Journal of Military History

The Journal of Military History
Volume 69, Number 3, July 2005

CONTENTS

Articles

    Roy, Kaushik, Fellow Nehru Memorial Museum and Library.
  • Military Synthesis in South Asia: Armies, Warfare and Indian Society, c. 1740-1849
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    Subject Headings:
    • India -- History, Military -- 18th century.
    • India -- History, Military -- 19th century.
    • War and society -- India -- History.
    • East India Company. Army.
    Abstract:
      Following the rapid collapse of the Mughal Empire after 1707, the Mughal Successor States attempted to modernize their state apparatus and their armies. Both the Indian kingdoms and the British-led East India Company (EIC) attempted the construction of hybrid military organizations. How, then, can one explain the continuous military victories of the EIC? For opening up new dimensions on the military supremacy of the Europeans in Afro-Asia, the analytical tool of Military Synthesis might be more useful than the concept of Military Revolution or Military Evolution. This essay focuses on the period from the 1740s to 1849.
    Miller, Stephen M., 1964-
  • In Support of the "Imperial Mission"? Volunteering for the South African War, 1899-1902
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    Subject Headings:
    • South African War, 1899-1902.
    • War and society -- Great Britain -- History.
    • Patriotism -- Great Britain -- History.
    • Great Britain. Army -- Recruiting, enlistment, etc. -- History.
    Abstract:
      In mid-December 1899, the British army suffered three consecutive defeats in the opening phase of the Second Anglo-Boer War in South Africa. The government responded to the events of "Black Week" by calling for able-bodied men willing to abandon their homes and families and risk their lives to serve their country. Although some men who answered the call joined the regular army, most who traveled overseas opted for a shorter term of enlistment in the Volunteers, Militia, and Imperial Yeomanry. This article examiness the extent to which patriotism informed the decision-making process of these recruits.
    Lunn, Joe.
  • Male Identity and Martial Codes of Honor: A Comparison of the War Memoirs of Robert Graves, Ernst Jünger, and Kande Kamara
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    Subject Headings:
    • Graves, Robert, 1895- Goodbye to all that.
    • Jünger, Ernst, 1895- In stahlgewittern.
    • Kamara, Kande.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Psychological aspects.
    • Soldiers -- Conduct of life -- History -- 20th century.
    • Soldiers -- Biography.
    • Autobiographical memory.
    Abstract:
      This article compares and contrasts the memoirs of three combatants from the First World War: Robert Graves, Ernst Jünger, and the West African Tirailleur Kande Kamara. Though the soldiers' distinctive cultural heritage and service in the British, German, and French colonial armies, respectively, informed each interpretation, they shared similar, though particular, concepts of male identity and military duty that were socially specific, which they strove to honor. Their interpretations addressed particular audiences—categorized as "the victorious," "the defeated," and "the exploited"—that contributed to and reflected the political liturgies informing mass movements—especially in Germany and the Third World—throughout the twentieth century.
    Neufeld, Michael J., 1951-
  • The End of the Army Space Program: Interservice Rivalry and the Transfer of the von Braun Group to NASA, 1958-1959
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    Subject Headings:
    • Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977.
    • Ballistic missiles -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States. Army Ballistic Missile Agency. Development Operations Division -- History.
    • United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration -- History.
    Abstract:
      The Army–Air Force struggle over ballistic missiles and space policy in the late 1950s was one of the worst episodes of U.S. interservice strife during the Cold War. The papers of General J. B. Medaris provide an important new window onto the process by which the Army avoided transferring its ballistic missile and space capability to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958, and then reluctantly did so in 1959, in part to prevent the Air Force from obtaining it. Medaris's papers illustrate how interservice rivalry shaped the actions of the Secretary of the Army and the leadership of Army Ordnance.
    Priest, Andrew.
  • "In Common Cause": The NATO Multilateral Force and the Mixed-Manning Demonstration on the USS Claude V. Ricketts, 1964-1965
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    Subject Headings:
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization -- Armed Forces -- History -- 20th century.
    • Nuclear crisis stability -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States. Navy --- History -- 20th century.
    • Claude V. Ricketts (Ship : DDG-5) -- History.
    Abstract:
      In mid-1964, the USS Claude V. Ricketts began an eighteen-month operation known as the Mixed-Manning Demonstration. The Ricketts (formerly the USS Biddle) carried men from seven different North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) nations and was intended to demonstrate the viability of "mixed-manning" as part of NATO plans for the so-called Multilateral (Nuclear) Force, a purpose-built flotilla of nuclear armed ships to be owned, operated, controlled, and manned by Alliance members. While the Multilateral Force never came to fruition, the Mixed-Manning Demonstration proved to be a considerable success. This article aims to provide an alternative perspective on the history of the Multilateral Force by examining the development of the multilateral mixed-manning concept, showing how officers from the Ricketts attempted to overcome the difficulties encountered in operating with an international crew, and analysing the inherent long-term disadvantages of manning a ship in such a way.

