This article traces the uneven development of English cheese-making from its early commercialization to the eventual triumph of the "cheese factory." The narrative shows how contemporary actors initiated and adapted to changes in technology, distribution, consumption, and regulation. It indicates that artisanal practices have both borrowed from and become integrated with industrial logics and strategies, exemplifying a process that Charles F. Sabel and Jonathan Zeitlin termed the "recombinablility and interpenetration" of different forms of economic organization [World of Possibilities: Flexibility and Mass Production in Western Industrialization (Cambridge, U.K., 1997), 2–3]. International comparisons are introduced to clarify the reasons for England's halting and idiosyncratic transition to industrial-scale cheese-making.
Few industries are as widely associated with the spread of American values, ideas, and products as the film industry. U.S. firms certainly dominated the global market for feature films, but did they do so simply by "selling America to the world" or was there more to be gained by catering to the diverse tastes of international audiences? This article examines the operations of a leading U.S. film distributor in its largest foreign market. United Artists, like other U.S. firms, was forced to offer a minimum proportion of British films for distribution in the United Kingdom in the 1930s and 1940s. Was this requirement a burden, or were the firm's British films actually at the heart of its success in the U.K. market?