -- Personal narratives, German.
    Skaggs, David Curtis.
  • Britain and America Go to War: The Impact of War and Warfare in Anglo-America, 1754-1815 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Flavell, Julie, ed. Britain and America go to war: the impact of war and warfare in Anglo-America, 1754-1815.
    • Conway, Stephen, 1957-, ed.
    • United States -- History -- French and Indian War, 1755-1763.
    Santoni, Pedro.
  • Californio Voices: The Oral Memoirs of José María Amador and Lorenzo Asisara (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Amador, José Mariá, 1794-1883. Californio voices: the oral memoirs of José María Amador and Lorenzo Asisara.
    • Asisara, Lorenzo, b. 1819.
    • Mora-Torres, Gregorio, 1954-, tr.
    • Amador, José Mariá, 1794-1883 -- Interviews.
    Watson, Samuel.
  • Wars within War: Mexican Guerrillas, Domestic Elites, and the United States of America, 1846-1848 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Levinson, Irving W. Wars within war: Mexican guerrillas, domestic elites, and the United States of America, 1846-1848.
    • Mexican War, 1846-1848.
    Floyd, Dale E.
  • Fortress America: The Forts that Defended America, 1600 to the Present (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kaufmann, J. E. Fortress America: the forts that defended America, 1600 to the present.
    • Kaufmann, H. W.
    • Fortification -- United States -- History.
    Hagerman, Edward.
  • Field Armies and Fortification in the Civil War: The Eastern Campaigns, 1861-1864 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hess, Earl J. Field armies and fortification in the Civil War: the Eastern campaigns, 1861-1864.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Campaigns.
    Hogue, James Keith, 1954-
  • Antietam: Le jour le plus sanglant de la guerre de Sécession (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Naulet, Frédéric. Antietam: le jour le plus sanglant de la guerre de sécession.
    • Antietam, Battle of, Md., 1862.
    Henzel, Hans W.
  • Retreat from Gettysburg: Lee, Logistics, and the Pennsylvania Campaign (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Brown, Kent Masterson, 1949- Retreat from Gettysburg: Lee, logistics, and the Pennsylvania campaign.
    • Gettysburg Campaign, 1863.
    Grear, Charles D.
  • Kentucky's Last Cavalier: General William Preston, 1816-1887 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sehlinger, Peter J. Kentucky's last cavalier: General William Preston, 1816-1887.
    • Preston, William, 1816-1887.
    Thomas, James B.
  • Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lock, Ron. Zulu victory: the epic of Isandlwana and the cover-up.
    • Quantrill, Peter.
    • Isandlwana, Battle of, South Africa, 1879.
    Ryan, Joseph W.
  • Command Failure in War: Psychology and Leadership (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pois, Robert A. Command failure in war: psychology and leadership.
    • Langer, Philip.
    • Command of troops -- Case studies.
    Shellum, Brian.
  • Intelligence and Statecraft: The Use and Limits of Intelligence in International Society (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, P. J. (Peter J.), 1964-, ed. Intelligence and statecraft: the use and limits of intelligence in international society.
    • Siegel, Jennifer (Jennifer L.), ed.
    • Intelligence service.
    Strieter, Terry W., 1946-
  • Soldiers as Police: The French and Prussian Armies and the Policing of Popular Protest, 1889-1914 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Johansen, Anja, 1965- Soldiers as police: the French and Prussian armies and the policing of popular protest, 1889-1914.
    • Demonstrations -- France -- History.
    Echevarria, Antulio Joseph, 1959-
  • German War Planning, 1891-1914: Sources and Interpretations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Zuber, Terence. German war planning, 1891-1914: sources and interpretations.
    • Germany -- History, Military -- 20th century -- Sources.
    Brennan, James R.
  • The Forgotten Front: The East African Campaign, 1914-1918 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Anderson, Ross. Forgotten front: the East African campaign, 1914-1918.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Campaigns -- Africa, East.
    Biedzynski, James.
  • The Creation of the Modern German Army: General Walther Reinhardt and the Weimar Republic, 1914-1930 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mulligan, William, 1975- Creation of the modern German Army: General Walther Reinhardt and the Weimar Republic, 1914-1930.
    • Reinhardt, Walther, 1872-1930.
    Stanton, Jack.
  • The Dominion and the Rising Sun: Canada Encounters Japan, 1929-41 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Meehan, John David, 1967- Dominion and the Rising Sun: Canada encounters Japan, 1929-41.
    • Canada -- Foreign relations -- Japan.
    May, Michael Perry.
  • The Politics of Air Power: From Confrontation to Cooperation in Army Aviation Civil-Military Relations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rice, Rondall Ravon. Politics of air power: from confrontation to cooperation in army aviation civil-military relations.
    • United States. Army. Air Corps -- Political activity.
    Esenwein, George Richard.
  • Francisco Franco: Soldier, Commander, Dictator (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jensen, Geoffrey, 1965- Francisco Franco: soldier, commander, dictator.
    • Franco, Francisco, 1892-1975.
    Funk, Arthur Layton, 1914-
  • SOE in France: An Account of the Work of the British Special Operations Executive in France, 1940-1944 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Foot, M. R. D. (Michael Richard Daniel), 1919- SOE in France: an account of the work of the British Special Operations Executive in France, 1940-1944.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Underground movements -- France.
    Bell, Ernest L.
  • The Secret War of Hut 3, and: Ultra's Arctic War, and: The Official History of British Sigint 1914-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, John, ed. Secret war of Hut 3.
