Enterprise and Society

Enterprise & Society
Volume 6, Number 3, September 2005
Special Issue: Business History in Modern China
Guest Editor: Madeleine Zelin and Andrea McElderry

CONTENTS

Guest Editor's Introduction

Articles

    Meissner, Daniel J. (Daniel James)
  • The Business of Survival: Competition and Cooperation in the Shanghai Flour Milling Industry
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    Subject Headings:
    • Flour industry -- China -- Shanghai -- History -- 20th century.
    • Business enterprises -- China -- Shanghai -- History -- 20th century.
    • China -- Commerce -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States -- Commerce -- China -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      At the turn of the twentieth century, American and Chinese millers were locked in a fiercely contested battle for control of China's flour market. Imported American flour had dominated Chinese urban markets since the early 1880s, but the founding of a modern native milling industry in 1900 had initiated a commercial war that pitted the great flour corporations of the Pacific Coast against the independent mill owners near Shanghai. Although the anti-American boycott of 1905 had boosted sales for Chinese mills and sparked growth in the native industry, the period between 1905 and 1909 severely tested the ability of the young industry to survive foreign competition. A high silver/gold rate, low transpacific shipping rates, and bumper wheat harvests in the Pacific Northwest lowered the relative cost and enhanced the market appeal of American flour to Chinese brokers. Conversely, severe flooding in China's wheat-producing regions forced curtailment or even cessation of production for some native mills. Facing catastrophic reductions in their wheat supplies and markets saturated with American flour, Chinese millers devised alternative business strategies and implemented collaborative measures to ensure the solvency of their mills. This study examines the details and dynamics of the competition between native and imported flour and highlights the decisive measures Chinese mill owners employed to assure the survivability of the modern milling industry in China.
    Kwan, Man Bun, 1955-
  • Managing Market, Hierarchy, and Network: The Jiuda Salt Industries, Ltd., 1917-1937
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fan, Xudong, 1883-1945.
    • Jiuda Salt Industries, Ltd. -- History -- 20th century.
    • Salt industry and trade -- China -- History -- 20th century.
    • Business networks -- China -- History -- 20th century.
    • Business enterprises -- China -- Management -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      As China underwent industrialization during the Republican period, how did companies deal with the problems of expansion, competition, and relationship with the state? Using the concept of network capitalism, this article demythologizes the "enigma" of Chinese network by analyzing the experience of the Jiuda Salt Industries, Ltd. Fan Xudong, the company's founder, deftly managed his network portfolio for information and other resources. Kith and kin as shareholders, interlocking directorates, and cross-shareholding, as well as hierarchical management and cartels, were utilized to raise capital and manage local markets. Market, hierarchy, and network thus constitute three complementary organization principles in explaining Jiuda's success.
    Chang, Ning Jennifer.
  • Vertical Integration, Business Diversification, and Firm Architecture: The Case of the China Egg Produce Company in Shanghai, 1923–1950
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    Subject Headings:
    • China Egg Produce Company -- Management -- History.
    • Egg trade -- China -- Shanghai -- History -- 20th century.
    • Business enterprises -- China -- Shanghai -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article is a case study of a Chinese indigenous firm in the refrigerated egg-packing industry during the interwar period. I argue that the China Egg Produce Company (CEPC) was quick to grasp Western management in terms of vertical integration and business diversification. In addition, this firm took advantage of embedded social relations and social networks to construct a strong "internal architecture." As a result, CEPC not only rivaled some six to eight British and American enterprises, but also took the lead in persuading them to form an international cartel during the 1930s. The data presented in this case study shows the surprising vitality and adaptability of Chinese businesses and suggests that China was in the process of developing a modern business system prior to the chaotic events of the late 1940s.
    Sheehan, Brett, 1960-
  • Myth and Reality in Chinese Financial Cliques in 1936
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    Subject Headings:
    • Banks and banking -- China -- History -- 20th century.
    • Business networks -- China -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Much of current scholarly work argues that China and Chinese communities are distinguished by a culturally specific and unique pattern of networking based on personal relations (guanxi), but there is little agreement about whether such personal relations produce discrete factions or more disbursed, weblike connections. The literature on banking networks is similarly unclear, and most discussion has focused on regional groups, such as a clique made up of natives from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces, or shared professional values among bankers. None of these approaches adequately describes actual connections, and this case study provides a new and empirically broad approach that applies tools of network analysis to interlocking bank directorships in 1936. This analysis shows the existence of twenty-four isolated banks; three very small, discrete, and regionally based groups; and one huge, diffuse, and weblike bank network that included virtually all Chinese bank assets and extended to most of China's economically developed regions. This network had a multicenter core made up of densely linked large banks and a number of small start-ups associated with prominent individuals. Diffuse connections also characterized networks of individual bankers, though dense ties existed either among the most important bankers who each sat on numerous boards of directors (suggesting associations based on business ties, professional interests, and the importance of banks) or among individuals who shared common native place, defined at the level of adjacent counties (suggesting the simultaneous existence of strong but very local guanxi ties). In the end, bank networks arose as much from historical contingency as from cultural predisposition.

