Journal of Military History

The Journal of Military History
Volume 69, Number 1, January 2005

CONTENTS

Articles

    Swope, Kenneth M.
  • Crouching Tigers, Secret Weapons: Military Technology Employed During the Sino-Japanese-Korean War, 1592-1598
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    Subject Headings:
    • Korea -- History -- Japanese Invasions, 1592-1598 -- Technology.
    • Japan -- Military relations -- Korea.
    • Korea -- Military relations -- Japan.
    Abstract:
      The Japanese invasion of Korea (1592-98) has recently been called Asia's first "regional world war." It marked the first time in Asian history that massive armies equipped with modern weaponry faced one another on the field of battle. The Japanese armies commanded by the warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi were arguably the most skilled in the world at the time, yet in the end the Japanese were defeated by a Sino-Korean alliance in tandem with Korean guerrillas. Looking at the primary documents of the war, it seems apparent that military technology was the single most important, but not the only, factor that shaped the direction and determined the outcome of the war. This article presents an overview of some of the major military technologies utilized by the belligerents and challenges conventional interpretations of the conflict, passed down through the centuries, that claim Japan's defeat was due to superior allied numbers and Hideyoshi's death.
    Harari, Yuval N.
  • Martial Illusions: War and Disillusionment in Twentieth-Century and Renaissance Military Memoirs
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    Subject Headings:
    • Soldiers -- Biography -- History and criticism.
    • Renaissance -- Biography -- History and criticism.
    • Military art and science -- History.
    Abstract:
      The twentieth century has witnessed a revolution in the image of war and of soldiers. The age-old romantic image of war has been discredited; war has increasingly been interpreted as a disillusioning experience; and the soldier has been at least partly transformed from hero to victim. This article examines the roots of this revolution, by comparing twentieth-century and Renaissance military memoirs. It argues that this revolution did not result from twentieth-century military or technological changes in the nature of war, but rather from cultural and mental changes in soldiers' self-perception and in their expectations of life, that occurred between 1600 and 1900.
    Bartlett, Merrill L.
  • Ben Hebard Fuller and the Genesis of a Modern United States Marine Corps, 1891-1934
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fuller, Ben Hebard.
    • United States. Marine Corps -- History.
    Abstract:
      Historians of the smaller of the United States naval services have tended to dismiss or denigrate the career of the fifteenth Commandant of the Marine Corps, usually describing him as an avuncular and uninspiring sinecure holder. An examination of Fuller's tenure at the helm of the Corps at the time of the retrenchment imposed during the Herbert C. Hoover administration and the stimulus for naval growth that followed under the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration reveals an officer far more adroit than usually depicted.
    Rodgers, Thomas Earl, 1952-
  • Billy Yank and G.I. Joe: An Exploratory Essay on the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Soldier Motivation
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Armed Forces -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • United States -- Armed Forces -- History -- World War, 1939-1945.
    • Socialization -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    • Socialization -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article provides an explanation of how Union soldiers could fight so effectively in the Civil War with so little training by comparing their prewar socialization experiences with those of infantrymen in World War II. Billy Yank's society inculcated concepts of masculinity, patriotism, and citizenship that were major factors in his ability to function under fire. G.I. Joe's society instilled different concepts of masculinity, patriotism, and citizenship that could not provide him with the same ability as Billy Yank to function on the battlefield. Extensive training and unit cohesion were necessary to compensate for what socialization did not provide G.I. Joe.
    Wood, James A.
  • Captive Historians, Captivated Audience: The German Military History Program, 1945-1961
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    Subject Headings:
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Germany -- Historiography.
    Abstract:
      From 1945 to 1961, former German officers, working first as prisoners of war and then as civilian employees of the U.S. government, produced roughly two hundred thousand pages of manuscript histories dealing with nearly every aspect of the Nazi war effort. This essay provides a general historiographical outline of their work and comments on the motivations, aims, and opinions of the authors. Taken together, these manuscripts provide telling insight into the experiences of German officers, both during and after World War II. Motivated by a desire to protect the reputation of the Wehrmacht, their cooperation with U.S. historical efforts produced a significant, influential, and arguably self-serving view of the war.
    Jeans, Roger B.
  • Victims or Victimizers? Museums, Textbooks, and the War Debate in Contemporary Japan
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    Subject Headings:
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Public opinion.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Museums -- Japan.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Study and teaching -- Japan.
    • Public opinion -- Japan.
    Abstract:
      This essay addresses a widespread misperception in mainstream thinking about Japanese views of their World War II record. Popular works, such as Iris Chang's The Rape of Nanking, tend to speak of a monolithic Japanese view of the war today. This article, through an analysis of the exhibits and descriptive literature of Japanese "war" and "peace" museums as well as recent struggles over how to depict Japan's wartime record in school textbooks, disagrees. Rather than a unified "Japanese" view of the war, the reality is a struggle in which conservatives and right-wingers duel with moderates and leftists over the "correct history" of the war.

