Demography 39.4, November 2002



    Tienda, Marta.
  • Demography and the Social Contract
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    Subject Headings:
    • Aliens -- Suffrage -- United States.
    • Immigrants -- United States -- Social conditions.
    • United States -- Race relations.
      As the most demographically complex nation in the world, the United States faces ever more formidable challenges to fulfill its commitment to the democratic values of equity and inclusion as the foreign-born share of the population increases. Immigration, the major source of the contemporary diversification of the population, provides several lessons about how to prepare for that future within a framework of social justice and how to realign recent demographic trends with cherished democratic principles. A review of historical and contemporary controversies about the representation of the foreign-born and alien suffrage both illustrates the reemergence of ascriptive civic hierarchies and highlights some potentially deleterious social and civic consequences of recent
      demographic trends.
    Lofstrom, Magnus.
    Bean, Frank D.
  • Assessing Immigrant Policy Options: Labor Market Conditions and Postreform Declines in Immigrants' Receipt of Welfare
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    Subject Headings:
    • Welfare recipients -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Labor market -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Immigrants -- United States -- Economic conditions.
      Researchers infrequently have focused on assessing the degree to which the changes in welfare policy legislated during the 1990s have affected immigrants' receipt of welfare. Using data from the March Current Population Survey, we analyze the contribution of local labor market conditions to the explanation of relative declines in immigrants' receipt of welfare from 1994 to 2000. The results of a series of models that included labor market-area and state fixed effects indicate that employment and unemployment rates across metropolitan statistical areas and states account for at least one-third of the observed relative decrease among immigrants. The policy implications of the findings are discussed.
    Van Hook, Jennifer V. W.
    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper.
  • Diversity and Change in the Institutional Context of Immigrant Adaptation: California Schools 1985-2000
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    Subject Headings:
    • School attendance -- California -- History -- 20th century.
    • Hispanic American students -- California -- History -- 20th century.
    • Limited English-proficient students -- California -- History -- 20th century.
      This article brings attention to a structural dimension of the schooling context that may affect the incorporation of immigrant youths. Using administrative data about students in California public schools, we found that Spanish-speaking, limited English-proficient (LEP) children have become increasingly more likely to attend schools with low-income, minority, and LEP students than other non-LEP and LEP groups. Nearly all the change in school composition can be attributed to statewide shifts in the composition of the school-aged population. But compositional changes have disproportionately occurred in schools attended by Spanish-speaking LEP students as a result of district-level patterns of segregation by income, race/ethnicity, and language.
    Fairlie, Robert W.
  • Private Schools and "Latino Flight" From Black Schoolchildren
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    Subject Headings:
    • Private schools -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • School attendance -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Hispanic American students -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
      Several recent studies provided evidence that white students' choice between private and public schools is influenced by the racial composition of the local student population. None of these studies, however, examined whether Latinos are also fleeing to private schools in response to black schoolchildren. I explore the "Latino-flight" hypothesis using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study and a recently released confidential data set from the National Center for Educational Statistics. In probit regressions for the probability of Latinos attending private schools, I found a large, positive, and statistically significant coefficient on the black share of the school-age population. The coefficient estimates imply that a 10-percentage point increase in the black share increases the probability of private school attendance by 25.7% to 33.2% among Latino 8th graders and 35.2% to 52.2% among Latino 10th graders. I interpret these results as providing evidence of "Latino flight" from public schools into private schools. I did not find evidence that Latinos respond differently to black schoolchildren than do whites.
    Krysan, Maria.
  • Whites Who Say They'd Flee: Who Are They, and Why Would They Leave?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Discrimination in housing -- Michigan -- Detroit.
    • Whites -- Housing -- Michigan -- Detroit.
    • Detroit (Mich.) -- Race relations.
