The Journal of Cold War Studies

Journal of Cold War Studies
Volume 7, Number 1, Winter 2005

CONTENTS

    Kramer, Mark.
  • The Collapse of East European Communism and the Repercussions within the Soviet Union (Part 3)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- Europe, Eastern.
    • Europe, Eastern -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1985-1991.
    • Soviet Union -- Politics and government -- 1985-1991.
    • Civil-military relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Warsaw Treaty Organization.
    Abstract:
      This is the concluding part of a three-part article that discusses the transformation of Soviet­East European relations in the late 1980s and the impact of the sweeping changes in Eastern Europe on the Soviet Union. This final segment is divided into two main parts: First, it provides an extended analysis of the bitter public debate that erupted in the Soviet Union in 1990 and 1991 about the "loss" of Eastern Europe and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. The debate roiled the Soviet political system and fueled the hardline backlash against Mikhail Gorbachev. Second, this part of the article offers a concluding section that highlights the theoretical implications of the article as a whole. The article, as the conclusion shows, sheds light on recent literature concerning the diffusion of political innovations and the external context of democratization and political change.

Special Forum: The Marshall Plan and the Origins of the Cold War Reassessed

    Cox, Michael.
    Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, 1961-
  • The Tragedy of American Diplomacy? Rethinking the Marshall Plan
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Marshall Plan.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
    Abstract:
      Two British scholars reassess what they view as the decisive episode in the early Cold War, the Marshall Plan. Far from seeing the Plan as a mere act of generosity by the United States, they argue that it was an integral part of an increasingly aggressive U.S. posture toward the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was still seeking a cooperative relationship with the United States, but the U.S. decision to establish a European Recovery Program (ERP) without a sincere intention of including the Soviet Union posed a threat to Soviet security interests. Josif Stalin wanted to prevent the United States from luring the East European countries away from the Soviet Union's sphere of influence and into the Western sphere. Although Stalin was reluctant to abandon his bid for close cooperation with the West, the Marshall Plan left him with little choice. As the ERP progressed, Stalin drastically tightened his hold over Eastern Europe and imposed Soviet-style systems on the countries in the region. The Marshall Plan thus had the "tragic" effect of creating a long-term divide in Europe that consigned tens of millions of people to life under tyranny.

Responses

Five distinguished scholars offer separate commentaries on the article by Michael Cox and Caroline Kennedy-Pipe. All of the commentators reject the broad interpretation and many of the specific arguments put forth by Cox and Kennedy-Pipe. They point out several crucial issues that are omitted from the article and raise questions about the authors' sources, use of evidence, and selective invocation of secondary literature. They regret that Cox and Kennedy-Pipe seem to dwell on a large number of the same matters that preoccupied radical revisionist historians in the 1960s. They argue that although Cox and Kennedy-Pipe offer a more sophisticated version of revisionism, their article suffers from many of the same shortcomings. Most of the commentators believe that the Marshall Plan merely reflected a division of Europe that was already well under way rather than being the precipitating cause. In that sense, the debate on the origins of the Cold War needs to go well beyond the issues raised by Cox and Kennedy-Pipe.
    Trachtenberg, Marc, 1946-
  • The Marshall Plan as Tragedy
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Cox, Michael. Tragedy of American diplomacy? rethinking the Marshall Plan.
    • Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, 1961-
    • Marshall Plan.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
    Bischof, Günter, 1953-
  • The Advent of Neo-Revisionism?
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Cox, Michael. Tragedy of American diplomacy? rethinking the Marshall Plan.
    • Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, 1961-
    • Marshall Plan.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
    Bonds, John Bledsoe, 1939-
  • Looking for Love (or Tragedy) in All the Wrong Places
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Cox, Michael. Tragedy of American diplomacy? rethinking the Marshall Plan.
    • Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, 1961-
    • Marshall Plan.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
    Borhi, László.
  • Was American Diplomacy Really Tragic?
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Cox, Michael. Tragedy of American diplomacy? rethinking the Marshall Plan.
    • Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, 1961-
    • Marshall Plan.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
    Maier, Charles S.
  • The Marshall Plan and the Division of Europe
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Cox, Michael. Tragedy of American diplomacy? rethinking the Marshall Plan.
    • Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, 1961-
    • Marshall Plan.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.

