Ethnohistory

Ethnohistory 47.3-4, Summer-Fall 2000

Colonial Transformations in Venezuela: Anthropology, Archaeology, and History

Articles

    Navarrete, Rodrigo.
  • Behind the Palisades: Sociopolitical Recomposition of Native Societies in the Unare Depression, the Eastern Venezuelan Llanos (Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Palenque Indians -- Venezuela -- Unare River Watershed -- Social conditions.
    • Palenque Indians -- Venezuela -- Unare River Watershed --Politics and government.
    • Carib Indians -- Venezuela -- Unare River Watershed.
    Abstract:
      This article concerns the sociopolitical recompositions of Carib native societies, especially the Palenque, who inhabited the Unare Depression in the eastern Venezuela llanos during colonial times. Through a comparative exploration of the different scenarios presented by the early (sixteenth-century) and late (eighteenth-century) chronicles, the article develops a critical analysis of the current anthropological knowledge of the area, especially in relation to the process of “retribalization” of Carib groups. The essay offers an alternative approach that focuses on this sociopolitical reconfiguration and migration as a strategic alternative of negotiation developed by native societies as social actors in the colonial political contexts.
    Heinen, H. Dieter.
    García-Castro, Alvaro.
  • The Multiethnic Network of the Lower Orinoco in Early Colonial Times
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    Subject Headings:
    • Indians of South America -- Venezuela -- Orinoco River Delta -- History -- 16th century.
    • Warao Indians -- Venezuela -- Orinoco River Delta -- History -- 16th century.
    Abstract:
      Current Amerindian societies in the Venezuelan lowlands do not reflect the complex interethnic organization that once prevailed on the lower Orinoco. That organization was based on a sophisticated subsistence specialization such as the exchange of horticultural products for fish and game. This article analyzes the demographic characteristics and social organization of the area and attempts to disentangle the intricate network of Waraoan and non-Waraoan speakers there during early colonial times.
    Gasson, Rafael.
  • Quirípas and Mostacillas: The Evolution of Shell Beads as a Medium of Exchange in Northern South America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shell beads -- Economic aspects -- Venezuela -- Orinoco River Delta -- History.
    • Glass beads -- Economic aspects -- Venezuela -- Orinoco River Delta -- History.
    • Indians of South America -- Venezuela -- Orinoco River Delta -- Economic conditions.
    Abstract:
      This article examines the evolution of quirípa, a primitive valuable from the Orinoco Basin, from a world-systems perspective. This process must be understood as a result of the economic and symbolic uses given to beads by different social actors based on their ethnic and sociopolitical backgrounds through time. The history of this primitive valuable illustrates how some aboriginal economic institutions evolved as a result of exchange among Amerindian and European economies and societies, not merely as the product of the imposition of Western economic rationality.
    Pérez, Berta E.
  • The Journey to Freedom: Maroon Forebears in Southern Venezuela
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    Subject Headings:
    • Maroons -- Venezuela -- Bolívar (State) -- Migrations -- History -- 18th century.
    • Maroons -- Suriname -- Migrations -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      Many of the black slaves brought to the Americas by European colonizers developed strategies of resistance and survival in reaction to colonial slavery. Grand marronnage—or the permanent flight of black slaves from their European oppressors—is one of these strategies used by Aripaeño forebears. This essay examines their journey to freedom, which involved historical processes of ethnogenesis within a diverse and complex ecological and cultural scenario presented by the Guianas during the eighteenth century.
