Recorder (Musical instrument) -- History -- To 1500.
The first part of this article suggests--on the evidence from archeological finds, iconographic, literary and other documentary sources, and by reference to other instruments--that the development of the eight-holed recorder from the six-holed duct-flute during the 14th century was by evolution and experimentation. The process was haphazard, but seems to have been widespread across western Europe. The demand for a fully chromatic wind instrument that could imitate vocal expression, including playing upper-register notes softly, was stimulated by musical changes brought about by the adoption of Ars Nova notation and the prevalence of three-voice polyphony, including untexted vocalized parts, and by the complexities of late 14thcentury Ars Subtilior. Seven-holed duct-flutes--some tuned as shawms, others as bagpipe chanters, and some with thumb-holes--played a part in this evolution, thereby confusing the identification of recorders unambiguously represented in works of art. The new instruments were used more by singers, especially in cultivated aristocratic circles, than by minstrels not attached to great households; the status of players should therefore be taken into account in iconographic interpretation. These factors discount all but a few of the three-dimensional representations discussed in the article from being securely identified as recorders.
recorder; duct-flute; music iconography; Ars Nova notation; Ars Subtilior; Catalan altarpieces
Handel and the confus’d shepherdess: a case study of stylistic eclecticism [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Handel, George Frideric, 1685-1759. Poro. Son confusa pastorella [music]
The aria 'Son confusa pastorella' was possibly the most popular number from Handel's operatic success of 1731, Poro, Rè dell'Indie, whose libretto was an altered version of Alessandro nell'Indie by the distinguished Italian poet, Metastasio. Through the text of this aria the poet presents the perhaps confusing image of an Indian princess 'playing at pastoral'. To convey this complex picture to his London audience, Handel composed a beguiling set-piece with strong French connections, through his use of the musette and allusions to the fêtes galantes, combined with borrowings from Telemann. Handel's multi-layered response will be examined and contrasted with that of Metastasio's chosen composer, Leonardo Vinci.
Finger, Godfrey, ca. 1660-1730 -- Criticism and interpretation.
Christmas music -- History and criticism.
The Moravian composer and viola da gamba virtuoso Gottfried Finger (c.1655-1730) is known primarily to musicians for his contributions to musical life in London at the end of the 17th century and a few recorder pieces written for the amateur market. Evidence of his early music and career, however, has so far eluded scholars. While much important work has been done on the genre of the Christmas pastorella in the Czech lands by scholars such as Jiří Berkovec, Geoffrey Chew and Mark Germer, evidence from the 17th century for some common pastor-ella melodies has been scarce. By the first half of the 18th century the basic characteristics of the genre seem to have been in place: the evocation of shepherds' piping or horn calls, the cuckoo, and the quotation of common Christmas tunes, usually lullabies to the Christ-child. Detailed source studies show that Finger was at the court of Bishop Liechtenstein-Castelcorno at Olomouc and Kroměříž in Moravia, falling under the influence of local masters such as Vejvanovský, Biber and Schmelzer. Finger's early contributions to the pastorella genre (for viols and recorders) reveal previously unknown sources of Christmas melodies that would become more commonplace in the following centuries. Some of these melodies were probably intended to evoke the texts of earlier vocal models. The identification of certain melodies in his pastorellas reveals that this tendency was already present in instrumental works of the 1670s and 80s. The discovery and analysis of these pieces sheds new light on an often obscure genre and a little-known composer.
A 41-cent emendation: a textual problem in Wheatstone’s publication of Giulio Regondi’s Serenade for English concertina and piano [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Regondi, Giulio, 1822-1872. Serenade pour la concertina avec accompagniment de piano forte [music]
Concertina music -- History and criticism.
A wrong (or at least highly suspect) note in the
C. Wheatstone & Co. publication of Giulio Regondi's Serenade for English concertina and piano (1859) should probably be emended with the mean-tone temperament of the instrument in mind. Until the late 1850s/early 1860s--and though published in 1859, the Serenade was probably composed in the 1840s--concertina manufacturers used a mean-tone temperament in which they divided the octave into 14 notes, differentiating between--and providing separate buttons for--E♭/D♯, on the one hand, and A♭/
G♯, on the other, with the flat note of each pair being tuned 41 cents higher than the sharp note. The emended reading of the suspect passage suggests that the composer wished to exploit this microtonal resource. This may well be the only instance in which the likely emendation of a wrong or suspect note is dictated entirely by the particular temperament of the instrument for which the piece was written. Finally, attention is called to other instances of such mean-tone-inspired chromaticism in works by George Alexander Macfarren and Joseph Warren.
