Recent disciplinary reconfigurations have shifted focus from a
temporal-historical explanation of social life to one designed to
investigate the latter's spatial dimension. This article examines the
development of various spaces in the eighteenth century—physical,
social, colonized, epistemological, and esthetic—and proposes a
mode of cultural analysis and of historical understanding relating to
the eighteenth century that takes account of these disicplinary shifts.
Mirabeau, Victor de Riquetti, marquis de, 1715-1789. Ami des hommes.
Consumption (Economics) -- France -- History -- 18th century.
This article explores the intellectual transformations that accompanied
the rise of consumption in eighteenth-century France by examining a
best-seller, L'Ami des hommes (1756), by the marquis de Mirabeau. The
most popular work of political economy of its time, L'Ami des hommes made
a particularly important intervention in the luxury debate. Straddling
two seemingly contradictory strains of eighteenth-century political and
social thought—a classical republicanism that looked backward to
ancient civic virtue and an economic liberalism that looked forward to
material progress—the book offered readers the best of both worlds:
a moral economy of prosperity. This article analyzes Mirabeau's pathology
of consumption and places his moral economy of prosperity in the broader
context of Enlightenment thought.
Panckoucke, Charles Joseph, 1736-1798 -- Contributions in mathematics.
Mathematics -- History -- 18th century.
Publishers and publishing -- France -- History -- 18th century.
This article chronicles the mathematical career of the publisher
Charles-Joseph Panckoucke and contextualizes his only published work of
non-commercial mathematics, a "Mémoire" proving the impossibility
of squaring the circle, first published in 1765. Panckoucke's
"Mémoire" illuminates several of the cultures he participated
in—the minor eighteenth-century sub-cultures of popular mathematics
and circle-squaring, as well as the more familiar ones of early modern
patronage and the French Enlightenment. The "Mémoire" also points
to ambivalence in two of the eighteenth century's defining intellectual
struggles—the philosophes' campaign against superstition and
ignorance, and the late-century skirmishes between the Académie
Royale des Sciences and practitioners of unsanctioned sciences.
This article argues the supposed economic mastery displayed by Defoe's
heroine Roxana is the product of financial self-fashioning. Bookkeeping
and Dutchness, deployed as metaphors for economic competence, belie
Roxana's pretensions. In the English imagination of the period, Dutch
wives were reputed to possess commercial wisdom. Roxana's financial
illiteracy and inability to heed her Dutch husband's request to do "as
the Wives do in Holland" undermine the assumption that she manipulates
the forces of emerging capitalism. Her inability to keep books correlates
with her poor literary accounting; these interrelated failings suggest
that Defoe's novel should be read as an inversion of the spiritual
Pope, Alexander, 1688-1744 -- Political and social views.
Pastoral poetry, English -- 18th century.
Pope, Alexander, 1688-1744, tr.
The pastoral passages of Pope's Iliad have been attacked as "pretentious"
and inaccurate. I suggest that Pope self-consciously translated (or,
to use a contemporary term, "transfused") the Iliad into a pastoral
vessel in order to facilitate a political argument: the pastoral
world comes to represent traditional Tory England; the epic world, the
aggressive new Whig order. Over the course of the translation, "swains"
are introduced as "conscious" witnesses to the transition from pastoral to
epic society. These swains, with whom Pope gradually associates himself,
ultimately succumb to this new, politically contentious age, thereby
confirming Pope's Tory philosophy of historical decay.