Review Essays

    Parker, Geoffrey, 1943-
  • The "Military Revolution," 1955-2005: From Belfast to Barcelona and The Hague
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    Subject Headings:
    • Roberts, Michael. Military revolution, 1560-1660.
    • Military art and science -- History.
    Abstract:
      Michael Roberts launched his celebrated "Military Revolution" idea in a lecture delivered at the Queen's University, Belfast, fifty years ago. To commemorate this event, and to reflect its continuing impact, Geoffrey Parker—himself a participant in the debate—reviews recent "special issues" of two journals, one published in Catalonia and the other in the Netherlands, devoted to the military history of early modern Europe.
    Danchev, Alex.
  • War Stories
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    Subject Headings:
    • Duncan, David Douglas. Photo nomad.
    • McCullin, Don, 1935- Don McCullin.
    • Sontag, Susan, 1933-
    • Knightley, Phillip. Eye of war.
    • Jackson, Sarah, 1951-
    • Merullo, Annabel.
    • Sontag, Susan, 1933- Regarding the pain of others.
    • Photography, Artistic.
    • McCullin, Don, 1935-

Book Reviews

    Santosuosso, Antonio.
  • Jerusalem Besieged: From Ancient Canaan to Modern Israel (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cline, Eric H. Jerusalem besieged: from ancient Canaan to modern Israel.
    • Jerusalem -- History, Military.
    Sinor, Denis.
  • Early Riders: The Beginnings of Mounted Warfare in Asia and Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Drews, Robert. Early riders: the beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe.
    • Cavalry -- Asia -- History.
    Fissel, Mark Charles.
  • Fighting for Identity: Scottish Military Experience c. 1550-1990 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Murdoch, Steve, ed. Fighting for identity: Scottish military experience c. 1550-1990.
    • Mackillop, Andrew, 1969-, ed.
    • Scotland -- History, Military.
    Rowlands, Guy.
  • Princes, Posts, and Partisans: The Army of Louis XIV and Partisan Warfare in the Netherlands (1673-1678) (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Satterfield, George. Princes, posts, and partisans: the army of Louis XIV and partisan warfare in the Netherlands (1673-1678)
    • France -- History -- Louis XIV, 1643-1715.
    Lambert, Andrew D., 1956-
  • The British Navy and the State in the Eighteenth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wilkinson, Clive, 1954- British Navy and the state in the eighteenth century.
    • Great Britain. Royal Navy -- History -- 18th century.
    Paret, Peter.
  • War in the Age of Enlightenment, 1700-1789 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Starkey, Armstrong. War in the age of Enlightenment, 1700-1789.
    • Military art and science -- Europe -- History -- 18th century.
    Maass, John R.
  • The Frontier War for American Independence, and: The French and Indian War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nester, William R., 1956- Frontier war for American independence.
    • Cave, Alfred A. French and Indian war.
    • United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 -- Campaigns.
    • United States -- History -- French and Indian War, 1755-1763.
    Martin, James Kirby, 1943-
  • A Proper Sense of Honor: Service and Sacrifice in George Washington's Army (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cox, Caroline 1954- Proper sense of honor: service and sacrifice in George Washington's army.
    • United States. Continental Army -- History.
    Aimone, Alan Conrad, 1941-
  • New York State Society of the Cincinnati: Biographies of Original Members and Other Continental Officers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sypher, F. J. New York State Society of the Cincinnati: biographies of original members and other continental officers.
    • New York State Society of the Cincinnati -- History.
    Cooper, Jerry M.
  • Bulwark of the Republic: The American Militia in [the] Antebellum West (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rowe, Mary Ellen, 1953- Bulwark of the republic: the American militia in [the] antebellum West.
