This article examines how the Kennedy administration assessed the risk posed by Soviet short-range missiles in Cuba and the associated combat troops, particularly in the months after the peak of the Cuban missile crisis. The issue had a strong domestic political subtext that played out for months. Missiles in Cuba had been a topic of discussion well before the dramatic events of October 1962, and the dispute about them dragged on well past the famous "thirteen days." Many studies assume a final resolution to the crisis that did not actually exist. The evidence from this period indicates that domestic political considerations were a fundamental factor in Kennedy's decision-making and apparently induced him to take a slightly harder line in the post-crisis negotiations with the Soviet Union than he otherwise might have. But the evidence also suggests that Kennedy was more willing than some of his advisers and many Congressional critics to accept a degree of permanent military risk in Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 -- Moral and ethical aspects.
Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), Attack on, 1941 -- Moral and ethical aspects.
United States -- Foreign relations.
During the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, the argument that U.S. air strikes against Soviet missile sites in Cuba would be morally analogous to the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 had a major impact on policymaking. The invocation of this analogy contributed to President John F. Kennedy's decision to forgo an immediate attack on the missiles and to start instead with a naval blockade of the island. The "Pearl Harbor in reverse" argument is an example of an important phenomenon that has received little attention in foreign policy analysis—the moral analogy. Fusing together elements of moral and analogical thinking, the moral analogy can be a powerful force in shaping policy preferences, as it was in October 1962.
China's relations with Cuba in the first half of the 1960s—when the Sino-Soviet split was rapidly intensifying—were important to both Beijing and Havana as well as to the world Communist movement. The Sino-Cuban relationship during this period moved from one of intimate comradeship to deterioration and finally a bitter separation. Although Fidel Castro's ties with Mao Zedong survived the immediate start of the Sino-Soviet rift, Castro's dependence on the Soviet Union ultimately doomed his courtship of China. Castro's vehemently anti-Chinese speech in March 1966 marked the end of Sino-Cuban amity. The Sino-Cuban case sheds valuable light on the tensions that bedeviled the international Communist movement after the Sino-Soviet divide flared to the surface.
Strikes and lockouts -- Austria -- History -- 20th century.
Labor unions and communism -- Austria -- History -- 20th century.
Austria -- Politics and government -- 1945-
Austria -- History -- Allied occupation, 1945-1955.
Austria -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1955.
Austria is frequently overlooked by Cold War historians, but this small landlocked country was the site of a number of East-West confrontations during the decade of occupation by the United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union from 1945 to 1955. This article focuses on two of those incidents. In September and October 1950, Austria's Communist Party, supported by Soviet occupation forces, triggered a series of violent demonstrations throughout the country, ostensibly objecting to a new Wage and Price Agreement. Whether these strikes were part of a planned attempt to overthrow the central government is a question still debated. The article assesses the different views on this matter and the evidence available.
Ramet, Sabrina P., 1949-, ed. Kazaaam! splat! ploof!: the American impact on European popular culture since 1945.
Crnković, Gordana, ed.
Zeman, Scott C., ed. Atomic culture: how we learned to stop worrying and love the bomb.
Amundson, Michael A. 1965-, ed.
Europe -- Civilization -- American influences.
United States -- Civilization -- 1945-
This article reviews two recent collections of essays that focus on the role of popular culture in the Cold War. The article sets the phenomenon into a wide international context and shows how American popular culture affected Europe and vice versa. The essays in these two collections, though divergent in many key respects, show that culture is dynamic and that the past as interpreted from the perspective of the present is often reworked with new meanings. Understanding popular culture in its Cold War context is crucial, but seeing how the culture has evolved in the post–Cold War era can illuminate our view of its Cold War roots.
Bruce, Gary, 1969- Resistance with the people: repression and resistance in Eastern Germany, 1945-1955.
Opposition (Political science) -- Germany (East)
Gary Bruce's volume in the Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series, Resistance with the People: Repression and Resistance in Eastern Germany, 1945–1955, provides an overview of the East German state security apparatus (Stasi) from the mid-1940s, when secret police organs were set up in eastern Germany by the Soviet occupation forces, through the mid-1950s, when the size of the Stasi sharply increased, allowing it to become a massive surveillance and repressive apparatus. Bruce examines the origins of the Stasi, the role of the state security organs in the outbreak and suppression of the East German uprising of June 1953, and the subsequent evolution of the Stasi under Walter Ulbricht, who removed his rivals from the state security apparatus and then reestablished it as a separate ministry responsible for "combatting all internal and external enemies" of the Communist regime. Two prominent experts on East German history offer their perspectives on Bruce's book and the role of popular resistance under Communist rule.
Hockenos, Matthew D., 1966- Church divided: German Protestants confront the Nazi past.
Germany -- Church history -- 1945-
NATO-Strategie und nationale Verteidigungsplanung: Planung und Aufbau der Bundeswehr unter den Bedingungen einer massiven atomaren Vergeltungsstrategie 1952 bis 1960 (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Thoss, Bruno. NATO-Strategie und nationale Verteidigungsplanung: Planung und Aufbau der Bundeswehr unter den Bedingungen einer massiven atomaren Vergeltungsstrategie 1952 bis 1960.
Bollinger, Martin J., 1958- Stalin's slave ships: Kolyma, the Gulag fleet, and the role of the West.
Convict ships -- Soviet Union -- History.
Graziosi, Andrea, 1954-
La rivoluzione capovolta: L'Asia centrale tra il crollo dell’impero zarista e la formazione dell'Urss [The Revolution Turned Upside Down: Central Asia between the Collapse of the Tsarist Empire and the Formation of the USSR] (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Buttino, Marco. Rivoluzione capovolta: l'Asia centrale tra il crollo dell'impero zarista e la formazione dell'URSS.
Asia, Central -- History -- Revolution, 1917-1921.