Oral tradition -- Uganda -- Karamoja Province -- History -- 18th century.
Oral tradition -- Kenya -- History -- 18th century.
Jie (African people) -- Uganda -- Karamoja Province -- Social life and customs -- 18th century.
Turkana (African people) -- Kenya -- Social life and customs -- 18th century.
This article examines the implicit meaning of the well-known Jie and Turkana oral tradition of origin known as Nayeche, as a remembered memory and a repeated event. The images of the remembered messages of the past event contained in the Nayeche oral tradition are reproduced through storytellers' representations of them. These representations are not simple fixed historical messages that are expressed explicitly, but they are active and interconnected with present situations and thus are a part of the society's habitual actions. The memory of the journey of Nayeche and the gray bull Engiro from the Karamoja Plateau to the plains of Turkana is well remembered both among the Jie and among the Turkana people. The memory of this journey is symbolically embodied in the Jie and in the Turkana landscape, in the phases of the Jie marriage ceremonies as well as in the phases of the Jie harvest rituals. This article focuses on the relationship between the Jie people who live mainly along the banks of Longiro River and in the Nakapelimoru and Kotido area and the Turkana people who live on the upper Tarash River region.
Palicur Indians -- Brazil -- Amapá (State) -- Politics and government.
Indian leadership -- Brazil -- Amapá (State) -- History.
The article focuses on the process of naoné—nationhood—of the Palikur, a Native American people of northern Brazil and southern French Guiana, from 1500 onward. It is described how, in counteraction to colonial expansion, a corpus of preexisting clans combined with diverse other ethnic entities to create, at its height (c. 1800), a dominant regional polity, itself linked to wider cross-ethnic macropolities under a single leader. New data are offered to support the thesis that such formations, which coevally existed elsewhere in Amazonia, were not just a response to new circumstances but also the renewal of a pre-Conquest sociopolitical strategy. The article also addresses the role of leadership in historical Amerindian macropolitical systems and suggests that a chief's skills as a peacemaker were no less necessary than his skills as a warmonger.
Messianism, Political -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
Toba Indians -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
Indian leadership -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
Hunting and gathering societies -- Argentina -- History -- 20th century.
The Western Toba and other hunter-gatherers of the South American Gran Chaco managed to retain a certain degree of political autonomy well into the nineteenth century. Between 1915 and 1918, Western Toba, Wichí, and Pilagá warriors formed alliances to expel Argentine and Bolivian settlers from their traditional lands. The few authors who recorded this "rebellion" failed to mention that the warriors' active resistance to colonization was rooted in a revitalization movement comparable to other indigenous millenarian revivals. This new interpretation is based on oral stories collected in the field in the 1990s. The uprising, the doctrine of the charismatic shaman who fueled the movement, and the outcomes of the clash with the Argentine Army are described herein. The prophet's doctrine was rooted in a mythology of cosmic cataclysms. By following it, believers would be able to persuade Cadet'á to "have pity on them." The native concept of Cadet'á may belong to a cosmology that is earlier than the introduction of the biblical idea of "God, Our Father."
Quijo Indians -- Ecuador -- Napo (Province) -- Social conditions.
Indians of South America -- Andes Region -- Social conditions.
In the Quijos/Upper Napo region of the Western Amazonian frontier, long-distance exchange, markets, and verticality represent significant aspects of social organization that can be found in historical sources. It is argued that local and regional exchanges followed a social logic where human transactions such as marriage—not "commercial" goods—occupied the highest tier of value in the circulation process. These principles are explored through an analysis of ethnohistorical sources and data from fieldwork in contemporary Upper Napo communities. It is suggested that the lowland societies of Quijos/Upper Napo and the highland societies of Upper Napo were of a similar structural type, contrasting in principle with the more hierarchical social orders of the Central and Southern Andes.
Hopi Indians -- Government relations -- History -- 19th century.
Barter -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
In 1852, before they had received any visits from U.S. officials, the Hopi sent a diplomatic gift, composed of prayer-sticks, to President Millard Fillmore in Washington, DC. This article addresses both the cultural content and the social intent of this "gift," focusing on historical circumstances and ethnographic import. In seeking to transact with the president, the Hopi intent discloses a formal nexus among diplomacy, barter, and religious offerings. Anthropology's tendency to separate social action into discrete fields—economics, politics, and religion—obscures a congruence that this transaction illuminates. The "spirit of the barter" suggests a new resonance for Marcel Mauss's important observations on gift-exchange.
Special Review Essay Section: The Current State of Maya Studies