Rejoinder

    Cox, Michael.
    Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, 1961-
  • The Tragedies of American Foreign Policy: Further Reflections
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Marshall Plan.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1953.
    • Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1991.
    Abstract:
      Cox and Kennedy-Pipe offer a staunch defense of their article, arguing that the commentators generally missed the point of what the article was supposed to accomplish. Rather than providing an exhaustive account of the early Cold War and all the complications posed by Germany, the article sought to distill the essence of U.S. and Soviet strategies. The basic problem, as highlighted in the article, is that the United States would not accept the extension of Soviet influence into Eastern Europe and that, in opposing and seeking to roll back Soviet influence, U.S. officials sealed the fate of the East European countries.

Book Reviews

    Kennedy, David M.
  • Surprise, Security, and the American Experience (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Gaddis, John Lewis. Surprise, security, and the American experience.
    • United States -- Foreign relations.
    Stent, Angela.
  • Social Construction of International Politics: Identities and Foreign Policies, Moscow, 1955 and 1999 (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Hopf, Ted, 1959- Social construction of international politics: identities and foreign policies, Moscow, 1955 and 1999.
    • International relations -- Social aspects.
    Hurrell, Andrew, 1955-
  • Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Iriye, Akira. Global community: the role of international organizations in the making of the contemporary world.
    • Non-governmental organizations.
    Haas, Mark L.
  • Cold War Endgame: Oral History, Analysis, Debates (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Wohlforth, William Curti, 1959-, ed. Cold War endgame: oral history, analysis, debates.
    • Cold War.
    Mueller, John E.
  • The Gulf War of 1991 Reconsidered (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Bacevich, A. J., ed. Gulf War of 1991 reconsidered.
    • Inbar, Efraim, 1947-, ed.
    • Persian Gulf War, 1991 -- Congresses.
    Feldstein, Ruth, 1965-
  • Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Dean, Robert D., 1956- Imperial brotherhood: gender and the making of Cold War foreign policy.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1989 -- Social aspects.
    Gramer, Regina U.
  • The Failure of Peace in Europe, 1943-1948 (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Varsori, Antonio, 1951-, ed. Failure of peace in Europe, 1943-1948.
    • Calandri, Elena, ed.
    • World War, 1939-1945 -- Peace.
    Gleason, Abbott.
  • Debating the Origins of the Cold War: American and Russian Perspectives (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Levering, Ralph B. Debating the origins of the Cold War: American and Russian perspectives.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union -- Sources.
    Herspring, Dale R. (Dale Roy)
  • The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918-1941 (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Erickson, John, 1929- Soviet high command: a military-political history, 1918-1941.
    • Soviet Union. Raboche-Krestianskaia Krasnaia -- History.
    Anderson, Richard (Richard Davis), 1950-
  • Speaking in Soviet Tongues: Language Culture and the Politics of Voice in Revolutionary Russia (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Gorham, Michael S. Speaking in Soviet tongues: language culture and the politics of voice in revolutionary Russia.
    • Soviet Union -- Languages -- Political aspects.
    Hollander, Paul, 1932-
  • Enemies of the State: Personal Stories from the Gulag (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Critchlow, Donald T., 1948-, ed. Enemies of the state: personal stories from the Gulag.
    • Critchlow, Agnieszka, ed.
    • Prisoners -- Communist countries -- Biography.
    Silins, Ints.
  • Imagining the Nation: History, Modernity, and Revolution in Latvia (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Eglitis, Daina Stukuls. Imagining the nation: history, modernity, and revolution in Latvia.
    • Latvia -- Social conditions.
    Muravchik, Joshua.
  • In Denial: Historians, Communism and Espionage (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Haynes, John Earl. In denial: historians, communism and espionage.
    • Klehr, Harvey.
    • Communist Party of the United States -- History -- Archival resources.

Contributors




[Project MUSE] [Search Page] [Journals] [Journal Directory] [Top]