Reviews

    Morton, David, 1964-
  • Information and Technology Policy: An International History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Coopey, R. (Richard), ed. Information and technology policy: an international history.
    • Information technology -- Government policy -- History.
    Myers, Garth Andrew.
  • Dhows and the Colonial Economy of Zanzibar, 1860-1970 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gilbert, Erik. Dhows and the colonial economy of Zanzibar, 1860-1970.
    • Zanzibar -- Commerce -- History -- 19th century.
    Morgan, Stephen L.
  • From Cotton Mill to Business Empire: The Emergence of Regional Enterprises in Modern China (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Köll, Elisabeth, 1965- From cotton mill to business empire: the emergence of regional enterprises in modern China.
    • Da sheng sha Chang (China) -- History.
    Bucheli, Marcelo.
  • The European Cable Companies in South America before the First World War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ahvenainen, Jorma. European cable companies in South America before the First World War.
    • Cables, Submarine -- South America -- History.
    Dávila L. de Guevara, Carlos.
  • Business Politics and the State in Twentieth-Century Latin America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schneider, Ben Ross. Business politics and the State in twentieth-century Latin America.
    • Business and politics -- Latin America -- History -- 20th century.
    Read, Ian William.
  • Bananas and Business: The United Fruit Company in Colombia, 1899-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bucheli, Marcelo. Bananas and business: the United Fruit Company in Colombia, 1899-2000.
    • United Fruit Company -- History.
    Kuromiya, Hiroaki.
  • Farm to Factory: A Reinterpretation of the Soviet Industrial Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Allen, Robert C., 1947- Farm to factory: a reinterpretation of the Soviet industrial revolution.
    • Soviet Union -- Economic policy.
    Goey, Ferry de.
  • The Strictures of Inheritance: The Dutch Economy in the Nineteenth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Zanden, J. L. van. Strictures of inheritance: the Dutch economy in the nineteenth century.
    • Riel, Arthur van.
    • Cressie, Ian, tr.
    • Netherlands -- Economic policy.
    Toninelli, Pierangelo Maria.
  • Del monopolio al libre mercado: La historia de la industria petrolera española (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tortella Casares, Gabriel. Del monopolio al libre mercado: la historia de la industria petrolera española.
    • Ballestero, Alfonso, 1944-
    • Diáz Fernández, José Luis.
    • Petroleum industry and trade -- Spain -- History.
    Hawkins, Richard A.
  • European Business, Dictatorship, and Political Risk, 1920-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kobrak, Christopher, ed. European business, dictatorship, and political risk, 1920-1945.
    • Hansen, Per H., ed.
    • Industrial policy -- Europe -- History -- 20th century.
    Schröter, Harm G., 1948-
  • Vom nationalen zum globalen Wettbewerb: Die deutsche und amerikanische Reifenindustrie im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Erker, Paul. Vom nationalen zum globalen Wettbewerb: die deutsche und amerikanische Reifenindustrie im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert.
    • Tire industry -- Germany -- History.
    Egerton, Douglas R.
  • A Troublesome Commerce: The Transformation of the Interstate Slave Trade (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gudmestad, Robert H., 1964- Troublesome commerce: the transformation of the interstate slave trade.
    • Slave trade -- United States.
    Peskin, Lawrence A., 1966-
  • Forging America: Ironworkers, Adventurers, and the Industrious Revolution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bezís-Selfa, John, 1966- Forging America: ironworkers, adventurers, and the industrious revolution.
    • Iron industry and trade -- United States -- History -- 18th century.