Notes

    Meixsel, Richard B., 1955-
  • A Uniform Story
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    Subject Headings:
    • MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964.
    • United States -- Armed Forces --- Uniforms -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Few biographers of General Douglas MacArthur have failed to mention the pompous field marshal's uniform he designed for himself as Philippine military adviser in the 1930s. This "uniform story" has become symbolic of the wide gulf that separated MacArthur's grand rhetoric from the paucity of his achievement. But the story is fake, the creation of a poorly informed journalist in 1937 who mistook a recently introduced U.S. Army white dress uniform for a distinctive field marshal's attire.
    Hanley, Brian.
  • The Myth of Iwo Jima: A Rebuttal
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burrell, Robert S. Breaking the cycle of Iwo Jima mythology: a strategic study of operation detachment.
    • Iwo Jima, Battle of, Japan, 1945.
    • Military art and science -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The author is critical of the methodology and conclusions of an essay by Robert Burrell published in the October 2004 JMH asserting that the invasion of Iwo Jima in 1945 was unnecessary and in part a function of inter-service rivalry. Burrell is engaging in retrospective criticism, neglects the role of the impending invasion of Japan, and engages in the sort of parochial-mindedness he detects in the Army Air Forces and the Navy. Captain Burrell's response is appended.
    Burrell, Robert S.
  • Captain Burrell responds
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hanley, Brian. Myth of Iwo Jima: a rebuttal.
    • Iwo Jima, Battle of, Japan, 1945.
    • Military art and science -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Elron, Zeev.
  • Remarks on Air Power and the Six-Day War
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gat, Moshe. On the use of air power and its effect on the outbreak of the Six Day War.
    • Israel-Arab War, 1967 -- Aerial operations.
    • Israel. Tseva haganah le-Yisrael -- Aviation -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The author cites numerous shsortcomings in Moshe Gat's essay published in the October 2004 JMH regarding the Israeli Air Force's evolution and its behavior during the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Dr. Gat's response is appended.
    Gat, Moshe.
  • Dr. Gat Responds
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    Subject Headings:
    • Elron, Zeev. Remarks on air power and the Six-Day War.
    • Israel-Arab War, 1967 -- Aerial operations.
    • Israel. Tseva haganah le-Yisrael -- Aviation -- History -- 20th century.

Review Essays

    Bird, Keith W.
  • The Tirpitz Legacy: The Political Ideology of German Sea Power
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hobson, Rolf. Maritimer Imperialismus: Seemachtideologie, seestrategisches Denken und der Tirpitzplan 1875 bis 1914.
    • Hopman, Albert. Ereignisreiche Leben eines "Wilhelminers": Tagebücher, Briefe, Aufzeichnungen 1901 bis 1920.
    • Epkenhans, Michael, ed.
    • Naval strategy -- History -- 19th century.
    • Hopman, Albert.
    Black, Jeremy.
  • War Stories
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mosier, John, 1944- Myth of the Great War: a new military history of World War One.
    • Mosier, John, 1944- Blitzkrieg myth: how Hitler and the Allies misread the strategic realities of World War Two.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Campaigns.
    • World War, 1939-1945.