    Vidal, Silvia M.
  • Kuwé Duwákalumi: The Arawak Sacred Routes of Migration, Trade, and Resistance
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shamanism -- Venezuela.
    • Arekena Indians -- Venezuela -- Religion.
    • Baré Indians -- Venezuela -- Religion.
    Abstract:
      Kuwé or Kúwai is a powerful cultural hero among the Arawak of the Northwest Amazon. This article analyzes Kuwé teachings and sacred routes as political, religious, migratory, and trade strategies of resistance. These routes were used by the Warekena and the Baré Indians to resist the colonial and postcolonial encroachment on their ancestral territories during the eighteenth century.
    Arvelo, Lilliam.
  • Change and Persistence in Aboriginal Settlement Patterns in the Quíbor Valley, Northwestern Venezuela (Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Indigenous peoples -- Venezuela -- Quíbor Valley -- History.
    • Land settlement patterns -- Venezuela -- Quíbor Valley -- History.
    Abstract:
      Traditional history in Venezuela held that during the sixteenth century all traces of the aboriginal societies were erased, particularly in regions where no indigenous societies have survived. In this article I explore the changes observed in the use of the space by the population that has settled, since the fifth century B.C. until the present, in the Quíbor Valley in northwestern Venezuela. I provide an analysis of sociocultural change over a long time period, with special emphasis on the cultural transformations that were set in motion after the colonial encounter of the sixteenth century. Also explored are the responses of the indigenous societies in their process of change into what are now known as criollo peasant communities. The article’s conclusion is that this cultural transformation has not yet ended.
    Scaramelli, Franz.
    Tarble, Kay.
  • Cultural Change and Identity in Mapoyo Burial Practice in the Middle Orinoco, Venezuela
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mapoyo Indians -- Funeral customs and rites -- Orinoco River (Venezuela and Colombia)
    Abstract:
      Transformations in Mapoyo burial practice since the eighteenth century are documented in archaeological, ethnographic, and historical evidence and correlated to the ongoing process of contact. In this article we discuss the postcontact history of the Mapoyo, as manifested in attitudes of aperture and resistance that emerged under different historical conditions and that are clearly expressed in the distribution and modes of burial practice. Funerary remains serve as indicators of the changes in cultural response to the contact situation, and as such they have played an active role in the definition of ethnic identity through time.
    Arvelo de Jiménez, N. (Nelly), 1939-
  • Three Crises in the History of Ye'kuana Cultural Continuity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Yecuana Indians -- History.
    Abstract:
      This article describes the history of the Ye’kuana people and their society through the analysis of three political crises. The primary purpose is to detect the mechanisms of cultural survival that are used for counteracting sociocultural changes and for ensuring cultural coherence and continuity amid severe political upheaval. Data gathering combined oral accounts for a period of about 120 years and the elicitation and reconstruction of genealogies in the migrating history of villages for as long as 230 years of Ye’kuana history. What makes this analysis different from existing historical and anthropological accounts is the active role played by the Ye’kuana themselves. The people had to face a certain dynamic of conflict in trying to cope with colonial and neocolonial forces that impinged on their society and culture with the intent of converting the Ye’kuana into a culturally undifferentiated segment of Venezuelan society.