    Grimsted, David.
  • Public Markets and Civic Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tangires, Helen, 1956- Public markets and civic culture in nineteenth-century America.
    • Markets -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Bean, Jonathan J.
  • Born Losers: A History of Failure in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sandage, Scott A. Born losers: a history of failure in America.
    • Social values -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Schorman, Rob.
  • Ready-Made Democracy: A History of Men's Dress in the American Republic, 1760-1860 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Zakim, Michael. Ready-made democracy: a history of men's dress in the American Republic, 1760-1860.
    • Men's clothing -- United States -- History.
    Schweitzer, Marlis.
  • Selling Style: Clothing and Social Change at the Turn of the Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schorman, Rob. Selling style: clothing and social change at the turn of the century.
    • Fashion merchandising -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Farber, David R.
  • A Token of My Affection: Greeting Cards and American Business Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shank, Barry. Token of my affection: greeting cards and American business culture.
    • Greeting cards industry -- United States -- History.
    Dyer, Stephanie.
  • Sales and Celebrations: Retailing and Regional Identity in Western New York State, 1920-1940 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Elvins, Sarah. Sales and celebrations: retailing and regional identity in Western New York State, 1920-1940.
    • Retail trade -- New York (State) -- History -- 20th century.
    Phelan, Brian.
  • An Economy of Abundant Beauty: Fortune Magazine and Depression America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Augspurger, Michael, 1971- Economy of abundant beauty: Fortune magazine and Depression America.
    • Fortune.
    Churella, Albert J., 1964-
  • "Follow the Flag": A History of the Wabash Railroad Company (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grant, H. Roger, 1943- "Follow the flag": a history of the Wabash Railroad Company.
    • Wabash Railroad -- History.
    Horowitz, Roger.
  • Slaughterhouse Blues: The Meat and Poultry Industry in North America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stull, Donald D. Slaughterhouse blues: the meat and poultry industry in North America.
    • Broadway, Michael J.
    • Meat industry and trade -- United States.
    Bradley, Betsy H.
  • Industrial Strength Design: How Brooks Stevens Shaped Your World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Adamson, Glenn. Industrial strength design: how Brooks Stevens shaped your world.
    • Stevens, Brooks, 1911-1995 -- Exhibitions.
    Magoun, Alexander.
  • The Electric Guitar: A History of an American Icon (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Millard, A. J., ed. Electric guitar: a history of an American icon.
    • Electric guitar -- History -- Congresses.
    Cain, Louis P.
  • Sports Capitalism: The Foreign Business of American Professional Leagues (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jozsa, Frank P., 1941- Sports capitalism: the foreign business of American professional leagues.
    • Professional sports -- United States -- Marketing.
    O'Reilly, Declan.
  • The Chemical Industry at the Millenium: Maturity, Restructuring, and Globalization (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Spitz, Peter H., ed. Chemical industry at the millenium: maturity, restructuring, and globalization.
    • Chemical industry.
    Perkins, Edwin J.
  • Origins of the Crash: The Great Bubble and Its Undoing (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lowenstein, Roger. Origins of the crash: the great bubble and its undoing.
    • Business cycles -- United States -- History -- 20th century.



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