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The Journal of Japanese Studies

Vol. 30 (2004) through current issue

The Journal of Japanese Studies is the most influential journal dealing with research on Japan available in the English language. Since 1974, it has published the results of scholarly research on Japan in a wide variety of social science and humanities disciplines, as well as translations of articles from Japanese and substantive book reviews.

Published by: Society for Japanese Studies


E-ISSN: 1549-4721
Print ISSN: 0095-6848

Submission Guidelines

Submission of Manuscripts

Original manuscripts of up to 13,000 words may be submitted for consideration for publication in The Journal of Japanese Studies. Essays appropriate for submission will generally be of suitable length (usually at least 10,000 words), will engage recent Japanese-language scholarship on the work’s subject, and will be suitable for the JJS readership. Manuscripts previously published or under consideration for publication elsewhere cannot be considered. Copyright of original material published in the Journal is to be assigned to the Society for Japanese Studies. If a version of the work you submit has previously been posted on a website, please provide information on where and when in a cover letter with your manuscript. We will consider essays that have appeared on the Internet in previous versions, especially those essays that address our interdisciplinary readership, but the version you submit to JJS should be different from what has been available previously. If the material is currently posted online, we cannot protect your anonymity as author during the refereeing process. Contact JJS for clarification regarding any potential copyright confl icts. Authors should submit their work in an electronic file (PDF of Microsoft Word) that includes a 100-word abstract.

Manuscripts are read anonymously by our referees. Thus we ask that authors not use their names as the running head on every page and not identify themselves in the manuscript, footnotes, or the File Properties information attached to the electronic version. To help further protect your anonymity as author, please give the draft you submit to JJS a unique title, one that would not be found connected to your name in an Internet search. When essays are accepted for publication, authors are given the opportunity to add any citations or acknowledgments omitted for the refereeing process.

Manuscripts must be printed double-spaced with notes (also double-spaced) at the end. Notes should not be excessive in either number or length. Tables should be on separate pages and included at the end. Authors of manuscripts accepted for publication will be asked to furnish professional-quality, camera-ready copy of graphs, figures, and illustrations. Japanese terms should be written in the Hepburn style of romanization. Contributors are requested to write for the Journal’s style sheet or refer to copies of it printed in recent issues or on our website.

All inquiries on subscriptions and submission of manuscripts and all books for review should be addressed to:

The Journal of Japanese Studies
University of Washington
Box 353650
Seattle, WA 98195-3650 U.S.A.

Editorial Board

Volume 41, Number 1, Winter 2015



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington

Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago

Mary C. Brinton, Harvard University

James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

Roger Goodman, University of Oxford

David Howell, Harvard University

Edward J. Lincoln, George Washington University

T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

Editorial Advisory Board

Davinder Bhowmik, University of Washington

Amy Borovoy, Princeton University

Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

William Grimes, Boston University

Junko Habu, University of California, Berkeley

Laura Hein, Northwestern University

Christopher Hughes, University of Warwick

Edward Kamens, Yale University

Mark Levin, University of Hawai‘i

Patricia Maclachlan, University of Texas at Austin

Kōichirō Matsuda, Rikkyo University

James McClain, Brown University

Lori Meeks, University of Southern California

Mark Metzler, University of Texas at Austin

Gene Park, Loyola Marymount University

Morgan Pitelka, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Doug Slaymaker, University of Kentucky

Amy Stanley, Northwestern University

Jun Uchida, Stanford University

Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University

J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

Lori Watt, Washington University in St. Louis

Managing Editor

Martha Lane Walsh

Volume 40, Number 2, Summer 2014



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
Mary C. Brinton, Harvard University
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Harvard University
Edward J. Lincoln, George Washington University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

Editorial Advisory Board

Davinder Bhowmik, University of Washington
Amy Borovoy, Princeton University
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
William Grimes, Boston University
Junko Habu, University of California, Berkeley
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Christopher Hughes, University of Warwick
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Mark Levin, University of Hawai‘i
Patricia Maclachlan, University of Texas at Austin
Kōichirō Matsuda, Rikkyo University
James McClain, Brown University
Lori Meeks, University of Southern California
Mark Metzler, University of Texas at Austin
Gene Park, Loyola Marymount University
Morgan Pitelka, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Doug Slaymaker, University of Kentucky
Amy Stanley, Northwestern University
Jun Uchida, Stanford University
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Lori Watt, Washington University in St. Louis

Managing Editor

Martha Lane Walsh

Volume 40, Number 1, Winter 2014



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
Mary C. Brinton, Harvard University
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Harvard University
Edward J. Lincoln, George Washington University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

Editorial Advisory Board

Davinder Bhowmik, University of Washington
Amy Borovoy, Princeton University
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
William Grimes, Boston University
Junko Habu, University of California, Berkeley
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Christopher Hughes, University of Warwick
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Mark Levin, University of Hawai‘i
Patricia Maclachlan, University of Texas at Austin
Kōichirō Matsuda, Rikkyo University
James McClain, Brown University
Lori Meeks, University of Southern California
Mark Metzler, University of Texas at Austin
Gene Park, Loyola Marymount University
Morgan Pitelka, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Doug Slaymaker, University of Kentucky
Amy Stanley, Northwestern University
Jun Uchida, Stanford University
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Lori Watt, Washington University in St. Louis

