This article explores the early career of Chinese Nationalist General
He Yingqin, examining his origins and military training in order to
understand how he came to the attention of prominent men such as
Sun Yat-sen and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) and subsequently
was able to gain a position of prominence in the government of
Nationalist China. It argues that He Yingqin and Jiang Jieshi developed
a working relationship based on common training and military
experience, a shared set of personal values, and a bonding experience
in combat in the Eastern Expedition of 1925. This relationship
paved the way for He Yingqin's rapid rise in the Nationalist military
Snorkels (Naval architecture) -- Design and construction -- History.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Engineering and construction.
Netherlands. Koninklijke Marine.
The Germans' attempt during World War II to use an air mast (schnorkel) on submerged submarines to reduce their heavy losses is reasonably well known to naval historians. What is not well known, especially to those historians using English-language sources, is how the Germans came to deploy such a novel approach to operating diesel-powered submarines. This article explains the Dutch contribution to the development of the schnorkel. The article discusses the Italian version of the schnorkel, the Dutch invention and use of the schnorkel, the German adaptation of the Dutch technology, and the British experimentation with a schnorkel.
The recent surge of writings on battleship Bismarck largely ignores the ship's early history, from its initial designs through its planned use in prewar tactical exercises. Focusing on the period between 1932 and 1939, this article examines the genesis of the German battleship in the context of the internal debates and uncertainty within the German Navy High Command as to the desired characteristics and functions of future capital ships. Before war's outbreak, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder determined that battleships dependent on a limited-range propulsion system should be employed on long-range commerce raiding.
War photography -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Photography.
United States. Navy -- Photographers -- History -- World War, 1939-1945.
Washington, D.C., was the headquarters of most U.S. Navy photographic activities during World War II. Continuing a distinguished history of naval photography, hundreds of cameramen, including Edward Steichen and his team of professional photographers, fanned out from Washington to document both the European and Pacific theaters. They shot millions of still and motion pictures, and sent them back to various facilities, especially the Naval Photographic Science Laboratory at Anacostia. There, hundreds of men and women worked around the clock to generate images that would inspire both their military commanders and the American people with the prowess of the U.S. Navy in warfare.
In early 1945 Japanese navy circles in Berlin tried to begin peace negotiations with the United States. Using their contacts with the arms trader Friedrich Wilhelm Hack, they sent Commander Fujimura Yoshikazu to Switzerland, where he opened talks with Allen W. Dulles of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services. Though the Japanese navy and Foreign Ministry showed some interest, the peace attempts finally failed since neither side took the initiative to an official level. Fujimura confused his government by claiming that the Americans had made the first step, while the U.S. side waited for proof that the administration in Tokyo was backing the navy officer's initiative.
The United States and its allies were almost completely unprepared for the enormous occupation responsibilities they faced in the Far East beginning in 1945. The author reviews Chinese, American, and British occupation decisions in immediate postwar China, Korea, and Southeast Asia and the role of the forces of recently defeated Japan. Allied occupiers came into the area for the nonpolitical task of disarming and removing the Japanese, but they quickly found themselves in the middle of insurgencies or civil wars, because the basic political future of these countries remained undecided. By 1948 all the states of the former Japanese empire were involved in conflicts. The ultimate fate of the occupied nations seemed to depend more on internal forces than on the techniques or plans of the occupiers. Consequently, the lessons of this period for the recent Iraq occupation are ambiguous at best, and they suggest that nation-building with guns will have no more certain outcome.
Colombia. Ejército -- History -- Korean War, 1950-1953.
Korean War, 1950-1953 -- Participation, Colombian.
A diverse multinational coalition fought to defend South Korea between 1950 and 1953. The United Nations (UN) army featured combat divisions from industrialized countries, but also included units from small UN member states such as Colombia. This article examines the multinational campaign in Korea through coverage of the Colombian Army experience. It finds that the successful integration of the Colombia Battalion into the U.S.-led UN Command grew from the republic's larger relationship with the United States.
Brooks, John, 1942- Dreadnought gunnery and the Battle of Jutland: the question of fire control.
Fire control (Naval gunnery) -- History -- 20th century.
The author of the book being reviewed challenges what he incorrectly believes is the existing consensus on the character of British capital ship fire control and attempts to reinterpret aspects of the Battle of Jutland. This essay seeks to provide a guide to the book's most important analytical shortcomings for those either unfamiliar with the large body of relevant sources or who lack the technical knowledge to evaluate the engineering aspects of long-range
Speelman, Patrick J. Henry Lloyd and the military enlightenment of eighteenth-century Europe.
Lloyd, Henry, ca. 1720-1783.
Barker, Thomas Mack.
Hanauer Journale und Briefe aus dem Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg 1776-1783 der Offiziere Wilhelm Rudolph von Gall, Friedrich Wilhelm von Geismar, dessen Burschen (anonym), Jakob Heerwagen, Georg Paeusch sowie anderer Beteiligter (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Gall, Manfred von. Hanauer Journale und Briefe aus dem Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg 1776-1783
der Offiziere Wilhelm Rudolph von Gall, Friedrich Wilhelm von Geismar, dessen Burschen (anonym), Jakob Heerwagen, Georg Paeusch sowie anderer Beteiligter.
United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 -- Personal narratives, German.