Journal of Democracy

Journal of Democracy
Volume 14, Number 4, October 2003


Contents

Articles

    Ibrahim, Saad Eddin.
  • Reviving Middle Eastern Liberalism
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    Subject Headings:
    • Markaz Ibn Khaldun lil-Dirasat al-Inmaiyah.
    • Liberalism -- Middle East.
    • Democracy -- Middle East.
    Abstract:
      From Ottoman times in the 1850s until the rise of Nasser and the Free Officers' regime in the mid-20th century, Egypt and other countries in the Middle East enjoyed a kind of Liberal Age that saw civil society, NGOs, and the rule of law advance. Some institutions born during the Liberal Age endure. In March 2003, one of these, the Egyptian Court of Cassation, overturned the Hosni Mubarak government's jailing of Saad Eddin Ibrahim and its June 2000 shutdown of his Cairo-based Ibn Khaldun Center. Dr. Ibrahim spoke at the NED about his prison sentence, his winning legal case, and his hopes for a rebirth of Middle Eastern liberalism.
    Ganguly, Sumit.
  • The Crisis of Indian Secularism
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    Subject Headings:
    • Secularism -- India.
    • Hinduism and state -- India.
    • Ethnic relations -- Religious aspects.
    • Muslims -- India -- Social conditions.
    • Democracy -- India.
    Abstract:
      After fifty years of independence India maintains a constitutional commitment to secularism. However, the practice of secularism in India is now increasingly under attack. In the quest for electoral advantage, the once-dominant Congress Party, made a series of choices that compromised India's secular ethos. These choices enabled the explicitly anti-secular Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to dramatically expand its political base through the pursuit of a blatantly anti-secular and majoritarian political agenda. In recent years, as a direct consequence of the BJP's rhetoric and policies, a range of religious minorities have been subjected to discrimination and violence. Despite this adverse trend it is still too early to ring the death-knell of Indian secularism. The growing electoral strength of hitherto disenfranchised groups, the existence of institutions committed to secularism and the continuing secular constitutional dispensation offer some hope for sustaining the secular order in India.
    Shah, Aqil.
  • Pakistan's "Armored" Democracy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Civil-military relations -- Pakistan.
    • Democracy -- Pakistan.
    • Pakistan -- Politics and government -- 1988-
    Abstract:
      Has General Musharraf restored "real" democracy or is civilian rule merely a cover for institutionalizing the military's political dominance? What explains the stunning electoral performance of the religious parties in the country's western provinces of the North West Frontier and Baluchistan? Will their newly found political power affect the state and civil society in Pakistan? If so, how? This essay examines the stateof democracy in Pakistan in the wake of the deeply flawed general elections held in October 2002. The nature of the political party system is discussed, and the prospects for democratization anditsconsolidation, as well as structural reforms, are explored in light of the military's continuing hegemony over the state.

Making Sense of the EU

    Plattner, Marc F., 1945-
  • Competing Goals, Conflicting Perspectives
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    Subject Headings:
    • European Union.
    • Europe -- Politics and government -- 1989-
    • Democracy -- Europe.
    Abstract:
      Although in many ways the European Union has been remarkably successful, it is a profoundly ambiguous creation Competing interpretations view it as an essentially intergovernmental organization that remains a creature of its member state; as the germ of an emerging federal state; as some kind of middle ground between these two; or as a novel kind of political entity that is variously characterized as a "postmodern," "neomedieval," "post-state," or "nonstate" polity. It has been able to advance despite this ambiguity, but with EU enlargement and the drafting of a Constitutional Treaty by a European Convention chaired by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, it will face new challenges. A key question is whether the EU—or any international organization—can succeed in democratizing itself without becoming a state.
    Mény, Yves.
  • The Achievements of the Convention
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    Subject Headings:
    • European Union.
    • Democracy -- Europe.
    • Europe -- Politics and government -- 1989-
    Abstract:
      Building democracy at the supernational level is an unprecedented task, but so once was building democracy at the level of the modern state. By today's standards we would not likely classify France, Britain, or the United States in the nineteenth century as "democratic," but in the time they were in the forefront of democratic development. The same can be said for the European Union today, and the progress of the EU in the last half-century has been remarkable. Recent advancements by the Brussels Convention—reflected in the resulting draft treaty for a European Constitution—represent significant steps forward for entrenching the rule of law, the separation of powers, and the people's input and participation in Europe's supernational institutions.

Sidebar

    Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry, 1926-
  • Oral Report to the European Council
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    Subject Headings:
    • Council of the European Union. Draft treaty establishing a constitution for Europe.
    • Democracy -- European Union countries.
    • Constitutional law -- European Union countries.
    Council of the European Union.
  • Draft Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • Democracy -- European Union countries.
    • Constitutions -- European Union countries.
    • International law -- European Union countries.
    Schmitter, Philippe C.
  • Democracy in Europe and Europe's Democratization
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    Subject Headings:
    • Democracy -- Europe.
    • Democratization -- Europe.
    • Europe -- Politics and government -- 1989-
    Abstract:
      While democracy in Europe took a very long time to consolidate, the democratization of Europe has only just begun and remains a rather remote prospect. As for the democratization of Europe's primary supranational institution, the European Union or EU—that has remained a project which has yet to capture the imagination of its peoples or overcome the resistance of its politicians. The impact of the nondemocratization of the EU upon democracy in Europe is a process—not (yet) an outcome. There are at least two good reasons why it may be timely to begin experimenting with continental democracy sooner rather than later.
    Habermas, Jürgen.
  • Toward a Cosmopolitan Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • European Union.
    • Democracy -- Europe.
    • Cosmopolitanism -- Europe.
    Abstract:

      The globalization of the world's economy and society has strained the limits of the nation-states capacity—both for democratic political life and for the redistributive policies upon which basic social justice depends. Moreover, individual states can no longer adequately protect their citizens from such increasingly globalized challenges as environmental degradation, epidemics, or the security risks created by advanced technologies. The European Union represents an opportunity not only to fashion a postnational welfare state capable of responding to a postnational economy, but to lay a groundwork that will ultimately make possible a global domestic policy.