Commentary

Review Essays

    Garfield, Seth, 1967-
  • Recent Works on Amazonian Indians
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stanfield, Michael Edward, 1957- Red rubber, bleeding trees: violence, slavery, and empire in northwest Amazonia, 1850-1933.
    • Wright, Robin. Cosmos, self, and history in Baniwa religion: for those unborn.
    • Århem, Kaj. Makuna: portrait of an Amazonian people.
    • Novaes, Sylvia Caiuby, 1949- Play of mirrors: the representation of self as mirrored in the other.
    • Ramos, Alcida Rita. Indigenism: ethnic politics in Brazil.
    • Rubber industry and trade -- Putumayo River Valley -- History.
    • Baniwa Indians -- Religion.
    Radding Murrieta, Cynthia.
  • Conquest, Chronicles, and Cultural Encounters: The Spanish Borderlands of North America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hudson, Charles M. Knights of Spain, warriors of the sun: Hernando De Soto and the South's ancient chiefdoms.
    • Galloway, Patricia Kay, ed. Hernando de Soto expedition: history, historiography, and "discovery" in the Southeast.
    • Polzer, Charles W., ed. Presidio and militia on the northern frontier of New Spain: a documentary history. Vol. 2, pt 1. Californias and Sinaloa-Sonora, 1700-1765.
    • Sheridan, Thomas E., ed.
    • Hadley, Diana, ed. Presidio and militia on the northern frontier of New Spain: a documentary history. Vol. 2, pt 2. Central corridor and the Texas corridor, 1700-1765.
    • Naylor, Thomas H., ed.
    • Schuetz-Miller, Mardith K., ed.
    • Sanford, Trent Elwood, b. 1897. Architecture of the Southwest.
    • McCarty, Kieran, ed. Frontier documentary: Sonora and Tucson, 1821-1848.
    • Soto, Hernando de, 1500-1542.
    • Southern States -- Discovery and exploration -- Spanish -- Historiography.
    Carson, James Taylor, 1968-
  • "Conquest or Progress!": Old Questions and New Problems in the Ethnohistory of the Native Southeast
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    Subject Headings:
    • Phillips, Joyce B., 1948-, ed. Brainerd journal: a mission to the Cherokees, 1817-1823.
    • Phillips, Paul Gary, 1945-, ed.
    • Cushman, H. B. (Horatio Bardwell), b. 1822. History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Natchez Indians.
    • Debo, Angie, 1890-, ed.
    • Cayton, Andrew R. L. (Andrew Robert Lee), 1954-, ed. Contact points: American frontiers from the Mohawk Valley to the Mississippi, 1750-1830.
    • Teute, Fredrika J., ed.
    • Usner, Daniel H. American Indians in the lower Mississippi Valley: social and economic histories.
    • Wickman, Patricia R. (Patricia Riles) Tree that bends: discourse, power, and the survival of the Maskókî people.
    • Worth, John E. Timucuan chiefdoms of Spanish Florida. Vol. 1, Assimilation.
    • Worth, John E. Timucuan chiefdoms of Spanish Florida. Vol. 2, Resistance and destruction.
    • Saunt, Claudio. New order of things: property, power, and the transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733-1816.
    • Kilpatrick, Alan. Night has a naked soul: witchcraft and sorcery among the western Cherokee.
    • West, Patsy, 1947- Enduring Seminoles: from alligator wrestling to ecotourism.
    • Perdue, Theda, 1949- Cherokee women: gender and culture change, 1700-1835.
    • Brainerd Mission -- History.
    • Choctaw Indians -- History.
    Ridington, Robin.
  • Narrative Technology and Eskimo History
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burch, Ernest S., 1938- Iñupiaq Eskimo nations of northwest Alaska.
    • Hall, Edwin S., 1939- Eskimo storyteller: folktales from Noatak, Alaska.
    • Rasmussen, Knud, 1879-1933. Across Arctic America: narrative of the Fifth Thule Expedition.
    • Inuit -- Alaska.
    • Eskimos -- Alaska -- Noatak -- Folklore.

