Hippolytus, Antipope, ca. 170-235 or 6. Canons of Hippolytus.
Healing -- Religious aspects -- Christianity.
Healing -- Egypt.
In this article I examine the theme of illness, health, and healing in the fourth-century Egyptian text, the Canons of Hippolytus. The study seeks to discover what may be distinctive in the Canons as a later reworking of the text known as the Apostolic Tradition. I explore the theme in the Canons under the headings of: (1) the general ministry to the sick by all members of the local church community; (2) the ministry to the sick by those with a charismatic gift of healing; and (3) the ministry to the sick by the bishop and other church leaders. I go on to argue in the light of this analysis that there is a stronger degree of emphasis on this theme in the community that produced the Canons than in other Christian communities outside Egypt for which we have evidence. And I suggest that when this evidence is coupled with evidence from an analysis of the theme in the Egyptian Sacramentary of Sarapion (or Prayers of Sarapion), it may indicate a feature of Christian life that is distinctive to Egypt in terms of the level of interest in, and concern for, this theme in that part of the Christian world in the third and particularly the fourth century.
The Pious Household and the Virgin Chorus: Reflections on Gregory of Nyssa's Life of Macrina [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Gregory, of Nyssa, Saint, ca. 335-ca. 394. Vita Sanctae Macrinae.
Macrina, the Younger, Saint, ca. 330-379 or 380.
Family -- Religious aspects -- Christianity.
This article suggests that Macrina presided over an ascetic community more domestic than institutional. After exploring the distinction between a personal view (in this case Gregory's) and objective reportage, the author analyses, first, vocabulary that refers most to family and household; and, second, vocabulary that might anticipate later institutional developments. The first set at once enfolds and modifies the second. The conclusion is that Macrina was, throughout her life, a thoroughly domestic figure and that the community described in the Life is best thought of as an extended family. The setting of the successive anecdotes and the long description of Macrina's death and funeral are compatible with—indeed, supportive of—that "pre-institutional" portrayal.
Declamation, as a fictitious speech on a popular stock theme, was developed in the schools of rhetoric as a means of practicing the rules of forensic oratory, the so-called staseis. A subset of those stock themes was concerned with school life in general, and the teacher-student animosity in particular. Gregory of Nazianzus might have used the school-related themes as inspiration for some of his own speeches, e.g., Orations 3, 33, 36, etc. Given the fact that a declamation was supposed to demonstrate a good knowledge of the various techniques of argument, but was not expected to be based on real events, one should exercise caution in reading and interpreting Gregory's speeches as historical sources. Also, the place of their delivery (lecture hall perhaps), as well as the occasion (feast days of saints and martyrs, i.e., the panēgureis), give further indication that the speeches in question were not sermons/homilies strictly speaking, but rather educational show pieces sui generis.