Norwegian-American farm children who came of age during
the late nineteenth-
and early twentieth-century Midwest faced an
era of declining real wages and increasing land prices. Two data sets
constructed from parish records, community genealogies, and the United
States federal census illustrate structural inequalities in marital
opportunity and length of residence in the natal family, according to the
sex and birth order of children. Utilizing time-dependent proportional
hazards models, the results indicate that earlier-born sons and daughters
were more likely to marry and that daughters tended to leave home earlier
than their brothers. The results also indicate that marriage, for sons
and daughters alike, was more likely among children who left the rural
settlement of their parents.
Jews -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Germany -- Frankfurt am Main -- History -- 16th century.
Jews -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Germany -- Frankfurt am Main -- History -- 17th century.
Criminal justice, Administration of -- Germany -- Frankfurt am Main -- History.
The free imperial city of Frankfurt am Main serves as
the basis for a historical probe of whether Jews received differential
treatment in the criminal-justice system of early modern Germany. The
study proceeds from an analysis of legislative and procedural court
practices to the sentencing of Jews, and culminates in an assessment of
Migrant labor -- Germany -- Bremen -- Social conditions.
In this study of the port city of Bremen during the
nineteenth century, particular emphasis is placed on the impact of
changing labor-market conditions on the structure of in-migration and the
relative contribution of in-migrants to urban demographic growth. Until
the 1880s, the persistence of pre-industrial employment structures
limited the opportunities for permanent settlement. Family formation
was delayed, and completed family size was smaller than in the case of
the native born. Age-
and disease-specific mortality data confirm that
many in-migrants remained marginal elements within urban society. Only
following the onset of industrialization in the late nineteenth century
was there a significant improvement in in-migrant mortality. By 1905,
the life expectancy of in-migrant men was generally higher than that of
their native-born counterparts; the benefits for in-migrant women were
even more substantial.
Gomez, Michael Angelo, 1955- Exchanging our country marks: the transformation of African identities in the colonial and antebellum South.
Afro-Americans -- Southern States -- Ethnic identity.
The political, economic, and social structures of West
African societies--from Gambia to the Niger Delta--varied considerably
during the time of the slave trade. Analysis of the ethnic origins of the
Africans brought to America as slaves reveals the continuing influence of
these multifarious strains on the formation of African-American culture