Over the last millennium, the terms "schism" and "heresy" have been defined and codified in theological manuals and canon law, yet their nature and differences were not always clear in antiquity. The possibility of heresy becoming schism or vice versa was conditioned not only by the declaration of ecclesiastical authorities but also by the fiat of civil authority. This essay explores early Christian attempts at differentiating the terms and uses organizational theory to analyze schism and heresy in North Africa and Rome in the third to fifth centuries.
Masculinity -- Religious aspects -- Christianity -- History of doctrines -- Early church, ca. 30-600.
Sex -- Religious aspects -- Christianity -- History of doctrines -- Early church, ca. 30-600.
Alcoholism -- Religious aspects -- Christianity -- History of doctrines -- Early church, ca. 30-600.
Caesarius of Arles used the rhetoric of masculinity to combat the "problems" of sex and drink and to advance his vision of the ideal lay Christian community. He adapted established language and arguments to his own ends and constructed an uncompromising pastoral stance. Although his success in convincing his congregation is questionable, his approach reveals the complexity and variety of pastoral approaches in late antique Gaul and the role of gender in persuasive preaching.
Monastic and religious life -- Egypt -- History -- Early church, ca. 30-600.
Quoted in the Canons of the monastic leader Shenoute is a corpus of some five hundred rules, which provide a sensationally detailed picture of fourth-century monasticism. They are here used to discover both the objective structure of Shenoute's monastery and the organizing hierarchies that formed its everyday mental and social reality. Monastics renounced "the world," totally replacing their primary social world with a new "normal." But since any re-socialization is inherently less stable than one's original socialization, we see Shenoute's institution vigorously employing tools to repair world erosion and to totalize monastic identity. This process is here analyzed using concepts from the sociology of knowledge.
Violence -- Religious aspects -- Christianity -- History -- To 1500.
Religious tolerance -- Rome.
Modern studies of religious violence in late antiquity have frequently mined Libanius's Oratio 30 for images to dramatize the advent of militant forms of political Christianity in the last decades of the fourth century. Indeed, the vivid and disturbing imagery with which Libanius described the raids on pagan temples and holy sites resonates conveniently with modern narratives of the advance of an increasingly aggressive strain of Christianity at the end of antiquity. Less frequently examined is the strategy with which Libanius sought to persuade his emperor that protection of the temples and art treasures of the Syrian cities and countryside was imperative. In his oration, Libanius illustrates the close intersection of communal narratives, individual and institutional identity, and political necessity in the later Roman world. Indeed, at the core of the Oratio 30 is evidence of a struggle over the defining narratives of the fourth-century Roman world. At stake in this struggle was the fate of religious tolerance in the political life of the Roman world and the place of the Roman emperor within the world he ruled.
Prinzivalli, Emanuela, ed. Commento a Giovanni di Origene: il testo e i suoi contesti: atti dell'VIII convegno di studi del Gruppo italiano di ricerca su Origene e la tradizione alessandrina, Roma, 28-30 settembre 2004.
Origen. Commentary on the Gospel according to John -- Congresses.