Book Reviews

    Shy, John W.
  • Army and Empire: British Soldiers on the American Frontier, 1758-1775 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McConnell, Michael N. (Michael Norman) Army and empire: British soldiers on the American frontier, 1758-1775.
    • Great Britain. Army -- Military life.
    Christie, Carl A. (Carl Andrew), 1942-
  • Maritime Power and the Struggle for Freedom: Naval Campaigns that Shaped the Modern World, 1788-1851 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Padfield, Peter. Maritime power and the struggle for freedom: naval campaigns that shaped the modern world, 1788-1851.
    • Naval history, Modern -- 18th century.
    Neilson, Keith.
  • Reforming the Tsar's Army: Military Innovation in Imperial Russia from Peter the Great to the Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, David, ed. Reforming the Tsar's army: military innovation in Imperial Russia from Peter the Great to the Revolution.
    • Menning, Bruce, ed.
    • Russia. Armiia -- History.
    Tate, Michael L.
  • Army Architecture in the West: Forts Laramie, Bridger, and D. A. Russell, 1849-1912 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hoagland, Alison K., 1951- Army architecture in the West: Forts Laramie, Bridger, and D. A. Russell, 1849-1912.
    • Fortification -- Wyoming.
    Clow, Richmond L.
  • Blue Water Creek and the First Sioux War, 1854-1856 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paul, R. Eli, 1954- Blue Water Creek and the first Sioux war, 1854-1856.
    • Blue Water Creek, Battle of, Neb., 1855 -- Personal narratives.
    MacDonald, Sharon S.
  • The Civil War Era (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sizer, Lyde Cullen, ed. Civil War era.
    • Cullen, Jim, 1962-, ed.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Sources.
    Fitzpatrick, David.
  • Army of the Potomac, Vol. 2, McClellan Takes Command, September 1861-February 1862 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Beatie, Russel H. (Russel Harrison), 1938- Army of the Potomac.
    • United States. Army of the Potomac -- Officers.
    Reid, Brian Holden.
  • Commander of All Lincoln's Armies: A Life of General Henry W. Halleck (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Marszalek, John F., 1939- Commander of all Lincoln's armies: a life of General Henry W. Halleck.
    • Halleck, H. W. (Henry Wager), 1815-1872.
    Gibson, Keith E.
  • The Young Lions: Confederate Cadets at War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conrad, James Lee. Young lions: Confederate cadets at war.
    • Virginia Military Institute -- History -- 19th century.
    Smith, Mark A.
  • Vicksburg: The Campaign That Opened the Mississippi (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ballard, Michael B. Vicksburg: the campaign that opened the Mississippi.
    • Vicksburg (Miss.) -- History -- Siege, 1863.
    Monnett, John H.
  • Finding Sand Creek: History, Archaeology, and the 1864 Massacre Site (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Greene, Jerome A. Finding Sand Creek: history, archaeology, and the 1864 massacre site.
    • Scott, Douglas D.
    • Sand Creek Massacre, Colo., 1864.
    Joy, Robert J. T.
  • War Epidemics: An Historical Geography of Infectious Diseases in Military Conflict and Civil Strife, 1850-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smallman-Raynor, Matthew. War epidemics: an historical geography of infectious diseases in military conflict and civil strife, 1850-2000.
    • Cliff, A. D. (Andrew David)
    • War -- Medical aspects -- History.
    Gates, John Morgan, 1937-
  • Hang the Dogs: The True History of the Balangiga Massacre (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Couttie, Bob. Hang the dogs: the true history of the Balangiga massacre.
    • Balangiga (Philippines) -- History.
    Rust, Eric C., 1950-
  • The Encyclopedia of U-Boats: From 1904 to the Present (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Möller, Eberhard, 1924- Encyclopedia of U-boats: from 1904 to the present.
    • Brack, Werner.
    • Battson, Andrea, tr.
    • Chesneau, Roger, tr.
    • Submarines (Ships) -- Germany -- History.
    Badsey, Stephen.
  • Over the Top: The Great War and Juvenile Literature in Britain (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paris, Michael, 1949- Over the top: the Great War and juvenile literature in Britain.
    • English literature -- 20th century -- History and criticism.
    Cann, John P., 1941-
  • Portugal 1914-1926: From the First World War to Military Dictatorship (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • De Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro, 1969- Portugal 1914-1926: from the First World War to military dictatorship.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Portugal.
    Westphal, Raymond W.
  • Britain, France, and the Naval Arms Trade in the Baltic, 1919-1939: Grand Strategy and Failure (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stoker, Donald J. Britain, France, and the naval arms trade in the Baltic, 1919-1939: grand strategy and failure.
    • Europe -- History, Naval -- 20th century.
    Uhler, Walter C.
  • The Military History of Tsarist Russia, and: The Military History of the Soviet Union (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kagan, Frederick W., 1970-, ed. Military history of Tsarist Russia.
    • Higham, Robin D. S., ed.
    • Higham, Robin D. S., ed. Military history of the Soviet Union.
    • Kagan, Frederick W., 1970-, ed.
    • Russia -- History, Military.
    • Soviet Union -- History, Military.
    Holt, Thaddeus.
  • The Guy Liddell Diaries, Volume 1, 1939-1942 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Liddell, Guy Maynard, 1892-1958. Guy Liddell diaries.
    • West, Nigel, ed.
    • Liddell, Guy Maynard, 1892-1958 -- Diaries.
    Moretz, Joseph, 1956-
  • The Royal Navy's Home Fleet in World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Levy, James P., 1965- Royal Navy's Home Fleet in World War II.
    • Great Britain. Royal Navy. Home Fleet -- History -- 20th century.
    Bechthold, Mike.