    • West (U.S.) -- History, Military -- 19th century.
    Tate, Michael L.
  • Soldier-Artist of the Great Reconnaissance: John C. Tidball and the 35th Parallel Pacific Railroad Survey (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tidball, Eugene C., 1930- Soldier-artist of the great reconnaissance: John C. Tidball and the 35th Parallel Pacific Railroad Survey.
    • Tidball, John C. (John Caldwell), 1825-1906.
    Symonds, Craig L.
  • Days of Glory: The Army of the Cumberland, 1861-1865 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Daniel, Larry J., 1947- Days of glory: the Army of the Cumberland, 1861-1865.
    • United States. Army of the Cumberland.
    Langley, Harold D.
  • Union Jacks: Yankee Sailors in the Civil War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bennett, Michael J. Union Jacks: Yankee sailors in the Civil War.
    • United States. Navy -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865.
    Luraghi, Raimondo.
  • West Wind, Flood Tide: The Battle of Mobile Bay (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Friend, Jack, 1929- West wind, flood tide: the Battle of Mobile Bay.
    • Mobile Bay, Battle of, Ala., 1864.
    Piston, William Garrett.
  • Reflections of a Civil War Historian: Essays on Leadership, Society, and the Art of War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hattaway, Herman. Reflections of a Civil War historian: essays on leadership, society, and the art of war.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Miscellanea.
    Schmidt, James D.
  • Soldiers of Peace: Civil War Pacifism and the Postwar Radical Peace Movement (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Curran, Thomas F. Soldiers of peace: Civil War pacifism and the postwar radical peace movement.
    • United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Protest movements.
    Koistinen, Paul A. C.
  • The Railroad and the State: War, Politics, and Technology in Nineteenth-Century America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Angevine, Robert G. Railroad and the state: war, politics, and technology in nineteenth-century America.
    • Railroads and state -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Vandervort, Bruce.
  • The Natal Native Contingent in the Anglo-Zulu War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Thompson, P. S. (Paul Singer) Natal Native Contingent in the Anglo-Zulu War.
    • Zulu War, 1879.
    Kalesnik, Frank.
  • Shame and Endurance: The Untold Story of the Chiricahua Apache Prisoners of War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stockel, H. Henrietta, 1938- Shame and endurance: the untold story of the Chiricahua Apache prisoners of war.
    • Chiricahua Indians -- Wars.
    Cohen, Eliot A.
  • The People in Arms: Military Myth and National Mobilization since the French Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Moran, Daniel, ed. People in arms: military myth and national mobilization since the French Revolution.
    • Waldron, Arthur, ed.
    • Draft -- History -- 19th century -- Congresses.
    Prete, Roy A. (Roy Arnold), 1943-
  • Paths of Glory: The French Army, 1914-18 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Clayton, Anthony, 1928- Paths of glory: the French Army, 1914-18.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- France.
    Gibson, Craig.
  • Tommy: The British Soldier on the Western Front, 1914-1918 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Holmes, Richard, 1946- Tommy: the British soldier on the Western Front, 1914-1918.
    • Great Britain. Army -- History -- World War, 1914-1918.
    Sheffield, G. D.
  • The Cross and the Trenches: Religious Faith and Doubt among British and American Great War Soldiers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schweitzer, Richard, 1964- Cross and the trenches: religious faith and doubt among British and American great war soldiers.
    • World War, 1914-1918 -- Religious aspects.
    Grotelueschen, Mark E., 1969-
  • Meuse-Argonne Diary: A Division Commander in World War I (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wright, William M. Meuse-Argonne diary: a division commander in World War I.
