Occupational training for Jews -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Jews -- Government policy -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Germany -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy -- History -- 1933-1945.
Zionism -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Antisemitism -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Jews -- Germany -- History -- 1933-1945.
Nazi support for Zionist and non-Zionist occupational retraining programs for young Jews between 1933 and 1941 reflected a desire to facilitate the rapid emigration of Jews from Germany. But this policy encountered considerable opposition from several government and party agencies because the retraining process involved activities they deemed violations of Nazi racial teaching. The policy debates and disagreements among the various offices of the Nazi party and the state reflected the tension between ideology and pragmatism in Nazi Jewish policy, and its relative lack of central planning and direction during the early years of the Third Reich. Eventually, as it so often did, the regime opted for the pragmatic approach by supporting Jewish retraining programs as the most effective way to promote the total emigration of Jews from Germany.
Libraries -- Destruction and pillage -- Europe -- History -- 20th century.
Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg für die Besetzten Gebiete.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Destruction and pillage -- Europe.
Scholarship has not adequately studied the history of Nazi cultural plunder during the Second World War, or the further international displacement and restitution efforts thereafter. The present study discusses one of the primary agencies of plunder, the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR). It focuses on the plunder of libraries and archives, tracing their migration, revealing new sources, and identifying collections that did not return home after the war. Emphasis falls on materials that ended the war in the little-known ERR research and library center in Ratibor (now Polish Racibórz), to which the Germans transported more than two million books.
Jewish theater -- Europe -- History -- 20th century.
Theater and society -- Europe -- History -- 20th century.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)
Even under the most severe circumstances, the production of culture and art continues. This article focuses on the theater sustained by inmates within ghettos and camps during Germany's Nazi regime (1933–45) and examines the paradox of performance in ghettoized contexts. Further, this research draws attention to questions of repertoire and censorship, as well as connections between theater, identity, and privilege. Creative expression was significant for both performers and their audience in the struggle for survival.
War crime trials -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Evidence, Expert -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
Zentralstelle der Landesjustizverwaltung zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen (Germany)
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) -- Historiography.
The confluence of two distinct disciplines—history and justice—in the investigation and prosecution of Nazi war crimes and crimes against humanity has been the subject of controversy since the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal. Particularly controversial, and often poorly understood, is the role of historians in the trials of National Socialist perpetrators of genocide. Addressing this issue in its philosophical, methodological and practical dimensions, this article details the interaction of history and justice in Nazi crimes prosecutions at Nuremberg and in the Ludwigsburg-initiated West-German proceedings. Although the objectives and modi operandi of the two disciplines are dissimilar, a comparative analysis demonstrates that both law and justice benefited from this interaction. Jurists could not do without history and, in the service of justice, historians fashioned and refashioned the historiography of the Holocaust.