Book Reviews

    Kessell, John L.
  • Contested Ground: Comparative Frontiers on the Northern and Southern Edges of the Spanish Empire, and: New Views of Borderlands History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guy, Donna J., ed. Contested ground: comparative frontiers on the northern and southern edges of the Spanish Empire.
    • Sheridan, Thomas E., ed.
    • Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard), ed. New views of borderlands history.
    • Latin America -- History.
    • Mexican-American Border Region -- History.
    Offutt, Leslie Scott, 1949-
  • Race, Caste, and Status: Indians in Colonial Spanish America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, Robert H. (Robert Howard) Race, caste, and status: Indians in colonial Spanish America.
    • Indians -- Ethnic identity.
    Leibsohn, Dana.
  • Native Traditions in the Postconquest World: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 2nd through 4th October 1992, and: Cartographic Encounters: Perspectives on Native American Mapmaking and Map Use (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Boone, Elizabeth Hill, ed. Native traditions in the postconquest world: a symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 2nd through 4th October 1992.
    • Cummins, Tom, ed.
    • Lewis, G. Malcolm, ed. Cartographic encounters: perspectives on Native American mapmaking and map use.
    • Aztecs -- Social conditions -- Congresses.
    • Indian cartography -- North America.
    Chuchiak, John F.
  • Spiritual Encounters: Interactions between Christianity and Native Religions in Colonial America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Griffiths, Nicholas, 1962-, ed. Spiritual encounters: interactions between Christianity and native religions in colonial America.
    • Cervantes, Fernando, ed.
    • Indians -- Religion.
    Lane, Kris E., 1967-
  • The World of Túpac Amaru: Conflict, Community, and Identity in Colonial Peru (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stavig, Ward. World of Túpac Amaru: conflict, community, and identity in colonial Peru.
    • Indians of South America -- Peru -- Quispicanchis -- History -- Sources.
    Andrien, Kenneth J., 1951-
  • The Maya World: Yucatec Culture and Society, 1550-1850 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Restall, Matthew, 1964- Maya world: Yucatec culture and society, 1550-1850.
    • Mayas -- Social life and customs.
    Sullivan, Paul R.
  • Telling Maya Tales: Tzotzil Identities in Modern Mexico (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gossen, Gary H. Telling Maya tales: Tzotzil identities in modern Mexico.
    • Tzotzil Indians -- Ethnic identity.
    Bruhns, Karen Olsen.
  • Arqueología, antropología e historia en los Andes: Homenaje a María Rostworowski (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Varón Gabai, Rafael, ed. Arqueología, antropología e historia en los Andes: homenaje a María Rostworowski.
    • Flores Espinoza, Javier, ed.
    • Indians of South America -- Andes Region -- History.
    Jetté, Melinda Marie.
  • Battle for the Soul: Métis Children Encounter Evangelical Protestants at Mackinaw Mission, 1823-1837 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Widder, Keith R. Battle for the soul: Métis children encounter evangelical Protestants at Mackinaw Mission, 1823-1837.
    • Métis -- Missions -- Michigan -- Mackinac Island (Island)
    Wagoner, Paula L.
  • Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 12. Plateau (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walker, Deward E., ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 12. Plateau.
    • Indians of North America -- United States.
    Karttunen, Frances E.
  • Indigenous Literacies in the Americas: Language Planning from the Bottom Up, and: International Journal of the Sociology of Language 132: Indigenous Language Use and Change in the Americas (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hornberger, Nancy H., ed. Indigenous literacies in the Americas: language planning from the bottom up.
    • McCarty, T. L., ed. Indigenous language use and change in the Americas.
    • Zepeda, Ofelia, ed.
    • Written communication -- America.
    • Indians of North America -- Languages.
    Kellogg, Susan.
  • Letras sobre voces : Multilingüismo a través de la historia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cifuentes, Bárbara. Letras sobre voces : multilingüismo a través de la historia.
    • García, Lucina.
    • Indians of Mexico -- Languages -- History.
    Zeitlin, Judith Francis.
  • Textile Traditions of Mesoamerica and the Andes, and: The Unbroken Thread: Conserving the Textile Traditions of Oaxaca (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schevill, Margot, ed. Textile traditions of Mesoamerica and the Andes.
    • Berlo, Janet Catherine, ed.
    • Dwyer, Edward Bridgman, ed.
    • Klein, Kathryn, 1958-, ed. Unbroken thread: conserving the textile traditions of Oaxaca.
    • Indian textile fabrics -- Mexico.
    • Indian textile fabrics -- Mexico -- Oaxaca.
    Restall, Matthew, 1964-
  • The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cieza de León, Pedro de, 1518-1554. Discovery and conquest of Peru: chronicles of the New World encounter.
    • Cook, Alexandra Parma, ed.
    • Cook, Noble David, ed.
    • Peru -- Discovery and exploration.
    Anderson, Eugene N. (Eugene Newton), 1941-
  • Floods, Famines, and Emperors: El Niño and the Fate of Civilizations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fagan, Brian M. Floods, famines, and emperors: El Niño and the fate of civilizations.
    • El Niño Current.



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