Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review
Volume 22, Number 1, January 2006
Teng-Zeng, Frank K.
Science, Technology and Institutional Co-operation in Africa: From Pre-Colonial to Colonial Science [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Science and state -- Africa -- History.
Colonies -- Africa -- History.
Science -- International cooperation -- History.
This paper covers two phases of the history of science, technology and
institutional co-operation in Africa - pre-colonial and colonial. It is
structured into three sections. Section one looks at pre-colonial science
and technology (S&T) and points out that most discussions on the socioeconomic
analysis of S&T in Africa often neglect the pre-colonial
phase, even though indigenous knowledge is important. Section two
deals with the colonial phase in which the S&T activities of the British,
French and other colonial powers are discussed. The third section looks
at the establishment of inter-territorial co-operation in S&T activities
during the colonial era and the eventual breakdown of effective S&T cooperation
among the newly independent countries in Africa.
Makepe, Patricia M.
The Evolution of Institutions and Rules Governing Communal Grazing Lands in Botswana [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Communal rangelands -- Botswana -- History.
Range management -- Social aspects -- Botswana.
Range policy -- Botswana.
This paper traces the tradition and evolution of the institutions and rules
governing communal grazing lands in Botswana. It shows how the
problem of resource overuse arose partly from the dismantling and
delegitimization of traditional resource management institutions that
occurred during the colonial period, and was later reinforced by a
newly independent government, increased market activity, high
population pressure and other changes. While privatization has been the
most popular policy prescription to address the problem of resource
overuse, this paper highlights the potential role collective action can
play in addressing the problem of resource overuse as part of a
community based resource management strategy in parts of the country
with poor ecological conditions and high population density.
collective action, communal rangelands, and resource
Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) Finance in Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Small business -- Ethiopia -- Finance.
Microfinance -- Ethiopia -- Evaluation.
Commercial credit -- Ethiopia.
This paper presents evidence on the state of micro and small enterprises
(MSE) finance in Ethiopia from a survey of 1000 MSEs in six major
towns conducted by the authors. The survey generated a rich data set in
terms of coverage and detail on MSEs in Ethiopia, allowing in depth
analysis of issues. This paper deals with the issue of MSE finance and is
the first empirical work on trade credit in Ethiopia. It suggests a new
venue to channel funds to MSEs by linking support to MSEs, suppliers
credit and bank lending.
It shows that friends/relatives, suppliers credit, and Iqub (rotating
saving and credit associations) are the most important sources of finance
in that order, with moneylenders used very rarely. Default on informal
loans, contrary to the common view, is high. Participation (i.e. receiving
and/or extending) in trade credit is wide spread. The amount involved
(in both stock and flow terms) is also relatively high. Trade credit
appears to be used as a substitute for bank loans. Contrary to the
common belief that trade credit occurs between people with strong
social ties, most MSEs that granted trade credit and those that received
suppliers credit characterised their relation as 'business only'. More than
half of the MSEs that granted trade credit also received suppliers credit
whose amount exceeded what they received, suggesting that suppliers
credit is being passed on to customers. Suppliers credit thus avails itself
as a potential instrument for banks to channel finance to MSEs to
improve their access to modern machinery/equipment/tools. This
established practice could be extended to equipment-supplier-credit
micro and small enterprises, credit constraint, suppliers credit,
Hassan, Rashid M.
Income Risk and Crop Production Patterns of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Oromiya Region of Ethiopia [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Farms, Small -- Government policy -- Ethiopia -- Oromiya kelel.
Income risk associated with crop production was analysed using the
Quadratic Risk Programming Model for users and non-users of maize
production technologies in Dadar district in Ethiopia. The E-V results
revealed that both categories of farmers have the same degree of risk
aversion as reflected by the degree of risk aversion coefficient
(λ = 0.0008). In addition, the optimisation model results showed that
improved maize production is associated with higher income risk as no
more than the minimum subsistence constraint was chosen under higher
degrees of risk aversion. While an increase in fertilizer prices reduced
maize area cultivated for package users, the sensitivity analysis results
for increases in maize prices showed a substantial rise in the area
allocated to improved maize. However, for increased maize prices, area
allocated to maize remained at subsistence level for non-users of the
package. The development and promotion of new agricultural
technologies need to take into account the yield and income risks
associated with maize production in the area. In addition, expansion of
rural road infrastructure, the promotion of post-harvest crop storage
technologies and food processing industries should be given emphasis
as strategies to stabilize prices and reduce income variability arising
from crop production in the area.
Associations, institutions, etc. -- Waste disposal -- Zimbabwe -- Gweru.
Environmental policy -- Zimbabwe -- Gweru.
Of all environmental problems that have come into focus in Gweru,
institutional solid waste management has been the slowest to develop
either direction or regulatory mechanisms. This study examines the
characteristics of waste generated, and the effectiveness of the waste
management system in the institutions. Measurements were used to
determine the quantities of waste generated, and interviews and
questionnaires were employed to assess the soundness of the system.
The general picture is that significant quantities of waste are generated
in the institutional sector, but there are no sound practices for managing
the waste. This paper attempts to provide a framework for policy and
planning strategies relating to solid waste management in public and
private institutions in Gweru. Presently, institutional solid waste
management is an area in which our ignorance still exceeds our