    • Jackson, John, ed. Ultra's Arctic war.
    • Birch, Frank. Official history of British Sigint 1914-1945.
    • Jackson, John, ed.
    • Enigma cipher system.
    • ULTRA (Intelligence system)
    Bird, Keith W.
  • The German Fleet at War, 1939-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • O'Hara, Vincent P., 1951- German fleet at war, 1939-1945.
    • Germany. Kriegsmarine -- History -- World War, 1939-1945.
    Solis, Gary D.
  • Kimmel, Short, and Pearl Harbor: The Final Report Revealed (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Borch, Frederic L., 1954- Kimmel, Short, and Pearl Harbor: the final report revealed.
    • Martinez, Daniel, 1949-
    • Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), Attack on, 1941.
    Farrell, Brian P. (Brian Padair), 1960-
  • Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bayly, C. A. (Christopher Alan) Forgotten armies: the Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945.
    • Harper, T. N. (Timothy Norman), 1965-
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Southeast Asia.
    Bittner, Donald F.
  • Beachhead Assault: The Story of the Royal Naval Commandos in World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lee, David. Beachhead assault: the story of the Royal Naval Commandos in World War II.
    • Great Britain. Royal Navy -- Commando troops.
    Dunn, Walter S. (Walter Scott), 1928-
  • Stalin, the Russians, and Their War, 1941-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Broekmeyer, M. J., 1927- Stalin, the Russians, and their war, 1941-1945.
    • Buck, Rosalind, tr.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Soviet Union.
    Uhler, Walter C.
  • FDR and the Soviet Union: The President's Battles over Foreign Policy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Glantz, Mary E. FDR and the Soviet Union: the President's battles over foreign policy.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    Schwonek, Matthew R.
  • The Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of Strategic Unity in World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Peszke, Michael Alfred. Polish underground army, the Western allies, and the failure of strategic unity in World War II.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Poland.
    Callahan, Raymond.
  • The Jungle, the Japanese and the British Commonwealth Armies at War 1941-1945: Fighting Methods, Doctrine and Training for Jungle Warfare (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moreman, T. R. Jungle, the Japanese and the British Commonwealth armies at war 1941-1945: fighting methods, doctrine and training for jungle warfare.
    • Great Britain. Army -- Drill and tactics.
    Fuhrmann, David T.
  • Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi, 1941- Racing the enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the surrender of Japan.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Armistices.
    Ewell, Judith, 1943-
  • The Last Colonial Massacre: Latin America in the Cold War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grandin, Greg, 1962- Last colonial massacre: Latin America in the Cold War.
    • Guatemala -- History -- 1945-1985.
    Goda, Norman J. W., 1961-
  • Wehrmacht Generals, West German Society, and the Debate on Rearmament, 1949-1959 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Searle, Alaric, 1962- Wehrmacht generals, West German society, and the debate on rearmament, 1949-1959.
    • Generals -- Germany (West) -- History -- 20th century.
    Mills, Eric L.
  • Oceanographers and the Cold War: Disciples of Marine Science (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hamblin, Jacob Darwin. Oceanographers and the cold war: disciples of marine science.
    • Oceanographers -- United States -- Biography.
    Smith, Robert Freeman, 1930-
  • America, the Vietnam War, and the World: Comparative International Perspectives (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Daum, Andreas W., ed. America, the Vietnam War, and the world: comparative international perspectives.
    • Gardner, Lloyd C., 1934-, ed.
    • Mausbach, Wilfried, 1964-, ed.
    • Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975.
    Fischer, Joseph R., 1953-
  • Leave No Man Behind: Liberation and Capture Missions (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Isby, David C. Leave no man behind: liberation and capture missions.
    • United States. Army. Special Forces -- History.
    Meilinger, Phillip S., 1948-
  • Airpower Advantage: Planning the Gulf War Air Campaign, 1989-1991 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Putney, Diane T. (Diane Therese), 1949- Airpower advantage: planning the Gulf War air campaign, 1989-1991.
    • Persian Gulf War, 1991 -- Aerial operations, American.
    Kalesnik, Frank.
  • Operation Barras: The SAS Rescue Mission, Sierra Leone 2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fowler, Will, 1947- Operation Barras: the SAS rescue mission, Sierra Leone 2000.
    • Great Britain. Army. Special Air Service.
    Czarnecki, Jonathan E.
  • Not a Good Day to Die: The Untold Story of Operation Anaconda (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Naylor, Sean. Not a good day to die: the untold story of Operation Anaconda.
    • Operation Anaconda, 2002.
    Bourque, Stephen A. (Stephen Alan), 1950-
  • In the Company of Soldiers: A Chronicle of Combat (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Atkinson, Rick. In the company of soldiers: a chronicle of combat.
    • United States. Army. Airborne Division, 101st -- History -- 21st century.
    Borch, Frederic L., 1954-
  • Military Tribunals and Presidential Power: American Revolution to the War on Terrorism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fisher, Louis. Military tribunals and presidential power: American Revolution to the war on terrorism.
    • Military courts -- United States -- History.

Books Received

Recent Journal Articles

Letters to the Editor

Index to Volume 69




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