    • Ferrell, Robert H., ed.
    • United States. Army. Division, 89th.
    Trask, David F.
  • Collapse at Meuse-Argonne: The Failure of the Missouri-Kansas Division (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ferrell, Robert H. Collapse at Meuse-Argonne: the failure of the Missouri-Kansas Division.
    • Argonne, Battle of the, France, 1918.
    Ulbrich, David J.
  • The "Casualty Issue" in American Military Practice: The Impact of World War I (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Huelfer, Evan Andrew. "Casualty issue" in American military practice: the impact of World War I.
    • United States -- Military policy.
    Downes, Richard, 1947-
  • Soldiers of the Pátria: A History of the Brazilian Army, 1889-1937 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McCann, Frank D. Soldiers of the Pátria: a history of the Brazilian Army, 1889-1937.
    • Brazil. Exército -- History -- 19th century.
    McManus, John C.
  • A Century of Valor: The First One Hundred Years of the Twenty-Eighth United States Infantry Regiment--Black Lions (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bowman, Stephen L. Century of valor: the first one hundred years of the Twenty-eighth United States Infantry Regiment--Black Lions.
    • United States. Army. Infantry Regiment, 28th -- History.
    Meilinger, Phillip S., 1948-
  • A Question of Loyalty: Gen. Billy Mitchell and the Court-Martial that Gripped the Nation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Waller, Douglas C. Question of loyalty: Gen. Billy Mitchell and the court-martial that gripped the nation.
    • Mitchell, William, 1879-1936 -- Trials, litigation, etc.
    De Syon, Guillaume, 1966-
  • Imagining Flight: Aviation and Popular Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Van Riper, A. Bowdoin. Imagining flight: aviation and popular culture.
    • Aeronautics -- Popular works.
    Angevine, Robert G.
  • The Reader of Gentlemen's Mail: Herbert O. Yardley and the Birth of American Codebreaking (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kahn, David, 1930- Reader of gentlemen's mail: Herbert O. Yardley and the birth of American codebreaking.
    • Yardley, Herbert O. (Herbert Osborn), 1889-1958.
    Snyder, David R.
  • Panzer Operations: The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Raus, Erhard, 1889-1956. Panzer operations: the Eastern Front memoir of General Raus, 1941-1945.
    • Newton, Steven H., ed.
    • Raus, Erhard, 1889-1956.
    Schwonek, Matthew R.
  • Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Berkhoff, Karel C. (Karel Cornelis), 1965- Harvest of despair: life and death in Ukraine under Nazi rule.
    • Ukraine -- History -- German occupation, 1941-1944.
    Stevens, Sharon Ritenour.
  • An Officer and a Lady: The World War II Letters of Lt. Col. Betty Bandel, Women's Army Corps (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bandel, Betty, 1912- Officer and a lady: the World War II letters of Lt. Col. Betty Bandel, Women's Army Corps.
    • Bugbee, Sylvia J., ed.
    • Bandel, Betty, 1912- -- Correspondence.
    Moon, John Ellis van Courtland.
  • A Bridge Not Attacked: Chemical Warfare Civilian Research During World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Johnston, Harold S. Bridge not attacked: chemical warfare civilian research during World War II.
    • Chemical weapons -- Research -- United States.
    Dingman, Roger.
  • Anguish of Surrender: Japanese POWs of World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Straus, Ulrich. Anguish of surrender: Japanese POWs of World War II.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Prisoners and prisons, American.
    Bird, Keith W.
  • Weapons Used Against U-Boats, and: German Naval Code Breakers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Showell, Jak P. Mallmann, ed. Weapons used against U-boats.
    • Showell, Jak P. Mallmann. German naval code breakers.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Naval operations, German.
    • Germany. Kriegsmarine. Funkbeobachtungsdienst -- History.
    Rosson, Steven D.