    Dahrendorf, Ralf.
  • The Challenge for Democracy
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    Subject Headings:
    • European Union.
    • Democracy -- Europe.
    • Europe -- Politics and government -- 1989-
    Abstract:
      In an interview with Italian journalist Antonio Polito, Ralf Dahrendorf—the renowned German sociologist, member of Britain's House of Lords, and former commissioner of the European Union—cautions against overly optimistic assessments of the prospects for democracy at the European level. At its origins with the European Community, the EU was designed not primarily to be democratic but to be an efficient mechanism for decision making. Integration has subsequently produced political institutions and practices that are intrinsically not democratic. As the process continues, and as the world in general advances beyond the nation-state, we must revisit the principles of democracy and ask ourselves how they can be applied in the new situation.

Sidebar

    Horowitz, Donald L.
  • Electoral Systems: A Primer for Decision Makers
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    Subject Headings:
    • Elections.
    • Political parties.
    Abstract:
      Electoral systems do not simply reflect voter preferences, social cleavages, or the political party configuration of a given society. All electoral systems shape and reshape these features. The choice of one electoral system or another involves a decision about what goals decision-makers wish to foster. The present article enumerates six possible goals of electoral systems and then explains how various systems foster or derogate from these goals. In all cases of electoral-system choice, there are tradeoffs. A system may fulfill one objective but make it difficult to attain another. Clarity of objective and attention to the details of system choice are, therefore, necessary.
    Michnik, Adam.
  • What Europe Means for Poland
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    Subject Headings:
    • Poland -- Foreign relations -- Europe.
    • Europe -- Foreign relations -- Poland.
    • Poland -- Foreign relations -- 1945-
    • Europe -- Foreign relations -- 1945-
    • Poland -- Politics and government -- 1989-
    Abstract:
      Poland, whose citizens always considered themselves European, for more than a decade has been free to decide her own fate. Just like other European countries, we recognize the freedom of the individual, democracy, private property and tolerance as the fundamentals of civilization. Also, like the rest of Europe, we are struggling with the problems of unemployment, corruption, increasing economic inequality, and populism. We need a united and safe Europe, able to oppose international crime, terrorism and corruption. The fight against these pathologies cannot lead to the egoistic isolation form the nations of Eastern Europe and blindness to the issues that have global dimensions. We are against anti-Americanism and against the political and economic confrontation of Europe and the United States. Europe and the United States should strive to reduce world poverty, corruption and suffering.
    Finkel, Steven E.
  • Can Democracy Be Taught?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Democracy -- Study and teaching -- Social aspects.
    • Civics -- Study and teaching -- Social aspects.
    • Political participation.
    • Education -- Curricula.
    Abstract:
      This paper examines the effects of adult civic education programs on political participation, civic competence, and support for democratic values in three developing democracies, the Dominican Republic, Poland and South Africa. I show that participation in civic education programs conducted by NGOs in each country had meaningful impact on local-level political participation in all three countries, and modest impact on individuals' knowledge, efficacy and support for values such as political tolerance. The effects of the programs were sharply increased when individuals were trained more frequently and with more active, participatory teaching methods. The results have important implications regarding the extent to which democratic political orientations can be "engineered" through civics training conducted by civil society groups, as well as important policy implications regarding how such programs should best be structured and implemented in practice.

Sidebar

    Levitsky, Steven.
    Murillo, Maria Victoria, 1967-
  • Argentina Weathers the Storm
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    Subject Headings:
    • Argentina -- Politics and government -- 1983-2002.
    • Argentina -- Politics and government -- 2002-
    • Presidents -- Argentina -- Election -- 2003.
    • Democracy -- Argentina.
    Abstract:
      In 2001 and 2002, economic depression and widespread hostility toward the political elite raised fears that Argentina would follow a Peru or Venezuela-like path toward party system—and possibly regime—collapse. Yet Argentine democracy weathered the crisis without a rupture of constitutional rule. The 2003 presidential election was free of violence or fraud, and notwithstanding calls to "throw everybody out," established political elites fared surprisingly well. A major reason for this outcome was the persistent strength of Peronism, which—despite severe internal conflict—dominated the election and retained control of the presidency. Although democracy survived, Argentina's capacity to avert similar crises in the future hinges on breaking a long-term pattern institutional instability.

Books in Review

    Forbes, H. D. (Hugh Donald)
  • Toward a Science of Ethnic Conflict?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Horowitz, Donald L. Deadly ethnic riot.
    • Varshney, Ashutosh, 1957- Ethnic conflict and civic life: Hindus and Muslims in India.
    • Riots.
    • Communalism -- India.



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