English concertina; Giulio Regondi; temperament; chromaticism; George Alexander Macfarren; Joseph Warren
Ruiz Jiménez, Juan.
Infunde amorem cordibus: an early 16th-century polyphonic hymn cycle from Seville [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Iglesia Catedral de Tarazona (Tarazona de Aragón, Spain). Manuscript 2-3.
Hymns, Latin (Medieval and modern) -- Spain -- History and criticism.
Catholic Church -- Spain -- Hymns -- History and criticism.
The article studies the characteristics of the polyphonic hymn cycle contained in Tarazona Cathedral, Ms. 2-3 within the context of the transitional period in the liturgy of the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th and 16th centuries. New information on the biographical profile of the composers of these hymns, as well as the analysis of breviaries and other chant sources, some of them previously unknown, from the places with which the Tarazona anthology has been associated, establishes a Sevillian origin for the cycle and by extension for the rest of the repertory in the manuscript. The conclusions reached in the article permit the identification of the chant melodies, from a Sevillian hymnary, that would be most appropriate for alternatim performance of the polyphony in this most important source from the time of the Catholic Monarchs.
Seville; Tarazona; early Spanish music; hymn cycle; hymnary; Catholic Monarchs; Francisco de Peñalosa; Pedro de Escobar; Alonso Pérez de Alba
Drake, Joshua F.
The partbooks of a Florentine ex-patriate: new light on Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Ms. Magl. XIX 164–7 [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze. Manuscript. Magl. XIX, 164-167.
Part songs, Italian -- Italy -- Florence -- 16th century.
The seminal collection of early 16th-century polyphony, Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Ms. Magl.XIX 1647, has often been cited for its usefulness, both in terms of chronology and content. The enigmatic emblems found in the bassus partbook, however, have not yet been identified. The article explores some of the reasons why the emblems might rightly be associated with the Buonaparte family and, perhaps, with Clement VII's long-standing friend and advisor, Jacopo Buonaparte. To make such an association would begin to explain the geographical dispute surrounding these partbooks, which consist of a Roman binding, Florentine script and Florentine paper.
Tallis, Thomas, 1505 (ca.)-1585. Nunc dimittis, voices (5) [music]
Church music -- Church of England.
Church music -- England -- 16th century.
Tallis's five-part setting of the Magnificat and Nuncdimittis, preserved uniquely in Christ Church, Oxford, Mss. Mus. 979-83, is less well known than most of his sacred music. In part this is probably due to its incomplete survival: the tenor partbook is lost. This article surveys the possible liturgical contexts for the work in the light of the changing confessional circumstances of mid-16th-century England, before examining in depth several questions of editorial policy encountered in reconstructing the tenor part. The tonality of the canticles is firmly G Mixolydian with emphasis on pitch-class C, suggesting a Salisbury chant in mode 8as the most likely material to be interpolated between the polyphonically-set even verses. Within this tonality Tallis's use of sequential writing is unlike that found elsewhere in his output, producing rapid motion between distantly related sonorities on several occasions. The implications of editorial choices at these points are discussed. Whereas imitation is for the most part clearly handled, one verse is exceptional in this respect, and the problems of reconstruction and tonality presented by this verse are examined.
Tallis; Magnificat; Nunc dimittis; Reformation liturgy
Opera -- Production and direction -- England -- London -- History -- 17th century.
The article discusses the scenic reconstruction of late 17th-century English opera, and shows that the lack of attention paid to the non-musical aspects of the original performances can often result in serious misunderstandings of the relationship between the various components. The authors have reconstructed the stage of Dorset Garden theatre, where all the Purcell operas except Dido and Aeneas were first performed, including the scenery, the costumes and the movements, using materials from many disciplines including architecture, design, art, theatre, music and general history, biography, literature, and
also common sense. Their example is the Act 5 masque in Purcell's The Fairy Queen (1692), adapted by an unknown librettist from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. They show that, far from being a generic song-and-dance scene unrelated to the plot, as is often stated by both theatre and music historians, this masque is a highly specific tribute to William and Mary on the occasion of their 15th wedding anniversary, and was performed a few months before the public celebrations of that event. The numerous illustrations are mainly taken from contemporary paintings and books many of which were owned by the manager of Dorset Garden, the actor Thomas Betterton, who was responsible for putting on the operas and wrote the libretto for at least one of them. The article is also accompanied by a 10-minute animation of the scene, see http://www.em.oupjournals.org.
The Fairy Queen, Dorset Garden theatre; William and Mary; Thomas Betterton; Shakespeare; A Midsummer Night's Dream; staging; theatre design