  • The Battle for Ginkel Heath Near Ede 17 and 18 September 1944 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Verhoef, C. E. H. J. Battle for Ginkel Heath near Ede 17 and 18 September 1944.
    • Arnhem, Battle of, Arnhem, Netherlands, 1944.
    Clayton, Anthony.
  • Dresden, Tuesday, 13 February 1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Taylor, Fred, 1947- Dresden, Tuesday, 13 February 1945.
    • Dresden (Germany) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945.
    Wilt, Alan F.
  • The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, volume 5, "The Finest Soldier," January 1, 1945-January 7, 1947 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Marshall, George C. (George Catlett), 1880-1959. Papers of George Catlett Marshall.
    • Bland, Larry I., ed.
    • Stevens, Sharon Ritenour, ed.
    • Marshall, George C. (George Catlett), 1880-1959.
    Danchev, Alex.
  • The Secret Annexe: An Anthology of the World's Greatest War Diarists (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Taylor, Irene, ed. Secret annexe: an anthology of the world's greatest war diarists.
    • Taylor, Alan, ed.
    • Diaries.
    Walker, J. Samuel.
  • Enola Gay and the Court of History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Newman, Robert P. Enola Gay and the court of history.
    • Hiroshima-shi (Japan) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945.
    Turner, Blair Pierce, 1947-
  • Observing Our Hermanos de Armas: U.S. Military Attachés in Guatemala, Cuba, and Bolivia, 1950-1964 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kirkland, Robert O., 1966- Observing our hermanos de armas: U.S. military attachés in Guatemala, Cuba, and Bolivia, 1950-1964.
    • Military attachés -- United States.
    Schake, Kurt Wayne.
  • NATO Divided, NATO United: The Evolution of an Alliance (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kaplan, Lawrence S. NATO divided, NATO united: the evolution of an alliance.
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
    Guilmartin, John Francis.
  • Cheating Death: Combat Air Rescues in Vietnam and Laos (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Marrett, George J. Cheating death: combat air rescues in Vietnam and Laos.
    • Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Search and rescue operations -- Vietnam.
    Solis, Gary D.
  • Commandants of the Marine Corps (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Millett, Allan Reed, ed. Commandants of the Marine Corps.
    • Shulimson, Jack, ed.
    • United States. Marine Corps -- Officers -- Biography.
    Gambone, Michael D., 1963-
  • The School of the Americas: Military Training and Political Violence in the Americas (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gill, Lesley. School of the Americas: military training and political violence in the Americas.
    • U.S. Army School of the Americas.
    Hogg, Gordon E.
  • The Machine in Neptune's Garden: Historical Perspectives on Technology and the Marine Environment (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rozwadowski, Helen M., ed. Machine in Neptune's garden: historical perspectives on technology and the marine environment.
    • Van Keuren, David K., ed.
    • Oceanography -- Technological innovations -- History -- Congresses.
    Alexander, Bevin.
  • Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Biddle, Stephen D. Military power: explaining victory and defeat in modern battle.
    • Deployment (Strategy)
    Black, Jeremy.
  • War in the Twentieth Century: Reflections at Century's End (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hennessy, Michael A., ed. War in the twentieth century: reflections at century's end.
    • McKercher, B. J. C., 1950-, ed.
    • Military art and science -- History -- 20th century.
    Cann, John P., 1941-
  • Peacekeeping in the Abyss: British and American Peacekeeping Doctrine and Practice after the Cold War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cassidy, Robert M., Ph.D. Peacekeeping in the abyss: British and American peacekeeping doctrine and practice after the Cold War.
    • United States -- Armed Forces -- Foreign countries.

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