Managing Editor

Martha Lane Walsh

Volume 39, Number 2, Summer 2013



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 39, Number 1, Winter 2013



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 38, Number 2, Summer 2012



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 38, Number 1, Winter 2012



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 37, Number 2, Summer 2011



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Associate Editors

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 37, Number 1, Winter 2011



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Managing Editor

Martha Lane Walsh

Editorial Board

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Davinder Bhowmik, University of Washington
Amy Borovoy, Princeton University
Mary Brinton, Harvard University
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
Junko Habu, University of California, Berkeley
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Christopher W. Hughes, University of Warwick
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
Mark Levin, University of Hawai‘i
Patricia Maclachlan, University of Texas
Kōichirō Matsuda, Rikkyo University
James McClain, Brown University
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

Volume 36, Number 2, Summer 2010



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Managing Editor

Martha Lane Walsh

Editorial Board

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 36, Number 1, Winter 2010



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Managing Editor

Martha Lane Walsh

Editorial Board

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 35, Number 2, Summer 2009



Coeditors

Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
Kevin M. Doak, Georgetown University

Managing Editor

Martha Lane Walsh

Editorial Board

Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago
James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College
Sheldon Garon, Princeton University
Roger Goodman, University of Oxford
David Howell, Princeton University
Edward J. Lincoln, New York University
T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley
Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai‘i

Editorial Advisory Board

Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London
Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara
John O. Haley, Washington University
Laura Hein, Northwestern University
Edward Kamens, Yale University
Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego
James McClain, Brown University
Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington
Morgan Pitelka, Occidental College
Atsuko Ueda, Princeton University
J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 35, Number 1, Winter 2009

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    Roger Goodman, University of Oxford

    David Howell, Princeton University

    Edward J. Lincoln, New York University

    T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Editorial Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Ühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 34, Number 2, Summer 2008

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    Roger Goodman, University of Oxford

    David Howell, Princeton University

    Edward J. Lincoln, New York University

    T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Editorial Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Ühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 34, Number 1, Winter 2008

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    Roger Goodman, University of Oxford

    David Howell, Princeton University

    Edward J. Lincoln, New York University

    T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Editorial Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Ühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 33, Number 2, Summer 2007

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Michael Bourdaghs, University of Chicago

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    Roger Goodman, University of Oxford

    David Howell, Princeton University

    Edward J. Lincoln, New York University

    T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Editorial Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, SOAS, University of London

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Ühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 33, Number 1, Winter 2007

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Mary Elizabeth Berry, University of California, Berkeley

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    William W. Kelly, Yale University

    Edward J. Lincoln, Council on Foreign Relations

    T.J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley

    Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, University of Durham

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 32, Number 2, Summer 2006

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Mary Elizabeth Berry, University of California, Berkeley

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    William W. Kelly, Yale University

    Edward J. Lincoln, Council on Foreign Relations

    T.J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley

    Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, University of Durham

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 32, Number 1, Winter 2006

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Mary Elizabeth Berry, University of California, Berkeley

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    William W. Kelly, Yale University

    Edward J. Lincoln, Council on Foreign Relations

    T.J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley

    Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, University of Durham

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 31, Number 2, Summer 2005

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Mary Elizabeth Berry, University of California, Berkeley

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    William W. Kelly, Yale University

    Edward J. Lincoln, Council on Foreign Relations

    T.J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley

    Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, University of Durham

    Karen Brock, Independent scholar

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 31, Number 1, Winter 2005

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Mary Elizabeth Berry, University of California, Berkeley

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    William W. Kelly, Yale University

    Edward J. Lincoln, Council on Foreign Relations

    T.J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley

    Advisory Board

    Gina Barnes, University of Durham

    Karen Brock, Independent scholar

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Sabine Frühstück, University of California, Santa Barbara

    Aaron Gerow, Yale University

    John O. Haley, Washington University

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Ken K. Ito, University of Michigan

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Robert Pekkanen, University of Washington

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kären Wigen, Stanford University

Volume 30, Number 2, Summer 2004

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Mary Elizabeth Berry, University of California, Berkeley

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    William W. Kelly, Yale University

    Edward J. Lincoln, Council on Foreign Relations

    T.J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley

    Advisory Board

    Anne Allison, Duke University

    Gina Barnes, University of Durham

    Robert Borgen, University of California, Davis

    Richard Bowring, University of Cambridge

    Karen Brock, Independent scholar

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Daniel H. Foote, University of Tokyo

    Andrew Gerstle, SOAS, University of London

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Ikuo Kume, Kobe University

    Gregory Pflugfelder, Columbia University

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    Michael J. Smitka, Washington and Lee University

    Carl Steenstrup, Humboldt University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

Volume 30, Number 1, Winter 2004

    Editors

    Marie Anchordoguy, University of Washington
    John Whittier Treat, Yale University

    Managing Editor

    Martha Lane Walsh

    Associate Editors

    Mary Elizabeth Berry, University of California, Berkeley

    James C. Dobbins, Oberlin College

    Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

    William W. Kelly, Yale University

    Edward J. Lincoln, Council on Foreign Relations

    T.J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley

    Kenneth B. Pyle, University of Washington

    Patricia G. Steinhoff, University of Hawai'i

    Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley

    Advisory Board

    Anne Allison, Duke University

    Gina Barnes, University of Durham

    Robert Borgen, University of California, Davis

    Richard Bowring, University of Cambridge

    Karen Brock, Independent scholar

    Kevin Doak, Georgetown University

    Gary Ebersole, University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Daniel H. Foote, University of Tokyo

    Andrew Gerstle, SOAS, University of London

    Helen Hardacre, Harvard University

    Edward Kamens, Yale University

    Ellis S. Krauss, University of California, San Diego

    Ikuo Kume, Kobe University

    Gregory Pflugfelder, Columbia University

    Henry D. Smith II, Columbia University

    Michael J. Smitka, Washington and Lee University

    Carl Steenstrup, Humboldt University

    J. Marshall Unger, Ohio State University

    Frank Upham, New York University

    Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley

Research Areas

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