Waste management is a growing public concern in Ethiopia. This study examined the patterns and determinants of solid waste disposal practices adopted by families using a random sample of 200 households from Jimma town. The descriptive results revealed that open-dumping, burying, burning and composting are the four most important kinds of household solid waste disposal practices. Estimation results of a reduced-form multinomial log it suggest that household choices of these practices are determined by a certain combination of family size, gender of household head, length of residence, age and education of the head of household, and education of children. This short article provides useful insights into sustainable solid waste management practices in Jimma town.
The paper examines trends in the proximate determinants of fertility in Malawi during the period 1992 to 2004 with the view of explaining the factors responsible for fertility decline in the country. The study uses the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys of 1992, 2000 and 2004 and the Bongaarts model of Proximate Determinants. The analysis shows that there are increases in all three proximate determinants. The magnitude of change is greatest in contraceptive use, moderate in marriage but least in breast-feeding. The study show that postpartum infecundability has a far more dominant inhibiting effect on fertility than the other two proximate fertility determinants.
Using the livelihood approaches framework, the study attempts to see the poverty situation of women in selected areas of Addis Ababa. It also explores the various coping strategies the women utilize, and further compares the situation of women living in male-headed households with women heading households. A questionnaire and focus groups discussion guide have been used for data collection, and both qualitative and quantitative analyses have been carried out. The findings show that women in the study lack the necessary capitals that can enable them to achieve secured livelihood and to cope with poverty well. It further reveals that, compared to women living in male-headed households, female heads of households fare less well. The coping strategies most often used by the women are passive, followed by social network strategies, with female heads of households using the latter more.
This article examines the complex politics of inclusion and exclusion in Zimbabwe dating back to the time of the liberation struggle. It focuses on two case studies of the forgotten Internal Settlement of 1978-1979, and the Patriotic Front-Zimbabwe African People's Union (PF-ZAPU) in the period 1980-1987 that was eventually swallowed by the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) in December 1987. Detailed analyses of these two case studies demonstrate the complexities of politics of inclusion and exclusion that culminated in a nation that is highly polarised and currently on the brink of violent conflict attended by unprecedented economic crisis.
There exists a current debate on whether provision of microenterprise credit to the poor could change the social equation and conditions in which the poor live. Proponents of microenterprise lending argue that targeted credit is a mechanism for poverty eradication, enhancing the poor people's existing socio-economic conditions and changing the relations between gender and class. However, critics argue that while a marginal increase in income and assets can enhance the well-being and socio-economic security of the poor, the increase may be too little to affect the pervasively entrenched political and economic relations. Literature tends to report positive impacts of microenterprise lending on the poor, creating the belief that it is a necessary condition for economic development. This article identifies the five assumptions inherent in the arguments in favour of microenterprise detriments development by exploring its possible benefits and detriments. The article argues that empowering the poor and attaining social and economic development requires more than provision of microenterprise loans. It calls for a holistic development strategies and other comprehensive programmes that address the Poor's lack of access to and control of productive resources, difficulties in accessing labour opportunities, formal education and work skills, and the gender disparities in developing countries.