      Questions have been raised about whether white flight—one factor contributing to U.S. residential segregation—is driven by racial, race-associated, or neutral ethnocentric concerns. I use closed- and open-ended survey data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality to explore who says they would leave and their reasons for doing so. Thirty-eight percent of white respondents said they would leave one of the integrated neighborhoods, with Detroiters and those endorsing negative racial stereotypes especially likely to do so. When asked why they might leave, whites focused on the negative features of integrated neighborhoods. Expressions of racial prejudice were also common, but neutral ethnocentrism rare. The results of an experiment asking about integration with Asians and Latinos are also discussed.
    Smith, Stanley K.
    Nogle, June Marie.
    Cody, Scott.
  • A Regression Approach to Estimating the Average Number of Persons per Household
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    Subject Headings:
    • Households -- United States -- Mathematical models.
      In the housing unit method, population is calculated as the number of households times the average number of persons per household (PPH), plus the population residing in group quarters facilities. Estimates of households and the group quarters population can be derived directly from concurrent data series, but estimates of PPH have traditionally been based on previous values or estimates for larger areas. In our study, we developed several regression models in which PPH estimates were based on symptomatic indicators of PPH change. We tested these estimates using county-level data in four states and found them to be more precise and less biased than estimates based on more commonly used methods.
    Behrman, Jere R.
    Kohler, Hans-Peter.
    Watkins, Susan Cotts, 1938-
  • Social Networks and Changes in Contraceptive Use Over Time: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study in Rural Kenya
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    Subject Headings:
    • Contraception -- Social aspects -- Kenya -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Social networks -- Kenya -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Social influence -- Longitudinal studies.
      The impacts of social networks on changes in contraception in rural Kenya are investigated using special data from a longitudinal household survey. An analytic model, informed by detailed knowledge of the setting, yielded estimates that indicate that (1) social networks have substantial effects even after unobserved factors (e.g., homophily) that may determine social networks are controlled; (2) controlling for these unobserved factors may substantially alter the estimated effects of networks (these controls were not used in previous studies); (3) network effects are important for both men and women; and (4) network effects are nonlinear and asymmetric, suggesting that networks provide information primarily through social learning, rather than by exerting social influence.
    Potter, Joseph E.
    Schmertmann, Carl P.
    Cavenaghi, Suzana.
  • Fertility and Development: Evidence From Brazil
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fertility, Human -- Brazil.
    • Brazil -- Economic conditions -- 1985-
    • Brazil -- Social conditions -- 1985-
    • Brazil -- Population -- Economic aspects.
      Using microdata from the Brazilian demographic censuses of 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1991, aggregated into 518 consistently defined spatial units called microregions, we estimated fertility and mortality and constructed indicators of development and living conditions in the rural and urban areas of the microregions in each census. We then estimated cross-sectional and fixed-effects models to answer questions about the degree to which changes in these indicators are associated with changes in fertility and whether the relationship between fertility and development shifts through time. We found strong and consistent relationships between the decline in fertility and measurable changes in social and economic circumstances.
    Burgard, Sarah.
  • Does Race Matter? Children's Height in Brazil and South Africa
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    Subject Headings:
    • Body size -- Brazil.
    • Body size -- South Africa.
    • Children, Black -- Health and hygiene -- Brazil.
    • Children, Black -- Health and hygiene -- South Africa.
      I examine racial differences in child stunting in mid-1990s South Africa and Brazil, two multiracial societies with different histories of legal support for racial discrimination. Using data from nationally representative household samples linked to community-level measures, the analysis shows that racial inequality in the distribution of socioeconomic resources across households and communities explains much of the racial difference in stunting in both countries. Even after these factors are controlled, however, the results indicate that in South Africa, nonwhite children are still at greater risk of growth faltering than are white children. The nature of socioeconomic and racial differences in children's growth is examined, and major determinants are discussed. These findings suggest that although state-sanctioned racism may help to explain the greater racial inequality in stunting in South Africa than in Brazil, the eradication of a disadvantage for nonwhites will depend on changes in the same fundamental socioeconomic inequalities that characterize both nations.

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