The Soul of the Service Economy: Wal-Mart and the Making of Christian Free Enterprise, 1929–1994 [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Service industries -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Capitalism -- Religious aspects -- Christianity -- History -- 20th century.
Consumption (Economics) -- Religious aspects -- Christianity -- History -- 20th century.
"The Soul of the Service Economy" explains the rise of Christian
corporate globalism in the twentieth century, that always unfinished
task of sanctifying capitalism and consumption under Christianity.
As the biography of the Sunbelt service sector’s "free enterprise"
ideology, "The Soul of the Service Economy" is not an examination
of Wal-Mart itself but an analysis of Wal-Mart’s world—the
interconnected commercial, religious, and educational institutions
which both produced the world’s largest company and then
depended upon its patronage. This culture united Southwestern
entrepreneurs, service providers, middle managers, students,
missionaries, and even waged employees in an ethos of Christian
free enterprise. On the basis of archival research in local and
ephemeral sources, "The Soul of the Service Economy" uses the
stories of people linked through Wal-Mart and its philanthropies
to understand the shift to post-Fordist regimes in work, gender
relations, education, and geography.
Railroads -- Southern States -- History -- 19th century.
Making Tobacco Bright: Institutions, Information, and Industrialization in the Creation of an Agricultural Commodity, 1617–1937 [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Tobacco -- United States -- History.
Tobacco industry -- United States -- History.
Magra, Christopher Paul.
The New England Cod Fishing Industry and Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Atlantic cod fisheries -- New England -- History -- 18th century.
Fishers -- New England -- History -- 18th century.
New England -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783.
Converting Academic Expertize into Industrial Innovation: University-based Research at Solvay and Gevaert, 1900–1970 [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Academic-industrial collaboration -- Belgium -- History -- 20th century.
Solvay (Firm) -- History -- 20th century.
Gevaert Photo-Producten N.V. -- History -- 20th century.
Chemical industry -- Belgium -- History -- 20th century.
The question this article seeks to address relates to the strategies
deployed by the chemical firms Solvay & Co. and Gevaert
N.V.—two multinationals operating in a highly innovative sector
and depending on Belgium’s national system of innovation—by
taking advantage from the research capabilities located in the
surrounding academic landscape. The two companies adopted
different methods to capture the knowledge produced in university
laboratories, which corresponded best to the kind of research they
wished to explore. It will be argued that, instead of conforming
to any previous blueprint for linear innovation, industrialists and
academics have sought to overcome their conflicting interests
and cultural divergence by bringing out mutual opportunities that
eventually led to unexpected forms of utilitarian cooperation. In
the long run, informal linkages and social networks helped shaping
the patterns of increasingly coordinated and elaborated procedures
Bankers, Industrialists, and their Cliques: Elite Networks in Mexico and Brazil during Early Industrialization [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Business networks -- Mexico -- History.
Business networks -- Brazil -- History.
Industrialization -- Mexico -- History.
Industrialization -- Brazil -- History.
The historiographies of Mexico and Brazil have implicitly stated
that business networks were crucial for the initial industrialization of
these two countries. Recently, differing visions on the importance of
business networks have arisen. In the case of Mexico, the literature
argues that entrepreneurs relied heavily on an informal institutional
structure to obtain necessary resources and information. In contrast,
the recent historiography of Brazil suggests that after 1890
the network of corporate relations became less important for
entrepreneurs trying to obtain capital and concessions, once the
institutions promoted financial markets and easy entry for new
businesses. Did entrepreneurs in Brazil and Mexico organize their networks differently to deal with the different institutional settings?
We examine whether in Mexico businessmen relied more on
networks of interlocking boards of directors and other informal
arrangements to do business than in Brazil. Our hypothesis
is confirmed by three related results: (1) the total number of
connections (i.e., the density of the network) was higher in Mexico
than Brazil; (2) in Mexico, there was one dense core network,
while in Brazil we find fairly dispersed clusters of corporate board
interlocks; and most importantly, (3) politicians played a more
important role in the Mexican network of corporate directors
than their counterparts in Brazil. Interestingly, even though Brazil
and Mexico relied on very different institutional structures, both
countries had similar rates of growth between 1890 and 1913.
However, the dense and exclusive Mexican network might have
ended up increasing the social and political tensions that led to the
Mexican Revolution (1910–1920).
Scott, Peter, 1966-
Jealous Monopolists? British Banks and Responses to the Macmillan Gap during the 1930s [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Banks and banking -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
Monopolies -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
By the end of World War I successive merger waves had produced
an oligopolistic, tightly cartelized, English banking system, which
was widely viewed as having restricted lending to small-mediumsized
firms—the famous ‘Macmillan Gap’ in industrial finance. We
explore the reasons behind the failure of market entry to bridge
this gap. The clearing banks are shown to have acted as ‘jealous
monopolists’, obstructing the activities of the Credit for Industry Ltd
(CFI), the only significant firm established to breach the gap (rather
than narrow its upper limit). By poaching many clients it had vetted
and approved, the banks blocked CFI’s growth, deterring further
market entry, and thus, preserving their monopoly position.
Hansen, Per H.
Organizational Culture and Organizational Change: The Transformation of Savings Banks in Denmark, 1965–1990 [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Savings banks -- Denmark -- History -- 20th century.
Corporate culture -- Denmark -- History -- 20th century.
Organizational change -- Denmark -- History -- 20th century.
In this article, I argue that organizations’ historical narratives
are a basic and important component of their culture and
identity, and that these narratives can be resources as well as
constraints. I combine a narrative approach with Joanne Martin’s
three perspective theory of organizational culture, and using the
transformation of Danish savings banks as a case, I demonstrate how
a narrative approach can provide a new and better understanding of
organizational behaviour and change than mainstream economics
and the abundant functionalist organizational culture literature.
I demonstrate how, when change was called for by external
pressures, the savings banks choice set was constrained by a
shared narrative about their historical origins. This narrative, in
turn, constituted the identity, image and organizational culture of
savings banks and to a high degree restrained learning capabilities,
created organizational inertia and delayed the adoption of a new
Blaszczyk, Regina Lee.
Man Appeal: Advertising, Modernism, and Menswear, and: Twentieth-Century American Fashion (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Jobling, Paul. Man appeal: advertising, modernism and men's wear.
Welters, Linda, ed. Twentieth-century American fashion.
Cunningham, Patricia A. (Patricia Anne), ed.
Advertising -- Men's clothing -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
Clothing and dress -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Carlisle, Rodney P.
Rulers, Guns, and Money: The Global Arms Trade in the Age of Imperialism (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Grant, Jonathan A., 1963- Rulers, guns, and money: the global arms trade in the age of imperialism.
Defense industries -- History.
Power, Speed, and Form: Engineers and the Making of the Twentieth Century (review) [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Billington, David P. Power, speed, and form: engineers and the making of the twentieth century.