  • Eighth Army: The Triumphant Desert Army That Held the Axis at Bay from North Africa to the Alps, 1939-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Neillands, Robin, 1935- Eighth Army: the triumphant desert army that held the Axis at bay from North Africa to the Alps, 1939-1945.
    • Great Britain. Army. Army, Eighth.
    Boyd, Carl.
  • Hitler's Grey Wolves: U-boats in the Indian Ocean (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Paterson, Lawrence. Hitler's Grey Wolves: U-boats in the Indian Ocean.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Naval operations -- Submarine.
    Buscher, Frank M.
  • War in the Wild East: The German Army and Soviet Partisans (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shepherd, Ben (Benjamin V.) War in the wild East: the German Army and Soviet partisans.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Destruction and pillage.
    Stentiford, Barry M.
  • The Tank Killers: A History of America's World War II Tank Destroyer Force (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Yeide, Harry. Tank killers: a history of America's World War II tank destroyer force.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Regimental histories -- United States.
    Gough, Terrence J.
  • Arsenal of World War II: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1940-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Koistinen, Paul A. C. Arsenal of World War II: the political economy of American warfare, 1940-1945.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Economic aspects -- United States.
    Converse, Allan.
  • On Shaggy Ridge: The Australian Seventh Division in the Ramu Valley: From Kaiapit to the Finisterres (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bradley, Philip. On Shaggy Ridge: the Australian seventh division in the Ramu Valley: from Kaiapit to the Finisterres.
    • Australia. Army. 7th Division.
    Reiss, Matthias.
  • Lone Star Stalag: German Prisoners of War at Camp Hearne (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Waters, Michael R. Lone Star Stalag: German prisoners of war at Camp Hearne.
    • Camp Hearne -- History.
    Zimmerman, Phyllis A.
  • Swift, Silent, and Deadly: Marine Amphibious Reconnaissance in the Pacific, 1942-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Meyers, Bruce F., 1925- Swift, silent, and deadly: Marine amphibious reconnaissance in the Pacific, 1942-1945.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- Oceania.
    Sullivan, Brian R., 1945-
  • Eravamo partigiani. Ricordi del tempo di guerra (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Luraghi, Raimondo, 1921- Eravamo partigiani: ricordi del tempo di guerra.
    • Luraghi, Raimondo, 1921-
    Sokolowski, Joseph W.
  • Hospital at War: The 95th Evacuation Hospital in World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Friedenberg, Zachary. Hospital at war: the 95th Evacuation Hospital in World War II.
    • Friedenberg, Zachary.
    Lewis, Adrian R.
  • The Americans at D-Day: The American Experience at the Normandy Invasion (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McManus, John C., 1965- Americans at D-Day: the American experience at the Normandy invasion.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- France -- Normandy.
    Pavelec, S. Mike.
  • Hitler's Jet Plane: The Me 262 Story (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ziegler, Mano, 1908- Hitler's jet plane: the Me 262 story.
    • Brooks, Geoffrey, tr.
    • Germany. Luftwaffe -- History -- World War, 1939-1945.
    Morrow, John Howard, 1944-
  • Hitler's Last Chief of Foreign Intelligence: Allied Interrogations of Walter Schellenberg (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Doerries, Reinhard R., ed. Hitler's last chief of foreign intelligence: Allied interrogations of Walter Schellenberg.
    • Schellenberg, Walter, 1910-1952.
    Schindler, John R.
  • Deceiving the Deceivers: Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, and Guy Burgess (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hamrick, S.J. Deceiving the deceivers: Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, and Guy Burgess.
    • Espionage, Soviet -- Great Britain.
    Stueck, William Whitney, 1945-
  • The Korean War at Fifty: International Perspectives (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wilkinson, Mark F., ed. Korean war at fifty: international perspectives.
    • Korean War, 1950-1953.
    Farrell, Alan.
  • The Last Valley: The Battle that Doomed the French Empire and Led America into Vietnam (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Windrow, Martin. Last valley: the battle that doomed the French Empire and led America into Vietnam.
    • Dien Bien Phu, Battle of, Diên Biên Phu, Vietnam, 1954.
    Clough, Marshall S.
  • Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Elkins, Caroline. Imperial reckoning: the untold story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya.
    • Kenya -- History -- Mau Mau Emergency, 1952-1960.
    Macaulay, Neill.
  • Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sweig, Julia. Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the urban underground.
    • Cuba -- History -- 1933-1959.
    Peers, Douglas M.
  • Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Callahan, Mary P. (Mary Patricia), 1961- Making enemies: war and state building in Burma.
    • Burma -- Politics and government -- 1824-1948.
    Allison, William Thomas.
  • Military Medicine to Win Hearts and Minds: Aid to Civilians in the Vietnam War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wilensky, Robert J. Military medicine to win hearts and minds: aid to civilians in the Vietnam War.
    • Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Medical care.
    Andradé, Dale.
  • Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968-1972 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sorley, Lewis, 1934-, ed. Vietnam chronicles: the Abrams tapes, 1968-1972.
    • Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- United States.

Books Received

Recent Journal Articles

Doctoral Dissertations in Military History

Letters to the Editor




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